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Green Beyond The Bottom Line

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  • 1. Green Roundtable Consulting, education, training and strategic planning to create healthy environments by integrating principles of sustainability into mainstream planning, design and construction. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 2. The Green Roundtable and Green Beyond the Bottom Line Paul Marquis paul@greenroundtable.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 3. Download presentations at: www.nexusboston.com/space/events/ archived_events.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 4. Why do green…. 4 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 5. The three prime movers (in order): • Economics- Reducing energy cost/ protecting the bottom line • Health- Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for one’s family & oneself • Personal impact- Addressing the greater good- minimizing environmental footprint 5 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 6. Economic realities Up front costs or first-costs of green building are often greater than conventional building That doesn’t need to be the case! Cost of Truro home: $190/ sq. ft. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 7. Economics of green building • Sometimes we need to look beyond the issue of first- cost and take Total Cost of Ownership into account • When looking at TCO, in addition to energy & operating resources, we need to look at durability & ease-of-maintenance • Rebates, tax credits & other financing vehicles can help to manage first-costs • In valuing green building, we may want to look at other, less-tangible factors as well The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 8. The trump card A University of Michigan study demonstrated that greater than 90% of the embodied energy in a home is attributable to operating energy Reduce operating energy and potentially reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) or life-cycle cost significantly Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 9. Justifying increased up-front costs Making the case for reduced Life-Cycle Cost or TCO: • Green buildings usually use less energy/ resources to operate than their conventional counterparts • Green buildings are typically more durable & maintenance-free due to the application of sound principles of building science • Additional benefits like improved IEQ, minimizing impact, increased security, etc. may warrant the increased cost – What value do we place on these?! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 10. Why build green? Beyond the bottom line of energy efficiency/ utility savings • May increase affordability • May improve property resale value • Reduces the ecological footprint of the building • Creates a safer and healthier indoor environment • Typically results in a more durable, maintenance- free building • Provides security/ passive survivability • Reduces our dependence on foreign oil The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 11. Cost offsetting Ex.: Offsetting increased first cost in some areas with savings in others Source: Case Studies In Resource-Efficient Residential Building, Building America program The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 12. Green criteria • Efficiently uses energy & resources • Derived from rapidly renewable resources • Contains high recycled material content • Can be reused/ recycled at the end of it’s useful life • Locally sourced • Durable & low-maintenance • Produces minimal off-gassing • Biodegradable The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 13. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 14. Cornerstones of green building Site Site Site Site 14 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 15. Sweetening the pot The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 16. Rebates and incentives • Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 (renewed for ’08) • Energy efficient mortgages • Energy credit mortgages & “green loans” • MA state sales tax exemption • MA state renewable energy tax credit • Utility incentives • See DSIRE database (Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency): http://www.dsireusa.org/ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 17. Federal Energy Policy Act of 2005 Examples: • Energy Star windows/ skylights: 10% of cost up to $200 for all windows • Exterior/ Storm doors: 10% of cost up to $500 • Insulation: 10% up to $500 • Geothermal heat pump: $300 • http://www.energy.gov/taxbreaks.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 18. Energy Efficient Mortgages • Allows you to increase your debt-to-income ratio • Remodelers/ Refinancers: -Owner gets all the EEM benefits without moving. -Make improvements which will actually save money. -Increase the potential resale value . • Home Energy Rating System (HERS) report must indicate that home will save money as a result of the improvements- http://www.energy.ca.gov/HERS/; http://www.energyratings.org/ • For more info: http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/housing/energy_mort /energy-mortgage.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 19. Energy Efficient Mortgages, ex. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 20. Energy Credit Mortgages/ Green Loans • Generally for new construction • Provide credit on closing costs • Being offered by Bank of America & Wainright Bank among others The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 21. MA Renewables Tax Credit • Personal tax credit • Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind • 15% of cost up to $1000 • Excess credit may be carried forward three years • http://www.state.ma.us/ doer/programs/renew/renew.htm#taxcred The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 22. MA State Sales Tax Exemption • Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind, Geothermal Heat Pumps • 100% of sales tax exempt; no maximum • http://www.state.ma.us/ doer/programs/renew/renew.htm#taxcred The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 23. Typical utility rebates •High-efficiency space heating equipment •High-efficiency indirect water heating equipment •ENERGY STAR® qualified windows •ENERGY STAR® qualified thermostats •ENERGY STAR® qualified central air conditioning •ENERGY STAR® air source heat pump systems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 24. The Truro home: Sustainability w/ economy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 25. Scale The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 26. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 27. Compare this: The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 28. To something like this: The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 29. Stats: • Size of Truro home prior to remodel: 1200 sq. ft. • Size after remodel: ~2100 sq. ft. • Size of lot: 0.22 acres • Family of four The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 30. Consider this: The average size of a U.S. single-family house has increased by 33% since 1975. At the same time average family size has decreased Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 31. Design Basics The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 32. Orientation/ Design Basics • Structure oriented along East-West axis; i.e. long side facing south (roofline adjusted to accommodate solar) • Glazing on south-facing walls optimized for passive solar gains • Existing footprint maintained The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 33. Durability The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 34. Durability • Uncomplicated design w/o too many intersecting planes- improved durability, ease of maintenance • Enviroshake roof is a 100 year roof if properly installed • Certainteed fiber-cement siding has expected minimum life >50 years • Foamboard insulation exterior skin creates effective drainage plane • Sprayed Icynene foam insulation provides more effective wall-cavity moisture management The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 35. Materials The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 36. Exterior Siding CertainTeed Fiber Cement Siding - WeatherBoard • >30% post-industrial recycled content- fly ash • Sustainable Forestry Initiative certified wood fibers • In addition to durability requires fewer paint cycles (15 year warranty on finish) • Cheaper than cedar clapboards & shingles! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 37. Roofing Enviroshake composite roofing • High post-industrial recycled content • Most of these types of roofing materials are about half-again as much as premium asphalt-fiberglass (material cost), but durability may be the trump card The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 38. Interior Paints Sherwin-Williams Harmony zero VOC • Marginally more expensive than ‘conventional’ (installed cost) • Provides safer indoor environment by reducing VOC off-gassing The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 39. Flooring - PlyBoo DuraPalm coconut flooring - WeCork cork tiles • Made from rapidly renewable resources • Finished with low-VOC polyurethane (water borne) • Pre-finished- reduces installation cost • Cork comparable in cost to T & G oak strip flooring; DuraPalm a bit more expensive (product only) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 40. PEX tubing for water supply piping • Less embodied energy than copper • Facilitates structured plumbing; minimizes piping runs; shallow bends can improve delivery performance • More freeze-tolerant • Less heat loss • Easier to install; less expensive w/ competent sub- contractor The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 41. Water conservation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 42. Water conservation • Toto Aquia dual flush toilets installed Assuming a cost premium of 100 –150; w/ MWRA rates, payback can be as little as 3 years! (typ. Family of four) • Low-flow Hans Grohe bathroom fixtures • Danze temperature control kitchen faucet The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 43. Energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 44. Windows Fibertec windows with fiberglass frames • Hollow, non-conductive window frame increases effective R-Value • More expensive than vinyl-clad wood products, but increased performance & environmental benefits may justify added cost The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 45. Appliances • Energy Star appliances used throughout (LG) • Horizontal axis washing machine installed • Saves water as well as energy- can have fast payback time • Use 30 – 50% less water; 50 –60% less energy; 1/3 less detergent; kinder on clothes! (source: MWRA) • Dryer w/ dual moisture sensors • Dishwasher w/ booster heater The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 46. Natural daylighting • Can reduce lighting loads and cooling loads • Improves indoor environmental quality • Residential systems typically consist of skylights, clerestory windows or tubular daylighting devices (TDD’s; “sun tubes” or “light tubes”) • ODL Sun Tunnel installed in Truro project The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 47. Skylights may contribute to summer overheating and winter heat loss. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 48. Installed cost typically less than skylights Sky tube (TDD) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 49. IEQ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 50. IEQ • Low- VOC finishes & low-formaldehyde engineered lumber products used • Natural daylighting via skytube & effective use of window area • Ventilation?? The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 51. Site • Gravel driveway provides good permeability for storm water • Less expensive than hard paving The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 52. Some other things I might have considered The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 53. Basic design elements • Overhangs on south-facing roof to limit summer (overhangs throughout to protect walls) • Nighttime window insulation/ Thermal mass?? The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 54. Materials: Low-hanging fruit • Employ advanced framing techniques • Use structure as finish • Use salvaged/ surplus materials (Existing shell largely maintained) • Use FSC-certified lumber (Forest Stewardship Council; fscus.org) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 55. Insulation Some alternatives to Icynene to consider: • Wet-blown (dense pack) cellulose • Denim batts (w/ foam skin over exterior sheathing) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 56. Advanced Framing • Saves on framing lumber expense • Reduces lumber disposal cost/ impact • Saves on labor cost since fewer “sticks” installed • Savings estimates range to 20% of overall framing expense In a Building America test project, advanced framing reduced lumber expense by $1.05 per sq. ft.(Can offset the cost of using FSC-certified lumber) • Reduces drywall cracking – fewer callbacks for builders?? The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 57. Advanced framing & efficiency Improves thermal efficiency of building by: • Providing more room for insulation! • Reducing bridging heat loss In the same Building America test project, annual heating and cooling costs were reduced by 29.2%, or $293* * http://www.toolbase.org/pdf/techinv/oveadvancedframingtechniques_techspec.pdf The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 58. Advanced Framing Some major elements: • 2 x 6 studs on 24” centers • Single top plate if trusses/ roof rafters placed directly over wall studs (stacked framing) • Jack studs eliminated at window openings • “Right-sized” headers; insulated, engineered headers • No headers in non-load bearing partitions • Open corner framing (2-stud corners) • Ladders at T-intersections The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 59. Advanced Framing & MA building code Advanced framing is specifically allowed by the MA One & Two Family Dwelling Code. See: 780 CMR 56.00 Wall Construction The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 60. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 61. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 62. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 63. Kitchen • Source cabinets locally (Neil-Kelly cabinets shipped from Oregon) • Use countertops made from recycled or rapidly renewable materials (granite countertops used in project have a high embodied energy due to extraction, cutting & polishing) • Examples of alternatives: - Paperstone - Ice Stone - Squak Mountain Stone The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 64. Exterior trim • Use non-vinyl based composites • Examples: - HardiPlank - WeatherBoard The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 65. Roofing • Use light colors on low roofs to minimize cooling load & heat island effect • Look for higher (post-consumer) recycled content • Example: - Authentic Roof by Crowe Building Products - Naturals fiber/cement composite The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 66. Water conservation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 67. Water conservation • Incorporate graywater systems • Use demand pumps in supply system (Metlund, TACO; see gothotwater.com for example) • Collect rainwater for landscape irrigation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 68. Gothotwater.com 68 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 69. Gray water • Collected from drain-waste-vent system other than toilets, dishwashers & kitchen sinks with garbage diposals (“Black water”) • Generally used for flushing toilets, landscape irrigation & other non-potable, utility purposes • May be difficult to get local code approval for some systems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 70. Gray water: A direct approach http://www.gaiam.com/product/eco-home-outdoor/energy-efficient- climate-control/energy-saving-tools/toilet+lid+sink.do The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 71. Domestic Hot Water The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 72. DHW • Use instantaneous hot water heaters (tankless) • Save energy by eliminating standing heat loss (vs. conventional tank-style water heater); estimated savings 24 – 34% • May enjoy substantial rebates from utilities The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 73. Tankless water heaters • Examples of brands: Rinnai, Noritz, Takagi • Gas-fired typically more responsive and can provide needed capacity more effectively • Cost more than standard water heaters but last longer • More choices as to location/ placement • Direct-venting; e.g. can exhaust through wall • Look for min. flow rates of 0.3 – 0.5 gal./min. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 74. Energy Star savings calculators http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=dishwash.pr_dishwashers http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=clotheswash.pr_clothes_ washers http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=boilers.pr_boilers The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 75. General analysis tools A general list of tools offered by the U.S. Department of Energy are available over the web at: http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/su bjects.cfm/pagename=subjects/pagename_menu=whole_ building_analysis/pagename_submenu=load_calculation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 76. Defining green: Design resources • Building America- http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/ about.html • Environmental Building News/ Greenspec- http://www.buildinggreen.com) •http://www.austinenergy.com/Energy%20Efficiency/Progr ams/Green%20Building/Sourcebook/index.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 77. Measuring Green:Rating Systems • Energy Star Homes- www.energystar.gov • HERS (http://www.energy.ca.gov/HERS) • International Energy Conservation Code (IEEC)- http://www.iccsafe.org/ • LEED - www.usgbc.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 78. Additional Resources GRT: www.greenroundtable.org Renewable Energy: www.nrel.gov US DOE: www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ EPA: www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings Residential Green Building Guide: A Web Source Book for New England www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings NAHB: Model Green Home Building Guidelines: www.nahb.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 79. And don’t forget about NEXUS! • Upcoming workshops • Reference library • Samples library • Cyber Lounge • Online resources at nexusboston.com (in the pipeline) • Local green building community The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 80. Local Resources The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • 81. THANK YOU www.greenroundtable.org info@greenroundtable.org 617-374-3740 The Green Roundtable, Inc. (GRT) is an independent non-profit organization whose mission is to mainstream green building and sustainable design and become obsolete. We work toward this goal by promoting and supporting healthy and environmentally integrated building projects through strategic outreach, education, policy advocacy and technical assistance. Located in downtown Boston, NEXUS welcomes all to come ask questions, research topics, and attend tours and www.nexusboston.com events on green building and sustainable 38 Chauncy Street, Boston design innovation. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)