Residential Energy and Water Conservation
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Residential Energy and Water Conservation

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Discussion of products, methods and systems for conserving energy and water resources in the home.

Discussion of products, methods and systems for conserving energy and water resources in the home.

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Residential Energy and Water Conservation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Green Roundtable and Energy & Water Conservation Low-Hanging Fruit The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 2. Green Roundtable Consulting, education, training and strategic planning to create healthy environments by integrating principles of sustainability into mainstream planning, design and construction. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 3. Objectives Discuss: - Easy ways to reduce energy & water consumption in the home (low-hanging fruit) - Additional cost-effective measures (higher cost but potentially big returns) - Energy efficient lighting, appliances & equipment - Conserving water in the landscape - Improving performance of building envelope (insulating & air sealing) - Basic economics- incentives, payback time, etc. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 4. General approaches - Make simple lifestyle adjustments - Take advantage of natural methods/ work with nature - Improve maintenance routines - Make simple upgrades to fixtures in the home - Upgrade appliances and equipment - Make improvements to the building envelope The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 5. Preventing heat loss (bldg envelope) • Insulate • Air seal (prevent infiltration) • Use landscape features- vegetative shields, etc. • Address lifestyle issues • Best bang for buck (aside from lifestyle adjustments) through air sealing! Begin here! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 6. Low-hanging Fruit The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 7. Low-hanging fruit- easy pickin’s • Lower thermostat by 1 or 2 degrees- 1 degree lower for 8 hour period saves about 1% on heating energy use (simple math: 2 deg for 24 hrs = 6%) • Add humidity to the air; it makes a given temperature feel warmer • Lower your water heater to 120 deg. F, especially if you have a newer dishwasher The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 8. Low-hanging fruit- easy pickin’s • If it’s too inconvenient to turn off your computer between use, at least turn it off overnight • Clean the coils on your refrigerator; clean door gasket and mating surfaces • Clean heat pump and air conditioner coils The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 9. More easy pickin’s • “If it’s yellow, let it mellow…” • Use toilet tank water displacement ‘devices’ • Wash your clothes in cold water; don’t use a higher water level or longer cycle than necessary • Let bath water dissipate heat to room temperature before letting water down drain- collect some of this water for plants/ landscape/ toilet flushing. Do same for dishwater- This also adds much-needed humidity to winter air •“Harvest” additional water from laundry slop sink (Important note: if you plug sink to capture energy/ water, make sure it’s of sufficient capacity to hold water from a full laundry load) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 10. A little less convenient • Collect water that would otherwise run down the drain while you’re waiting for hot water to come up- collect in jugs or in sink • Collect cold water that you flush from pipes first thing in morning • Use this to water plants, fill your humidifier, or flush your toilet. Laundry detergent jugs (large size) w/ spout removed are ideal for toilet flush water, as they let you pour water out very quickly and they hold a sufficient volume. • Use a ‘solar clothes dryer’ • Fix leaky faucets (esp. hot water!) and toilets The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 11. Low cost, big return • Insulate your hot water pipes (pipes closest to water heater first) • Add an insulation blanket to your hot water heater • Install a low-flow shower head • Install faucet aerators • Install a programmable thermostat • Change your furnace filter (forced hot air systems) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 12. Using self-adhesive insulating tape at bends & valves in piping easier than cutting foam pipe insulation to fit The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 13. Low cost, big return- continued • Replace worn weatherstripping • Use expanding foam insulation to plug obvious holes in building envelope • Add gaskets to electrical receptacle covers • Control groupings of consumer electronics, like entertainment centers from central power strip • Install dimmer switches & occupancy sensors • Buy Energy Star anything! (if it affects energy use) • Use an auto shut-off electric kettle The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 14. Low cost, big return- continued • Use CFLs! -Don’t mix w/ incandescent in enclosed fixtures -Long payback time in little-used fixtures -Use higher than incand. wattage-equivalent (you’re still saving over incandescent) -Don’t use in dimmed fixtures unless rated “dimmable” • See estarlights.com, efi.org • Mercury in bulbs far less than mercury in stack gas from power plant capacity needed to satisfy increased demand from incandescent bulbs • Must treat blown-out bulbs as hazardous waste The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 15. More energy conservation strategies • Put radiant reflecting panels behind radiators • Keep baseboard convectors clean • Close off unoccupied areas of house and turn off heat to those areas if possible; be careful if there are pipe runs • Regularly defrost refrigerators/ freezers • Keep gas appliances tuned, including stoves; look for blue flame; see mfgr for adjusting burners The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 16. More energy conservation strategies • Remove window A/C units in winter • Use microwave oven for cooking • Use ceiling fans w/ cathedral or high ceilings to eliminate temperature stratification (both heating and cooling season) • Shade air conditioner and heat pump condensers w/ vegetation or artificial shading (be careful w/ deciduous vegetation) • Remember that A/C units also dehumidify, so you may feel comfortable at a higher temperature The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 17. More energy conservation strategies • Use deciduous vegetation on south, SW and west sides of structure for summer shading; use vines on trellises too • Install awnings, overhangs and other shading structures, such as pergolas • Use retrofit heat-reflecting window films on west- facing windows (look for NFRC label); for new windows, choose units w/ low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) • Close all curtains and shades at night during winter (can help to break convection loops even if loose-fitting) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 18. More energy conservation strategies • Install white window shades to help keep house cool in summer • Make sure attic space is well vented • Use whole-house fans to exhaust warm air from house in summer; run mainly at night to flush w/ cool air; close windows during very hot days • Install radiant barriers on underside of roof rafters; can help to warm in winter and cool in summer; don’t interrupt ventilation pathways • Use double-wall cellular reflecting window shades w/ edge guides or “Energy Track” or window quilts The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 19. Green Practice: HVAC/ Plumbing/ Lighting The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 20. HVAC & Plumbing Systems • “Right-size” systems using analysis tools (Manual J) rather than rule-of-thumb methods; a right-sized system can be up to 40% smaller than a conventionally-sized system • Use zoned heating • Use demand pumps in DHW supply system (gothotwater.com • Use heat recovery devices on DWV pipes (gfxtechnology.com) • Use instantaneous hot water heaters • Use structured plumbing & PEX piping The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 21. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 22. Tankless water heaters • Brands: Rinnai, Noritz, Takagi • Gas-fired typically more responsive and can provide needed capacity more effectively • Cost more than standard water heaters but last longer The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 23. High-efficiency heating • Choose Energy Star! Right-size systems! (did I mention that before?!) • Make sure heating systems have Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of at least 83% for oil- fired and 90% for gas-fired, and Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of at least 13 for cooling systems • Boilers tend to have higher AFUE than furnaces • Closed-cycle, condensing-type boilers and furnaces are more efficient; they extract additional heat from warm flue gases • These systems often don’t need conventional flue pipe, they can side vent, but they require a dedicated combustion air source (coaxial flue pipe) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 24. Lighting • Use zone lighting • Use solar landscape lights • Use motion sensor outdoor lights • Put timer switches on bathroom fans • Use natural daylighting strategies The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 25. Appliances • Buy Energy Star! • Upgrade refrigerator if more than 10 years old • Buy horizontal axis washing machines • Buy dishwashers w/ booster heater • Don’t buy oversized air-conditioners The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 26. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 27. Green Practice: Water conservation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 28. MWRA A water conservation resource Order a free water saving kit at: www.mwra.com/04water/html/watsense.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 29. Water conservation • Use low-flow showerheads & faucet aerators • Incorporate graywater systems • Use demand pumps in supply system • Use dual-flush or composting toilets; waterless urinals • Collect rainwater in rain barrels for landscape irrigation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 30. Coroma Dual-Flush Toilet Source The Portland Group- Splash Showroom 244 Needham St. Newton, MA 02164 617.332.6662 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 31. Green Systems: Gray water The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 32. Gray water • Collected from drain-waste-vent system other than toilets & kitchen sinks with garbage diposals (“Black water”) • Generally used for flushing toilets, landscape irrigation & other non-potable, utility purposes • May be difficult to get local code approval The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 33. Gray water: A direct approach http://www.gaiam.com/product/eco-home-outdoor/energy-efficient- climate-control/energy-saving-tools/toilet+lid+sink.do The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 34. Rainwater collection • For 1000 sq ft roof area, 15 – 25,000 gallons of rainwater can be collected annually in Eastern states • Combined with drip-irrigation systems, collected rainwater can keep landscaping vibrant even during drought conditions • Using rainwater helps to maintain aquifers and public water supplies at adequate levels • Rainwater does not contain chlorine so it is better for plants, garden ponds, etc. • Rainwater does not contain minerals, so it is potentially better for use as laundry/ wash water • Rainwater is free, and inexpensive to collect & store! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 35. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 36. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 37. http://www.cleanairgardening.com/33galrainbar.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 38. Xeriscaping (low-water-landscaping) • Two major aspects: -Making maximum use of available precipitation -Selecting species with low water requirements • Use mulches • Create water retention landscape features • Use drip irrigation & soaker hoses • Group plants • Use plantings to create windbreaks & shade to protect from drying winds and sun • Use native plantings, they are better suited to natural rainfall patterns The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 39. Drip emitters The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 40. Soaker Hose The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 41. Green Practice: Improving the Building Envelope The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 42. Key Principle- Saving home energy As a general rule, for the average home/ homeowner, the greatest energy savings will be achieved through managing the demand side of the equation, rather than the supply side. In other words, you’ll get better bang for your buck through energy conservation measures, like insulating & minimizing air infiltration, than incorporating expensive renewable energy systems such as wind and solar. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 43. An exception: Exceptions to this may include passive solar, and situations where you qualify for a substantial rebate and/or credit for other renewable energy systems (keep in mind the embodied energy of systems though!) There are other compelling reasons to perform upgrades like this, such as reduced reliance on foreign energy resources, promotion of renewable energy & local industry, passive survivability, etc. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 44. Home energy use Space heating represents about 50% of the average home’s energy use The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 45. Saving home energy, guidelines • Use utility bills to establish energy use baseline • Get energy audit/ assessment (MassSave.com; Energystar.gov; Conservation Services Group: csgrp.com) • If your house is very leaky to begin with, don’t start with an energy audit- do air sealing and insulating first • Verify improvements w/ blower door testing, thermograph, etc. • Verify improvements through future utility bills- establish new baseline • Make additional improvements as budget permits The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 46. Blower door test to measure air leakage The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 47. Thermograph to check heat loss through walls (insulation effectiveness) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 48. Building envelope, definition All of the elements of a building that separate and isolate the outdoor environment from the indoor environment. This may include walls and wall finishes, roofs and roof finishes, doors, windows, skylights and basement floors and walls. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 49. Building envelope, functions • Protect structural elements and interior of structure from weather, esp. moisture • Help to maintain proper thermal regime within structure • Help to maintain proper humidity regime within structure • Prevent infiltration of outside air and contaminants • Acoustically isolate interior of structure from outside noise • In essence, act as ‘membrane’ for the structure The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 50. Building envelope components • Exterior finish- wood siding, vinyl siding, brick, etc. • Weather membrane/ air barrier/ drainage plane- building paper, Tyvek, Typar, etc. • Exterior sheathing- usually plywood • Wall/ ceiling cavities (inc. structural members & insulation) • Vapor retarders/ barriers • Or monolithic masonry floors/ walls, with or without insulation, exterior damp-proofing, etc. • Interior wall finish The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 51. Building envelope failure • External water leaks leading to: -Damaged structural elements -Damaged interior finishes -Insulation failure -Damaged interior furnishings and appliances -Mold problems • Air leaks leading to: -Infiltration of unconditioned air/ Drafts -Direct escape of conditioned air to outside -Infiltration of outdoor contaminants • Excessive accumulation of interior moisture in wall cavities causing structural/ insulation failure & mold • Excessive heat transfer from inside to outside The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 52. Codes and standards • Sixth edition of MA building code was officially superseded by 7th edition as of January 1st, 2008 • New MA energy code based on 2006 International Energy Conservation Code; more stringent • Better to follow Energy Star Homes or HERS guidelines for maximum energy efficiency and code compliance The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 53. Heat transfer (loss) mechanisms • Radiation- like the way the sun heats you or the way you feel heat directly from an electric heating element (measured in infrared) • Conduction- direct transfer of heat through a material, like the direct transfer of heat from your hand to a cold metal object! • Convection- heat transfer by way of movement of a fluid such as air or water- this is the way most central heating systems distribute their heat from the furnace/ boiler • Infiltration- cold outside air leaks into structure and mixes with indoor air, reducing its temperature The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 54. Preventing heat loss • Insulate • Air seal (prevent infiltration) • Use landscape features- vegetative shields, etc. • Address lifestyle issues • Best bang for buck through air sealing! Begin here! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 55. Minimizing air infiltration (sealing building envelope) • Min .35 Air changes per hour (ACH) for good ventilation; max .50 for energy efficiency (Energy Star) • Seal obvious openings- pipe penetrations, attic scuttles, electrical receptacles, recessed lights, etc. • Openings to attic spaces are some of worst offenders • Any place where two building planes meet is good candidate for air sealing • For additions/ new construction, use exterior air barrier to minimize infiltration The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 56. Housewrap to minimize air infiltration & protect from moisture The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 57. Air leakage pathways The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 58. Air leakage proportion through various pathways The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 59. Attic hatches/ scuttles are a major leakage pathway The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 60. A commercial solution for attic openings See also www.efi.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 61. Insulate header/ rim joists w/ rigid foam & expanding foam The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 62. Seal joints between intersecting planes w/ expanding foam The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 63. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 64. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 65. Fireplaces are usually NOT an effective heating appliance! They lead to excessive heat loss via drafts up chimney. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 66. Air sealing, online product sources • efi.org • conservationtechnology.com The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 67. Windows • Performance measured in “U-value”; inverse of R- value; measure of material’s ability to conduct heat; the lower the U-value, the better • Look for U-value of .35 or less • Double-glazed, argon filled preferred; Diminishing returns with triple glazing • ‘Low-e’ coating reflects heat back into structure • Always look for Energy Star & NFRC labels • Typical heat loss through windows about 20% The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 68. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 69. Insulating • Resistance to heat flow (insulating ability) measured in R-value; not important to know how this is derived; mainly need to know that it’s a relative scale of effectiveness, and the higher the R value, the better the insulating value • Code represents absolute minimum; newer code has more stringent requirements; tied to window area; R-49 ceiling, R-21 walls, R-30 floors, R-13 basement typical The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 70. Insulating guidelines • Go for low-hanging fruit- e.g. add more attic insulation first if it is accessible and is not well insulated • Remember that you are minimizing cooling expense by buttoning up your house as well as heating expense if you use A/C • Try to eliminate bridging (perimeter) heat loss through structural elements, as it greatly reduces overall insulation effectiveness • Look for additional opportunities to insulate (other than typical wall/ ceiling cavity insulation) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 71. Bridging heat loss • Conductive heat loss through structural members • Eliminate with: -Double wall construction (very expensive!) -Foam skin -Cross-banding attic batt insulation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 72. Bridging heat loss- snow melts over roof rafters The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 73. Bridging heat loss caused wall-staining over structural members The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 74. Bridging heat loss through sill plates The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 75. Layer of foam minimizes bridging loss through sill; top of concrete foundation wall will also receive layer of foam The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 76. Fiberglass batt insulation • R 3.3 – 3.5 per inch • Relatively inexpensive • May contain formaldehyde binders • Need to avoid inhaling dust during insulation • No inherent air-sealing characteristics • Moderate to high embodied energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 77. Cellulose insulation • R 3.5 per inch; 3.7 if wet blown • Relatively inexpensive • Usually contains high recycled content (made from newsprint) • Need to avoid inhaling dust during insulation • Provides air-sealing characteristics if wet blown (professionally installed) • Low embodied energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 78. Extruded polystyrene (XPS) • R 5.0 per inch • Relatively expensive • Acts as vapor barrier at thicknesses > ¾ inch • Can be difficult to install • Must be protected from flame with min. ½ in drywall or equivalent • Good air-sealing characteristics if edges foamed and seams taped • High embodied energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 79. Polyisocyanurate rigid foam • R 7.0 per inch • Relatively expensive • Acts as vapor barrier if foil faced (and edges sealed) • Acts as radiant barrier if foil faced (and facing ¾” min. air space) • Can be difficult to install • Good air-sealing characteristics if edges foamed and seams taped • High embodied energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 80. Icynene Spray foam • R 3.6 per inch • Expensive • Does not produce harmful smoke; does not burn • Professionally installed • Very good air-sealing characteristics • Relatively high embodied energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 81. Icynene application The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 82. A new (and promising) technology • Soy-based spray foam insulation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 83. Additional Insulating Opportunities • Be creative! • Examples: - Behind built-in bookcases - Behind cabinets - Closet walls & ceilings • Capitalize on opportunities to insulate, such as when you have exposed exterior wall cavities during remodeling projects The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 84. Ventilation & Vapor Barriers Issues: • Moisture control as it relates to: -Mold potential -Structural failure -Insulation failure -Aesthetic issues • Indoor air quality (IAQ) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 85. Vapor barriers/ Retardes • Prevent transfer (and accumulation) of internal moisture into wall/ ceiling cavities •Always on warm side of insulation (winter) for this part of country • In this part of country, vapor retarders are generally better than vapor barriers; vapor retarders allow wall to dry from the inside as well as outside • Asphalt-impregnated kraft paper is excellent vapor retarder The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 86. Vapor barriers, continued • Eliminating air leaks in inside wall finishes minimizes vapor transfer into wall cavities • For retrofit of vapor barrier (w/ blown-in insulation for instance), consider a vapor barrier paint • New ‘smart’ materials like Certainteed’s Membrain create variable vapor barrier The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 87. Ventilation • It’s almost impossible to make an old house too tight • Even in a tight house a bathroom fan is generally enough to provide adequate ventilation; control w/ timer (and/or humidistat) • Control internal sources of excessive moisture • Provide dedicated combustion air sources for large combustion appliances like furnaces & fireplaces • Proper attic ventilation may extend life of roof and help to eliminate ice dams • Extremely tight houses may need heat-recovery or multi-port supply (or exhaust) ventilation systems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 88. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 89. Other ventilation strategies • Heat recovery ventilators • Multi-port exhaust (or supply) ventilation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 90. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 91. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 92. Provide continuous vent (ridge) here Continuous airflow (blue) from soffit to ridge; minimizes risk of ice dams, minimizes moisture accumulation in Insulation baffle rafter cavities, keeps living space (green) cooler in summer and may extend life of roof Rafter cavity insulation (fiberglass typical.) 2” XPS foam board insulation Attic living space Install continuous soffit vents here The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 93. Insulation Baffle The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 94. Ductwork • Move duct runs into conditioned spaces (thermal envelope) if possible • Seal ducts; use duct mastic for this if possible, otherwise make sure duct tape is UL listed • Insulate ducts in unconditioned spaces; for cooling (A/C) ductwork, make sure insulation has external vapor barrier to minimize condensation • Keep ductwork clean • When insulating ducts in unconditioned basement, you may make basement too cold; may want to insulate basement walls The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 95. Design Strategies: Natural daylighting • Can reduce lighting loads and cooling loads • Improves indoor environmental quality • Residential systems typically consist of skylights or tubular daylighting devices (TDD’s; “sun tubes” or “light tubes” • Also achieved with clerestory windows • Skylights in south, southwest and west-facing roofs can contribute to summer overheating • Skylights in more north-facing roof surfaces can contribute more light on cloudy days • TDDs may contribute less to overheating The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 96. Natural daylighting • Light-colored walls reflect light deeper into structure • Light shelves can serve the same purpose, and accomplish this w/o excessive glare; they provide shading as well • Wide windowsills/ shelves can reflect light as well, but may contribute to glare • Combine daylighting strategies with photo-resistor controlled lights to avoid excessive lighting during daytime • Landscape features can be utilized for reflecting light into interior as well (paved surfaces, water features, etc) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 97. Light shelves shade window while providing natural daylight via light reflected from top surface The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 98. Sky tube The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 99. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 100. Suggested Room Surface Reflectances: Ceilings: > 80% Walls: 50%-70% Floors: 20%-40% Furnishings: 25%-45% The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 101. Funding conservation & renewable energy projects The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 102. Rebates and incentives • Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 • Energy efficient mortgages • MA state sales tax exemption • MA state renewable energy tax credit • Mass Technology Collaborative’s Commonwealth Solar Initiative • Utility incentives • See DSIRE database (Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency): http://www.dsireusa.org/ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 103. Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 Examples: • Energy Star windows/ skylights: 10% of cost up to $200 for all windows • Exterior/ Storm doors: 10% of cost up to $500 • Insulation: 10% up to $500 • Geothermal heat pump: $300 • http://www.energy.gov/taxbreaks.htm • Credits good only for upgrades performed in 2006/ 2007 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 104. Energy Efficient Mortgages • Allows you to increase your debt-to-income ratio • Remodelers/ Refinancers: -Owner gets all the EEM benefits without moving. -Make improvements which will actually save money. -Increase the potential resale value . • Home Energy Rating System (HERS) report must indicate that home will save money as a result of the improvements- http://www.energy.ca.gov/HERS/; http://www.energyratings.org/ • For more info: http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/housing/energy_mort /energy-mortgage.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 105. MA Renewables Tax Credit • Personal tax credit • Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind • 15% of cost up to $1000 • Excess credit may be carried forward three years • http://www.state.ma.us/ doer/programs/renew/renew.htm#taxcred The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 106. MA State Sales Tax Exemption • Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind, Geothermal Heat Pumps • 100% of sales tax exempt; no maximum • http://www.state.ma.us/ doer/programs/renew/renew.htm#taxcred The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 107. MTC Small Renewables Initiative • PV, wind, microhydro • Rebates up to $50,000 • See http://www.masstech.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 108. MTC Commonwealth Solar • $68 M Funding •http://www.masstech.org/renewableenergy/commonw ealth_solar/index.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 109. Typical utility rebates •High-efficiency space heating equipment •High-efficiency indirect water heating equipment •ENERGY STAR® qualified windows •ENERGY STAR® qualified thermostats •ENERGY STAR® qualified central air conditioning •ENERGY STAR® air source heat pump systems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 110. Energy Star savings calculators http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=dishwash.pr_dishwashers http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=clotheswash.pr_clothes_ washers http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=boilers.pr_boilers The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 111. Rating Systems/ Resources • Energy Star Homes- www.energystar.gov • HERS (http://www.energy.ca.gov/HERS) • International Energy Conservation Code (IEEC)- http://www.iccsafe.org/ • LEED - www.usgbc.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 112. Use NEXUS as your green resource! • Upcoming workshops • Reference library • Samples library • Cyber Lounge • Online resources at nexusboston.com (in the pipeline) • Local green building community The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 113. Local Resources The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 114. THANK YOU www.greenroundtable.org info@greenroundtable.org 617-374-3740 The Green Roundtable, Inc. (GRT) is an independent non-profit organization whose mission is to mainstream green building and sustainable design and become obsolete. We work toward this goal by promoting and supporting healthy and environmentally integrated building projects through strategic outreach, education, policy advocacy and technical assistance. Located in downtown Boston, NEXUS welcomes all to come ask questions, research topics, and attend tours and www.nexusboston.com events on green building and sustainable 38 Chauncy Street, Boston design innovation. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)