Green Building 101 For Contractors

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The Green Building 101 Workshop is a full-day workshop providing a general introduction to green building concepts, techniques and materials, including the impact of various building certification systems on building contractor businesses, and the implications of various credentials for their employees.

The goal of the workshop is to provide a participant with the background necessary to make informed decisions about next steps for their business model and/or for training and credentialing. This workshop is designed for contractors interested in gaining the basics of green building. From knowledge to networking, this workshop is your ticket to entering the green economy.

Why should you attend this workshop?

* Gain a foundation in green building
* Learn from experts in the field
* Networking with potential employers
* Subsidized workshop fee

The workshop will be led by staff from The Green Roundtable / NEXUS, and assisted by guest speakers from leading institutions such as ICF and ABCD. All instructors have extensive experience in the field.

This is an equal opportunity program - auxiliary aids and services are available upon request to individuals with disabilities. This workshop is a project of Green Jobs Boston, the Mayor’s Office of Jobs and Community Services and the Boston Redevelopment Authority. A project of the Massachusetts State Energy Sector Partnership, funded in whole by a $6M grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment & Training Administration.

Green Building 101 For Contractors

  1. 1. GREEN BUILDING 101 FOR CONTRACTORSIntroduction to Green Building
  2. 2. What is the The Green Roundtable / NEXUS? POLICY CONSULTING Mainstreaming green building through education, policy and technical assistance.
  3. 3. NEXUS NEXUS’s range of services: • Green project management • Design charrettes • Feasibility assessment • Building systems analysis •Rhode Island Center for Biotechnology & Life Sciences • Carbon footprint reduction • ENERGY STAR assessment •Mass Audubon Wellfleet Bay Sanctuary • LEED certification • LEED support • LEED policy development • LEED credit calculation and strategic assistance review
  4. 4. • Bourne Mill Apartments • Boston Children’s Museum • Staples • Suffolk University’s 10 West Street Dorm• Burlington Office Park-5 Wall Street• Georgetown McDonough School of Business• Penn State University Hershey Medical Children’s Hospital
  5. 5. Courses •LEED Green Associate Exam Prep •LEED & Green Project Management •Case Study Roundtables & Life •Rhode Island Center for Biotechnology Sciences •Green Product Seminars •Mass Audubon Wellfleet Bay Sanctuary
  6. 6. LEED & Green Project ManagementThis full-day course is designed for individuals who want tobecome experts in LEED© and green building implementationand understand how their expertise best integrates into theprocess to achieve real value for their projects.Specifically, participants will be able to: •Rhode Island Center for Biotechnology & Life•Set goals for, manage, and implement your LEED© and green building Sciencesprojects from start to finish.•Integrate the planning, design, construction, Bay operations phases in •Mass Audubon Wellfleet and Sanctuaryorder to achieve a comprehension of the green building process.•Prioritize and achieve your sustainability goals using readily availabletools and resources.•Understand the overarching sustainability principles related to sites,energy, water, products, indoor environmental quality, constructionpractices, and operations and maintenance.•Project Management tools and exercise will help participants understandand implement the course material.
  7. 7. What Do We Want from Buildings?  Shelter  Comfort  Aesthetics  Infrastructure
  8. 8. What Do We Get from Buildings?Environmental Impacts of Buildings: 14% of US potable water flow 40% of raw materials globally 39% of US greenhouse gas emissions 40% of US primary energy use 72% of total US electricity use 40% of landfill material 30% of buildings suffer from ―sick building syndrome‖
  9. 9. AverageSavings ofGreenBuildings
  10. 10. $3.81 BILLION $3.24 BILLION$792 MILLION
  11. 11. We have a choice...
  12. 12. LEED ADOPTIONS Various LEED initiatives are found in 45 States 442 Localities 14 Federal Agencies
  13. 13. At the federal level • 11 agencies require or encourage their buildings to meet the USGBC LEED standard (a recently introduced bill would require the adoption of green building standards across still more agencies)Around the country • 31 states have adopted LEED • More than 166 Local Governments have adopted LEED
  14. 14. Recent Regional Policies and Initiatives • The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) • Massachusetts State Green Building Policy • Mass LEED Plus
  15. 15. Policy Massachusetts LEED Plus All new construction and major renovation projects for state buildings must be LEED Certified and within LEED must achieve certain credits or benchmarks.
  16. 16. Massachusetts LEED PlusLARGE PROJECTS, 20,000 square feet or larger:  EAc1, exceed Mass Energy Code by at least 20%  EAc3, third party building commissioning  Smart Growth, at least one of four:  SSc2, Development Density  SSc3, Brownfield Redevelopment  SSc4.1, Public Transportation  MRc1.1, Maintain 75% of existing building  WEc1.1, Reduce potable water consumption for irrigation by 50%  WEc3.1, Water Use Reduction by 20%
  17. 17. Massachusetts LEED PlusSMALL PROJECTS, under 20,000 square feet :  Adhere to Mass LEED Plus  Surpass Mass Energy Code by 20%  Follow the prescriptive approach using Advanced Buildings Benchmark Tool
  18. 18. Massachusetts LEED PlusStrongly encourages Massachusetts SchoolBuilding Authority (MSBA) to adopt MassachusettsCollaborative for High Performance Schools (MACHPS) for new K-12 schools.
  19. 19. Economic PolicyMA state commitment toincrease installed solar powerfrom 2 MW to 250 MW in adecade, and by brokering afirst-in-the-nation relationshipbetween a solar panelmanufacturer and electricitydistribution utilities around thestate to market solar powerand make the installation andconnection process smoother.
  20. 20. Policy in the City of Boston
  21. 21. PolicyCity of Boston Article 37All projects that fall under BostonRedevelopment Authority ―large projectreview‖ must be LEED Certifiable.
  22. 22. Recent Boston Policies and Initiatives• Boston’s Climate Action Plan• Boston’s Article 80• DND’s Green Affordable Housing Program• Boston’s Article 37• Lights Out Boston• Solar Boston• Renew Boston
  23. 23. Famous Green Buildings in the Area Boston Nature Center, Boston MA Genzyme Center, Cambridge MAForbes Lofts, Chelsea MA Macallen Building South Boston MA Manulife Building, Boston MA
  24. 24. Some green building terminology…•Green building •Recycle•Sustainable building •Indoor air quality•Energy efficient •Indoor environmental quality•High performance •Building certification•Net zero •Triple bottom line•Integrated design •Embodied energy•Low emitting •Life cycle analyisis•Green materials
  25. 25. Intentional Design: Triple Bottom Line1. Environmental benefits – Reduce impact on the environment and demand for natural resources2. Economic benefits – Improve the bottom line and account for externalities3. Health and Safety benefits – Enhance occupant comfort, safety and health
  26. 26. Goals of A Green Building Project• Minimizing lifecycle costs• Reducing natural resources use• Reducing waste• Increasing equipment and system efficiency• Emphasizing source and waste reduction• Creating healthy environments
  27. 27. Elements of Green Building1. Sustainable Sites2. Water Efficiency3. Energy Management4. Materials and Resources5. Indoor Environmental Quality6. New Technologies & Renewable Energy
  28. 28. Sustainable Site Goals Prevent downstream impacts to water quality Preserve productive agricultural landscapes and open space Eliminate development in flood plain Reduce Heat Island Effect Reduce dependency on single-occupancy automobiles
  29. 29. DefinitionsGreenfield Sites:Sites that have not been previouslydeveloped, are in a natural stateLow Impact Development (LID):Low Impact Development promotes carefulsite design and decentralized stormwatermanagement while reducing theenvironmental footprint of new growthImpervious surfaces:Surface that promote runoff by prohibitinginfiltration Definitions adapted from the LEED NC 2.2 Reference guide
  30. 30. Water Conservation Goals Reduce potable water consumption for irrigation Reduce potable water consumption Reduce sewage volume Recharge groundwater
  31. 31. DefinitionsPotable waterWater suitable for drinking. Meets or exceeds EPA standards.GreywaterMultiple definitions (Uniform Plumbing Code, InternationalPlumbing Code, State and local codes) “untreated household waste water which has not come into contact with toilet waste.” (UPC)BlackwaterDoes not have one widely accepted definition.State and local codes may consider wastewater from kitchensinks, showers or bathtubs as blackwater.Wastewater from toilets is always considered blackwater. Definitions adapted from the LEED NC 2.2 Reference guide
  32. 32. Energy Efficiency Goals  Reduce energy consumption  Increase on-site renewable energy generation  Increase market for off-site renewable energy generation  Reduce ozone layer depletion and global warming gas generation
  33. 33. DefinitionsInfiltration:Air leakageCommissioning (Cx):The process of ensuring that building systems aredesigned, installed, tested and capable of beingoperated properlyEnergy Conservation Measures (ECMs):Installations of equipment or systems, or modifications ofequipment or systems, for the purpose of reducingenergy use and/or costs Definitions adapted from the LEED NC 2.2 Reference guide
  34. 34. Materials and Resources Goals Reduce Embodied Energy of construction Provide access to recycling services Reduce waste generated by construction
  35. 35. Materials and Resources GoalsReduce Embodied Energy of construction by:  Reusing buildings & materials  Using materials with recycled content  Using local materials  Using rapidly renewable materials  Using responsibly harvested wood
  36. 36. DefinitionsRecycled content:Products with identifiablerecycled content, includingpost-industrial content, witha preference for post-consumer content. Countertops made from 100% recycled materials/Icestone Natural, plentiful or renewable: Harvested from sustainably managed sources and certified by an independent Rubber tapping/Phuket.net third party.
  37. 37. DefinitionsResource efficient manufacturing process:Includes reducing energy consumption, minimizingwaste (recycled, recyclable and or source-reducedproduct packaging), and reducing greenhousegases. Floor Covering WeeklyLocally available: Found locally or regionally,saving energy and resources in transportation tothe project site.
  38. 38. DefinitionsSalvaged, refurbished, or remanufactured:Saving a material from disposal and renovating,repairing, restoring, or generally improving theappearance, performance, quality, functionality, orvalue of a product.Reusable or recyclable: Select materials that canbe easily dismantled and reused or recycled at theend of their useful life.Humanscale’s fully recyclable Cinto chair/Humanscale
  39. 39. DefinitionsRecycled or recyclable product packaging:Packaging that has recycled content or that can berecycled.Durable: Longer lasting or comparable toconventional products with long life expectancies. Roughstockstudios.com Sustainableisgood.com
  40. 40. Environmental Impacts of Buildings INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) • More than 30% of buildings have poor indoor air quality. Often the air inside the average home is 10 times more polluted than the outside air on the smoggiest of days. We spend 90% of our time indoors.** Source: EPA How Stuff Works
  41. 41. Indoor Environmental Quality Goals Provide Effective Ventilation Reduce harmful chemicals and pollutants inside building Provide comfortable conditions and occupant control of indoor environment Provide occupants with access to daylight and views
  42. 42. DefinitionsLow- or non-toxic: Emit few or nocarcinogens, reproductive toxicants, or irritantsas demonstrated through appropriate testingMinimal chemical emissions: Minimal Environmental Depotemissions of volatile organic compounds(VOCs). Products that also maximize resourceand energy efficiency while reducing chemicalemissionsLow-VOC assembly: Materials installed withminimal VOC-producing compounds or no-VOC mechanical attachment methods andminimal hazards Phoenix Organics
  43. 43. Definitions Moisture resistant: Inhibits the growth of biological contaminants in buildings Healthfully maintained: Require only simple, non-toxic or low-VOC methods of cleaningServiceMASTER Clean Systems or equipment: Promote healthy IAQ by identifying indoor air pollutants or enhancing the air quality
  44. 44. Brown design vs. Green designWhat 3 things make thedifference betweenBrown design andGreen design?© 2000 Green Shift Framework
  45. 45. Brown design vs. Green design MINDSET How we think, the assumptions we make, our perceptions of role and expectations of interaction PROCESS Collaborative decision making, blurring of roles and clarity of scope TOOLS Early analysis, life cycle context, material specifications, etc. © 2000 GreenShift Framework
  46. 46. Integrated Design Process (IDP)Linear Design ProcessPrelim SD DD CD B&N B&N B&N Constr VE VE VEIntegrated Design ProcessPrelim SD DD CD B&N Constr & MaintVE All Hands Meeting
  47. 47. Integrated Design Process (IDP) Integrated Design Process Prelim SD DD CD B&N Constr. VE Linear Design Process Prelim SD DD CD B&N B&NB&N Constr. VE VE VE Based on concepts/graphics by Bill Reed
  48. 48. Design ProcessDesign-bid-build - Traditional design method beginstypically with an architect or engineer contracted tothe owner to prepare drawings and specs. Theseare then put out to bid publicly. The contractor is notinvolved in design; architect and engineer havelimited involvement through construction.Design-build - Owner contracts with a firm thathandles the design and construction. Can be designled or construction led. Both entities involvedthrough construction. Increasing in popularity overdesign-bid-build method.
  49. 49. Building Design Integrated Project Delivery-Integrated project delivery (IPD) - Incorporateselements of both design processes and is mostoptimized for green building projects as it encouragesearly multi-disciplinary coordination. • Architect and contractor are not contractually bound to one another • Each manages their piece of project (including consultant/subcontractor selection and coordination) • Clear definition of roles, responsibilities & scope • Defining and measuring project outcomes • Primary participants play key role start to finish • Key supporting participants perform a specific role
  50. 50. What Is IPD?• Many definitions used to describe this more holistic approach to building design• Common elements of the various definitions:  Goal-driven  Facilitated  Structured  Clear decision-making  Inclusive  Collaborative  Holistic or system thinking  Whole-building budget setting  Iterative  Non-traditional expertise
  51. 51. Process of Integrated Project DeliveryAn integrated project team includes membersfrom various disciplines and sectors. Everyoneis brought to the table at the beginning of theproject and is involved in drafting goals topromote collaborative problem solving andholistic thinking.
  52. 52. Process of Integrated Project DeliveryPhases of IPD: • Conceptualization (expanded programming) • Criteria design (expanded schematic design) • Detailed design (expanded design development) • Implementation documents (construction documents) • Agency review • Buyout • Construction (construction/construction contract admin) • Close out
  53. 53. Whole Building DesignWhole building design:• This approach, reflected in the structure of IPD, considers all building components and systems during the design phase and integrates them to work together to reduce resource consumption and environmental impact.• Not limited to projects using IPD• Example: using daylighting techniques reduces the amount of artificial light, which reduces heat given off by lighting systems, thereby reducing air conditioning needs and size of system; requires responsible team members working in conjunction
  54. 54. Whole Building Design Pre-DesignPre- design:• Setting project goals• Set project budget and schedule• Define property boundary and LEED project boundary  Property boundary - all land owned by owner  Project boundary - all land associated with the LEED contract, and land impacted by the development
  55. 55. Whole Building Design Pre DesignPre- design involves: • Reviewing selected rating system and codes • Selecting project team and assigning responsibilities • Planning for building commissioning • Considering durability planning and management • Evaluating opportunities for innovation and design
  56. 56. Whole Building Design Pre-Design• Design- Development of building systems in their scope• Construction- Ensuring project is built as designed, addressing energy and environmental guidelines, purchasing compliant materials, honoring spec requirements, maintaining IAQ, waste and recycling• Operations and Maintenance- Effective operations and maintenance providing opportunities for efficiency
  57. 57. Cost Benefit AnalysisCost benefit analysis looks at the sustainabletechnologies proposed and factors in thepotential cost savings achieved during theoperation of the building. • Soft costs - design fees, taxes, permit fees, etc. • Hard costs - labor and materials
  58. 58. Cost Benefit Analysis – Simple PaybackSimple Payback:Total initial cost of the improvement is divided by thefirst-year cost savings. Provides estimated numberof years needed for improvement to pay for itself andsimple return on investmentFor example;Solar PV system costs = $10,000Average yearly savings from system - $2,500Payback = 4 years
  59. 59. Cost Benefits Analysis – Lifecycle Cost AnalysisLifecycle cost analysis (LCC):Evaluates the total cost of the capital investment overthe life of the item. • Initial capital cost • Operating costs • Maintenance costs • Financing costs • Expected useful life • Future equipment salvage values** Important to establish scope and timeframeWeighing societal impacts - be sure to evaluate theadditional factors impacted that may not have directcost, e.g., carbon reduction, improved air quality
  60. 60. Cost BundlingKey Components:• Looking beyond the single line-item cost impact and instead looking at various cost bundles of strategies• Evaluating a system’s upfront vs. lifecycle cost comparisons• Might be more upfront work, but can enhance decision making time and reduce delays due to late design changes Collaboratively developed with Bill Reed (coined phrase)
  61. 61. Rating Systems
  62. 62. Questions? http://www.nexusboston.org/
  63. 63. Break
  64. 64. GREEN BUILDING 101 FOR CONTRACTORSBuilding Certification Systems
  65. 65. Rating Systems
  66. 66. Energy Star and CHPS http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=h ome.index •Residential homes scored using the HERS index HERS= Home Energy Rating •Commercial buildings are benchmarked in Portfolio Managerhttp://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/34
  67. 67. Enterprise Specifically for affordable housing development Created in consultation with some of the nation’s leading environmental, public health and green building experts Overlap with LEED Enterprise also offers funding and other support to projects In addition to mandatory requirements projects must achieve the following point thresholds: New Construction: 35 points Moderate rehabilitation: 30 points
  68. 68. Enterprise •Integrated Design •Site, Location and Neighborhood Fabric •Site Improvements •Water Conservation •Energy Efficiency •Materials Beneficial to the Environment •Healthy Living Environment •Operations and Maintenance
  69. 69. LEEDWhat is LEED? LEADERSHIP in ENERGY and ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN A point-based rating system that evaluates environmental performance from a whole building perspective
  70. 70. What is LEED? USGBC definition: LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environmental quality.
  71. 71. What is LEED? LEED© Leeds
  72. 72. What is LEED? • Buildings become certified • Professionals become accredited • Products are never LEED or USGBC certified
  73. 73. Why was LEED Created?  Facilitate positive results for the environment, occupant health and financial return  Prevent ―greenwashing‖  Promote whole-building, integrated design processes  Recognize leaders  Stimulate green competition  Raise consumer awareness  Transform the marketplace!
  74. 74. What is the US Green Building Council? The U.S. Green Building Council is the building industry’s only balanced non-profit consensus coalition promoting the understanding, development and accelerated implementation of green building policies, programs, technologies, standards, and design, operations and maintenance practices. www.usgbc.org
  75. 75. What is the Green Building Certification Institute? GBCI was created to administer certification and credentialing programs related to green building practice and to ensure that the LEED Accredited Professional (LEED AP) program continues to be developed in accordance with best practices for credentialing programs. As of April 27, 2009, GBCI administers the LEED project registration and certification and the LEED Professional credentialing processes.
  76. 76. USGBC and GBCI StructureUSGBC is responsible for: 1) Developing the LEED rating system 2) Producing the LEED reference guides 3) Developing and offering educational programs on the LEED rating systemGBCI has two roles: 1) LEED credentialing program 2) Building certification
  77. 77. Levels of LEED CertificationFour levels of LEED certification:• Certified = 40-49 points, 40-50% of core credits• Silver = 50-59 points, 50-60% of core credits• Gold = 60-79 points, 60-80% of core credits• Platinum = 80-110 points, 80% or more of core credits
  78. 78. Cost of LEEDDavis Langdon 2006 studyCost of Green Revisited:Reexamining theFeasibility and Cost Impactof Sustainable Design inthe Light of IncreasedMarket Adoption found―there is no significantdifference in average costfor green buildings ascompared to non-greenbuildings.‖
  79. 79. Cost of LEEDThe Urban Green Councils recent study,"Cost of Green in NYC," surveyed 107properties, including 38 multi-family high-rises, pursuing LEED certification. Thestudy found no statistically significantdifference in construction cost betweenLEED and non-LEED projects.Construction costs in the LEED high-rises came out to around $440 persquare foot, while the non-green groupaveraged $436 per square foot.
  80. 80. What Is LEED v3?LEED v3 is the newest evolution of theLEED rating system. It was launchedon April 27, 2009. LEED v3encompasses three components: 1. LEED 2009, composed of LEED rating system updates/revisions 2. Revision and evolution of LEED certification process 3. LEED Online v3
  81. 81. What Is LEED 2009? LEED 2009 aligns five of the rating systems—NC, CS and Schools (now BD&C), CI (now ID&C) and EBOM (now EB O&M). All ratings in these five ratings systems are based on a 110-point system— 100 points plus 10 potential bonus points.
  82. 82. LEED Rating Systems In Development: Healthcare Retail Retail Interiors Existing Schools Multi-building Campuses Mid-rise Homes
  83. 83. What Is LEED 2009?LEED 2009 changes include:1) LEED Prerequisite/Credit Alignment and Harmonization2) Predictable Development Cycle3) Transparent Environmental/Human Impact Credit Weighting4) Regionalization
  84. 84. LEED Rating Systems In Development: Healthcare Retail Retail Interiors Existing Schools Multi-building Campuses Mid-rise Homes
  85. 85. LEED 2009 Credit Categories Sustainable Sites All of the LEED 2009 Water Efficiency rating systems (NC, Energy & Atmosphere CI, CS, EB O&M, Schools) share the Materials & Resources same six credit categoriesIndoor Environmental QualityInnovation & Design Process
  86. 86. The LEED Credit Categories Sustainable Sites Intent Water Efficiency Requirements Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources SubmittalsIndoor Environmental Quality Technologies & StrategiesInnovation & Design Process
  87. 87. The LEED Credit CategoriesAll LEED rating systems include:• Prerequisites• Core credits (SS, WE, EA, MR, IEQ)• Innovation and Design (ID) credits  Exemplary performance  Innovative strategies (refer to USGBC Innovation in Design Credit Catalog)All LEED ratings systems require compliance withfederal, state and local environmental laws andregulations; LEED certification can be revoked uponknowledge of noncompliance.
  88. 88. Innovation and Design creditsTotal of 6 points can be awarded for Innovation andDesign credits:• ID Credits 1.1-1.5 (1- 5 points)  Up to 3 points may be earned for exemplary performance (surpassing established thresholds of LEED credits)  Up to 5 points can be awarded for innovative strategies which demonstrate quantifiable environmental benefits – unique approaches not outlined in LEED program• ID Credit 2- LEED Accredited Professional - 1 point  Point awarded if you have a LEED AP as a principal participant on project team
  89. 89. LEED Checklist
  90. 90. What is LEED-NC?LEED for New Construction and MajorRenovation (LEED-NC) is the original andmost popular LEED rating system. It wasdeveloped for commercial and institutionalbuildings (especially office buildings) but hasbeen successfully applied to a variety ofprojects.
  91. 91. LEED-NCMajor renovation involves elements of:• Significant building envelope modifications• Major interior rehabilitation• Major HVAC renovation
  92. 92. What is LEED-CI?LEED for Commercial Interiors (LEED-CI)is an alternative rating system to LEED-NC.It was developed with office use, tenant fit-out projects in mind but has beensuccessfully applied to a variety of interiorconstruction projects.
  93. 93. What types of projects use LEED-CI?The official answer: According to the USGBC,LEED-CI is applicable to ―tenant projects.”The USGBC then defines tenants as: ―one thatpays rent to occupy a building, an occupant whodwells in a place, and/or a holder of buildingssuch as ownership or lease.‖The short answer: Almost any type of interiorconstruction project that can meet theprerequisite and credit requirements*Individual apartments or condominiumscannot be certified
  94. 94. What types of projects use LEED-CI?The boundary lines between different LEEDrating systems overlap at times. TheUSGBC states, ―If more than one ratingsystem applies, then it is up to the projectteam to decide which one to pursue. Theproject is a viable candidate…if it can meetall prerequisites and achieve the minimumpoints required in a given rating system.‖ ? ?
  95. 95. LEED-BD&C vs. LEED-ID&CA few differences: LEED-BD&C LEED-ID&C Can Involve an Must Involve an Existing Building VS Existing BuildingInvolves Site Selection Involves Site and Design Selection Energy Model Energy Model Usually Needed Optional
  96. 96. LEED-BD&C vs. LEED-ID&CA few differences: LEED-BD&C LEED-ID&C Building Envelope Building Envelope CanMust Be Considered VS Be Ignored Furniture Can be Office Furniture Must Included in Calcs Be Included in CalcsMore Site, Water, and More Materials & Indoor Energy Credits Environ. Quality Credits
  97. 97. What is LEED-CS?LEED-CI is complemented by a third rating system,LEED-CS (Core and Shell.) LEED-CS covers thedesign and construction of the building envelope,systems and core. LEED-CS can only be used forprojects where the owner will occupy less than 50%of the leasable square footage.It is advantageous (but not necessary) for a tenantconsidering LEED-CI to choose a LEED certifiedbase building.
  98. 98. LEED-CS• LEED-CS is the only rating system under which a project can complete a precertification application. Precertification provides a great opportunity to market the proposed green elements of the project.• The project team details the strategies that will be used to pursue certification.• Once a successful preliminary review of the application has been made by GBCI, the project can advertise that it is pre-certified.• Precertification does not guarantee certification, and the project must still fulfill the certification requirements.
  99. 99. What is LEED for Existing Buildings O&M?LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations andMaintenance (LEED-O&M) is targeted towardsowners and operators and is applicable to buildingoperations, processes, systems upgrades, andminor space use changes. Oregon Convention Center, Portland OR, LEED-EB Certified
  100. 100. LEED-EB O&MLEED-EB O&M is targeted at singlebuildings that are 100% owner-occupied, though multiple-buildingprojects and single multi-tenantbuildings can potentially qualifyunder certain conditions.LEED-EB O&M is a whole-building Adobe HQ, San Jose CArating system; individual tenant LEED-EB Platinumspaces are ineligible.
  101. 101. LEED-BD&C, ID&C vs. LEED-EB O&M LEED-BD&C & LEED-EB O&M ID&C An Event An On-Going Process VSDesign & Construction Life of Building Capital Budgets Operating Budgets
  102. 102. LEED-EB O&MA LEED-EB O&M project team is significantlydifferent from a LEED-NC, CI, CS or Schoolsproject team.LEED-EB O&M team members generallyinclude: • Owner • Facility manager • Property manager • Building engineer • Groundskeeper
  103. 103. LEED for Schools• K-12 projects must use LEED for Schools• Other educational projects, including college projects, can use LEED for Schools or LEED-NC • LEED for Schools is applicable to both new construction and renovation projects • LEED for Schools is very similar to LEED-NC but has two additional prerequisites: 1) Environmental Site Assessment 2) Minimum Acoustical Performance
  104. 104. LEED for Neighborhood Development• LEED-ND certifies new developments that take into account sustainability and community connectivity principles and encourage smart growth.• The rating system is a joint effort of the USGBC, the Congress for New Urbanism and the Natural Resources Defense Council.• LEED-ND includes five credit categories: 1) Smart Location and Linkage 2) Neighborhood Pattern and Design 3) Green Infrastructure and Buildings 4) Innovation and Design Process 5) Regional Priority Credits
  105. 105. LEED for Homes• LEED for Homes is used for single-family detached and low-rise (3 stories or under) multifamily properties.• Owner or builder must work from the beginning of the project with a LEED for Homes provider to enter the program.• LEED for Homes providers manage teams of green raters who perform inspections and field testing and verify that LEED for Homes requirements have been met.
  106. 106. LEED for Homes• LEED-H has the same credit categories as the LEED 2009 rating systems, along with credits in three additional categories: 1) Innovation and Design Process 2) Locations and Linkages 3) Awareness and Education• LEED-H is based on a 136-point scale.• LEED-H includes a Home Size Adjustment provision that allows the number of points required for certification to be adjusted according to the size of the home and the number of bedrooms.
  107. 107. LEED for HomesLEED-H includes a durability planning prerequisitethat promotes high performance of the buildingenclosure and its components and systemsthrough appropriate design, materials selectionand construction practices. The durability planmust include the following: • Evaluation of durability risks • Incorporation of durability strategies into design • Implementation of durability strategies into construction • Third-party inspection of the implemented durability features
  108. 108. Sustainable Sites-LEED New ConstructionCredit # Credit Name # of Points SS Pr 1 Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Req SS C 1 Site Selection 1 SS C 2 Development Density & Community Connectivity 5 SS C 3 Brownfield Redevelopment 1 SS C 4.1-4.4 Alternative Transportation 12 SS C 5.1-5.2 Site Development 2 SS C 6.1-6.2 Stormwater Design 2 SS C 7.1-7.2 Heat Island Effect 2 SS C 8 Light Pollution Reduction 1 effects of erosion
  109. 109. Water Efficiency- LEED New ConstructionCredit # Credit Name # of Points WE P1 Water Use Reduction, 20% reduction Req’d WE C 1 Water Efficient Landscaping, Option 1 2-4 Reduce by 50%, Option 2 (In addition to option 1) No potable use or no irrigation WE C 2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies 2 WE C 3 Water Use Reduction, 30% reduction 2-4 Water Use Reduction, 35% reduction Water Use Reduction, 40% reduction
  110. 110. Energy & Atmosphere-LEED New ConstructionCredit # Credit Name # of Points EA Pr 1 Fundamental Bldg Systems Commissioning Req EA Pr 2 Minimum Energy Performance Req EA Pr 3 Fundamental Refrigerant Management Req EA C 1 Optimize Energy Performance 19 EA C 2 On Site Renewable Energy, 2.5, 7.5, 12.5% 7 EA C 3 Enhanced Commissioning 2 EA C 4 Enhanced Refrigerant Management 2 EA C 5 Measurement and Verification 3 EA C 6 Green Power 2
  111. 111. Materials & Resources- LEED New ConstructionCredit # Credit Name # of Points MR Pr 1 Storage and Collection of Recyclables Req MR C 1.1 Bldg Reuse, Maintain 55%,75%, 95% of Existing walls, floors and roof 1-3 MR C 1.2 Bldg Reuse, Maintain 50% Interior Non-Structural Elements 1 MR C 2 Construction Waste Management, Divert 50%, 75% 1-2 MR C 3 Materials Reuse, Specify 5%, 10% 1-2 MR C 4 Recycled Content, Specify 10%, 20% (post consumer + ½ post 1-2 industrial) MR C 5 Regional Materials, 10%, 20% Extracted, Processed, & Manufactured 1-2 Regionally MR C 6 Rapidly Renewable Materials 1 MR C 7 Certified Wood 1
  112. 112. Indoor Environmental Quality LEED New ConstructionCredit # Credit Name # of Points EQ Pr 1 Minimum IAQ Performance Req EQ Pr 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Req EQ C 1 Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring 1 EQ C 2 Increased Ventilation 1 EQ C 3.1 Construction IAQ Management Plan, During Construction 1 EQ C 3.2 Construction IAQ Management Plan, Before Occupancy (N/A 1 Core & Shell) EQ C 4.1 Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives & Sealants 1 EQ C 4.2 Low-Emitting Materials, Paints & Coatings 1 EQ C 4.3 Low-Emitting Materials, Flooring Systems 1 EQ C 4.4 Low-Emitting Materials, Composite Wood & Agrifiber 1 EQ C 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control 1 EQ C 6.1-6.2 Controllability of Systems Lighting & Thermal Comfort 2 EQ C 7.1-7.2 Thermal Comfort – Design, verification 2 EQ C 8.1-8.2 Daylight and Views 2
  113. 113. LEED Credits – Innovation in Design 5 pointsID C 1.1 Innovation in Design (To Be Determined by Project Team) 1ID C 1.2 Innovation in Design (To Be Determined by Project Team) 1ID C 1.3 Innovation in Design (To Be Determined by Project Team) 1ID C 1.4 Innovation in Design (To Be Determined by Project Team) 1ID C 2 LEED Accredited Professional 1 Exemplary Performance
  114. 114. LEED Certification Process Registration Developing Documentation Certification Submission Review Process Certification Awarded
  115. 115. LEED Certification Process: RegistrationSTEP 1: Project Registration• You must create a user name and password to log in into LEED On-line• GBCI accounts are free• Registration suggested during design phase• Gain access to resources - LEED On-line - CIR databases (only pre-LEED 2009 CIRs)• Online project listing – can be confidential• Insurance against future rule changes• USGBC member discount ($900 members/$1200 non-members)
  116. 116. What is LEED Online?LEED Online is the online certification processthat allows project teams to work collaborativelyto organize, calculate and submit the technicaland scientific data required to earn certification.Project teams can download Adobe PDF credittemplates that contain easy-to-use data fields formost of the information required fordocumentation. Existing instruments of service—like CAD drawings and energy modeling data—can be uploaded to LEED online to fulfilladditional documentation requirements.
  117. 117. LEED Online • Letter template completed for every credit • Upload supporting documentation
  118. 118. Tips from the Pros• LEED-Online provides an opportunity for project teams members to manage their project and the credits required and pursued.• LEED credit templates provide project teams the means of compiling information and managing communication between team members and GBCI.
  119. 119. LEED Certification Process: DocumentationSTEP 2: Documentation• During design and construction, team completes paperwork to document LEED compliance• Using LEED On-Line -Invite Team Members -Assign/Manage Roles -Assign Credit Responsibilities -Complete Requirements -Internal Review -Submit for Certification•Use same user name and password
  120. 120. LEED Certification Process: SubmittalSTEP 3: Certification Submission• Team submits documentation to GBCI• Two options: Two-phase submission: 1) after design completed and 2) after construction completed One submission: after construction completed
  121. 121. LEED Certification Process: SubmittalSTEP 3: Certification Submission Two-stage submission (design & construction): • Design credits can be submitted earlier in the project. • Design credits can also be ―deferred‖ and documentation submitted with construction submission.
  122. 122. LEED Certification Process: SubmittalSTEP 3: Certification Submission • Regardless of the approach, the Project Administrator pays the appropriate fee and submits the credits for review. Certification fees are based on rating system and size of project. • For the construction phase submittal, a project team is required to submit all credits that are being pursued that were not submitted for design. • For two-stage submissions, the team can also include any new design credits they are attempting with the construction submittal.
  123. 123. LEED Process: Review Process• After design submission review, credits are designated either:  Anticipated  Denied• The reviewer can request any number of clarifications after both the design and construction reviews
  124. 124. LEED Process: Review Process• After construction submission review, credits are designated as either:  Earned  Denied
  125. 125. Certification ApplicationRequirements of the certification application:• The selected rating system• LEED registration information• Project contact• Project type • LEED submittal templates• Project size and supporting• Number of occupants documentation• Usage type • CIRS requested for this• Date of substantial project completion • Drawings and photos• Project narrative • Payment of fees• LEED project checklist
  126. 126. LEED Process: Review ProcessLEED projects are reviewed by one of 10 certificationbodies that are accredited to ISO standard 17021.The LEED certification bodies are: • ABS Quality Evaluations, Inc. • BSI Management Systems America, Inc. • Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. • DNV Certification • Intertek • KEMA-Registered Quality, Inc. • Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance Inc. • NSF-International Strategic Registrations • SRI Quality System Registrar, Inc. • Underwriters Laboratories-DQS Inc.
  127. 127. LEED Resources – LEED Online Registration Things to keep in mind: Documentation• Items posted to LEED Online do not Certification go directly to the USGBC. Review Process• Items posted can be removed and LEED-NC Project edited; they are not final. LEED Online Register Project• For each credit, the template needs to Invite Team Members be completed. Assign Responsibilities Complete Requirements Internal Review Submit for Certification
  128. 128. LEED Resources – LEED Online Things to keep in mind: Registration Documentation• The LEED calculator(s) does not need to be uploaded as it is often Certification incorporated into the template in Review Process some form. LEED-NC Project• For each credit, additional LEED Online documentation that is required is Register Project listed. If there is any other Invite Team Members documentation you want to add Assign Responsibilities (such as a narrative), you may also Complete Requirements upload additional documents. Internal Review Submit for Certification
  129. 129. LEED Review Process1) Project submitted for review by Project Administrator Registration Documentation2) Within 25 days business days, USGBC issues document noting Certification credits earned, clarify or denied. Review Process LEED-NC Project3) Project team has 25 days to provide corrections and/or additional supporting documentation to credits marked as ―clarify‖ and resubmits to USGBC.
  130. 130. LEED Process Registration4) USGBC has 15 days to review the Documentation resubmitted credits and return a final Certification review, which lists credits as either Review Process ―earned*,‖ ―anticipated**‖ or ―denied.‖ LEED-NC Project5) Project team has 25 days to accept or appeal final review. Appealed credits will be reviewed and be either ―earned‖ or ―denied.‖6) Complete* or 2nd cycle** *One-stage submission process **Two-stage submission process
  131. 131. Completion of LEED Process Registration Documentation Certification Review Process LEED-NC Project
  132. 132. Questions? http://www.nexusboston.org/
  133. 133. GREEN BUILDING 101 FOR CONTRACTORSGreen Credentials & Training
  134. 134. LEED AP CredentialingIn June 2009, a new three-levelLEED-AP tier system wasintroduced: • Tier I—LEED Green Associate • Tier II—LEED AP • Tier III—LEED AP FellowThere are now eligibilityrequirements for all levels of theexam in addition to credentialingmaintenance requirements.
  135. 135. LEED Green AssociateTier I—LEED Green Associate: • Demonstrates knowledge and skill in understanding and supporting green design, construction and operations • Primarily for employees at companies and organizations supporting LEED (non-technical fields of practice) • Must pass 2-hour Green Associates exam (100 multiple choice questions) • Biannual educational maintenance requirement of 15 hours
  136. 136. LEED Green AssociateRequirements for taking LEED Green Associateexam: • Demonstrate or document involvement in support of LEED projects—either from drop- down menu or in narrative • Be employed in sustainable field of work or engaged in or completing an education program that addresses green building principles (GBCI will accept a certificate of completion or an official transcript).
  137. 137. LEED Green Associate Exam Requirements Candidates are required to: • Agree to the Disciplinary Policy • Agree to the Credentialing Maintenance Program Biannual educational maintenance requirement of 15 hours (3 of these hours must be LEED specific) • Submit to an application audit (5- 7% of candidates)
  138. 138. LEED Green Associate FeesCosts involved with the LEED Green Associatecredential: • $50 application fee • Exam fee (per exam appointment): $150 for USGBC National Members and full- time students $200 for all others • Credentialing maintenance fee: $50 every 2 years
  139. 139. LEED AP with SpecialtyTier II—LEED AP: • Extraordinary depth of knowledge in green building practices and specialization in a particular field: –Commercial building design and construction –Commercial operations and maintenance –Commercial interior design and construction –Residential design and construction –Neighborhood development • Must pass 2-hour exam (100 multiple choice questions) • Biannual educational maintenance requirement of 30 hours
  140. 140. LEED APRequirements for taking LEED AP exam: • Document work on at least one LEED project within the last 3 years, with verification through LEED-Online or employer attestation • Submit to application audit
  141. 141. LEED APCosts involved with the LEED AP credential(specialty exam only): • $100 application fee • Exam fee (per exam appointment): $150 for USGBC National Members $250 for non-members • Credentialing maintenance fee: $50 every 2 yearsAny additional specialty exam is $150 for USGBCNational Members per exam appointment and$250 for non-members per exam appointment, plusthe application fee
  142. 142. LEED AP FellowTier III—LEED AP Fellow: • LEED AP fellows enter an elite class of leading professionals who are distinguished by their years of experience • Involves peer review of portfolio • Fellows contribute to the standards of practice and body of knowledge for continuing improvement in the green building field
  143. 143. LEED Green Associate Exam• The exam tests broad knowledge of sustainable design principles and basic understanding of LEED rating systems and other LEED resources.• 100 multiple choice questions• Exam scores range from 125 to 200. Candidates must achieve a minimum score of 170 to pass the exam and earn the LEED Green Associate credential. (Note that the scaled score is neither the number of items correct nor percentage correct.)
  144. 144. LEED Green Associate ExamComputer Format: • Ability to mark questions to review once finished • Can move back and forth between questions • Review test before final submission to be scored • Provides score immediately after (5 min. to process)
  145. 145. LEED Green Associate Exam• The Green Associates exam tests:  Knowledge of what LEED is  Knowledge of the process through which buildings become certified  Knowledge of administrative processes, including registration and certification  Familiarity with terminology  Potential strategies for achieving sustainability goals  How to be involved with and support other LEED project team members
  146. 146. HER= Home Energy Rater•A Home Energy Rater is accredited Energy Residential homes are scored using the HERSRater Training organization. A rater index HER= Home Energyconducts onsite inspections, typically Raterincluding a blower door test (to test theleakiness of the house) and a duct test (totest the leakiness of the ducts).•The organizations are listed on theResidential Energy Services Network’s(RESNET) website athttp://www.resnet.us/programs/training/directory.aspx•Residential Energy Services Network’s(RESNET) websitehttp://www.resnet.us/about
  147. 147. HER= Home Energy Rater•A Home Energy Rater is accredited by an Residential homes are scored using the HERSEnergy Rater Training organization through index HER= Home Energyan examination. Rater•A rater conducts onsite inspections,typically including a blower door test (to testthe leakiness of the house) and a duct test(to test the leakiness of the ducts).•The organizations are listed on theResidential Energy Services Network’s(RESNET) website athttp://www.resnet.us/programs/training/directory.aspx•Residential Energy Services Network’s(RESNET) websitehttp://www.resnet.us/about
  148. 148. Residental Energy Services Network (RESNET)EnergySmart Contractor/Builder•Complete an energy efficiency training course offered by a RESNET-approved training provider•Pass an exam administered by RESNETThe training program and examination have been designed to provide thecontractor/builder with a strong background in energy efficiency buildingand retrofits.Training and exam topics include:1. Principles of energy2. Cost-effective energy efficient practices3. The house as an inter-related system4. Combustion safety5. Order that work must be carried out for optimal safety and effectivenessResidential Energy Services Network (RESNET) http://www.resnet.us/
  149. 149. Building Performance Institute, Inc. (BPI)The Building Performance Institute offers a number of different exambased certifications:•Building Analyst•Envelope•Residential Building Envelope Accessible Areas Air Leakage ControlInstaller•Residential Building Envelope Whole House Air Leakage Control CrewChief•Manufactured Housing•Heating•Air Conditioning and Heat Pump•MultifamilyBuilding PerformanceInstitute, Inc.http://www.bpi.org/home.aspxTraining programs are offered through BPI affiliate trainers.
  150. 150. Questions? http://www.nexusboston.org/
  151. 151. GREEN BUILDING 101 FOR CONTRACTORSCommercial Green Building
  152. 152. Review of LEED Certification Process Registration Developing Documentation Certification Submission Review Process Certification Awarded
  153. 153. LEED CreditsPrimary Responsibility
  154. 154. Materials & Resources- LEED New ConstructionCredit # Credit Name # of Points MR Pr 1 Storage and Collection of Recyclables Req MR C 1.1 Bldg Reuse, Maintain 55%,75%, 95% of Existing walls, floors and roof 1-3 MR C 1.2 Bldg Reuse, Maintain 50% Interior Non-Structural Elements 1 MR C 2 Construction Waste Management, Divert 50%, 75% 1-2 MR C 3 Materials Reuse, Specify 5%, 10% 1-2 MR C 4 Recycled Content, Specify 10%, 20% (post consumer + ½ post 1-2 industrial) MR C 5 Regional Materials, 10%, 20% Extracted, Processed, & Manufactured 1-2 Regionally MR C 6 Rapidly Renewable Materials 1 MR C 7 Certified Wood 1
  155. 155. Construction Waste Management Implications and Opportunities
  156. 156. Construction Waste Management Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
  157. 157. Building Industry Waste: National Level• The EPA estimates more than 325 ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/ million tons of C&D debris in 2003*• Approximately 92% of all C&D waste is from renovation and demolition.**• Approximately 60% of building-related C&D materials end up in landfills.****RCRA in Focus: Construction, Demolition and Renovation, September 2004**Resource Venture Construction Waste Management Guide, September 2005***Source: Recover Your Resources: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction andDemolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects, USEPA, April 2008
  158. 158. Building Industry Waste: National Level• From 1992 to 1997, commercial new construction activity averaged 3.89 pounds of waste per square foot*• The number of C&D landfills is declining, which means fewer disposal options, greater hauling distances, and increased California Integrated Waste fuel consumption and Management Board vehicle emissions.*** Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the UnitedStates, June 1998** Source: Whole Building Design Guide
  159. 159. Building Industry Waste: MassachusettsMassachusetts produces significant volumes ofC&D debris. In 2002, EPA New England found that:• C&D debris accounted for 36 percent of all residential and commercial solid waste generated in Massachusetts*• C&D debris accounted for almost 50 percent of the states total commercial solid University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Facilities Services waste stream* *Source: EPA New England http://www.epa.gov/region1/solidwaste/cnd/
  160. 160. C&D Materials Programs: MassachusettsState and local governments in New Englandare working to divert this waste away from landdisposal by promoting the reuse and recycling ofC&D debris. Reducing C&D debris: • Conserves landfill space • Reduces the environmental impact of producing new materials • Reduces overall building project expenses through avoided purchase/disposal costs
  161. 161. C&D Materials Disposal Three conventional end sources for C&D waste: • Municipal solid waste landfills – Handle household waste – Subject to EPA landfill criteria • Incinerators – Combustion facilities • C&D landfills – Devoted exclusively to C&D materials – Approximately 1,900 C&D landfills* – Mostly regulated by state and local governments*Source: List of Industrial Waste Landfills and Construction and Demolition Waste Landfills,UPEPA, September 1994
  162. 162. Massachusetts C&D Disposal Measures: NowMassachusetts Department of EnvironmentalProtection (DEP) issued two measures:• Beyond 2000 Solid Waste Master Plan committed Massachusetts to an 88 percent reduction in C&D waste by 2010• C&D disposal and transfer ban on five materials effective July 1, 2006: – Asphalt paving – Brick – Concrete – Metal Powerscreen – Wood
  163. 163. Massachusetts C&D Disposal Measures: NowResults of the disposal ban: • MA first state to ban C&D waste • Increased recycling facilities –14 C&D processing facilities Roma Stone Corp. –3 asphalt recycling facilities –1 gypsum wallboard recycling facility • Currently more processing capacity than demand • Estimated 1.977 million tons of Wastecycle C&D waste in 2007.
  164. 164. Massachusetts C&D Disposal Measures: FutureAs the recycling markets for other materials grow, itis predicted that the Massachusetts C&D disposalban will be expanded. Areas to keep an eye on: – Gypsum wallboard – Ceiling tiles – Carpet National Gypsum Carpet Recycling UK
  165. 165. Emerging Issues• Few regions are experiencing a shortage of C&D landfill space. However, the increase in tipping fees (especially in the Northeast and the Northwest), regulations excluding C&D materials from landfills, the decline of the numbers of C&D landfills in the U.S. (26% fewer between 1990 and 2002*), and more rigorous standards for new landfill design, all suggest landfill disposal of C&D waste will be significantly more expensive in the future.*Source: Whole Building Design Guide
  166. 166. C&D Definitions• Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Results from construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, roads or other structures. It includes (but is not limited to) wood, concrete, drywall, masonry, roofing, siding, structural metal, wire, insulation, asphalt, and packaging materials related to construction or demolition.• ADC (Alternative Daily Cover): Cover material other than earthen material which is placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging.
  167. 167. C&D Definitions• Total Inbound Tons: The total tons of recyclable C&D waste, mixed C&D waste and non-recyclable C&D waste entering a receiving facility.• Mixed C&D Waste: C&D materials containing both recyclable and non- TSW Automation, Inc. recyclable materials that have not been source separated. C&D waste is considered to be mixed waste if it contains more than 10 percent but less than 90 percent recyclable C&D waste by volume.
  168. 168. C&D Definitions• Pure Loads of Recyclable C&D Waste: Loads of single or mixed types of recyclable C&D waste that contain at least 90 percent recyclable C&D waste materials by volume.• Commingled C&D: Pure loads of recyclable C&D waste that contain mixed types of recyclable materials stored in one on-site container, which is taken to a sorting facility where materials are separated for recycling. Non-recyclable material may not be placed in a commingled container.
  169. 169. C&D Definitions • Source-separated C&D Waste: A single kind of recyclable C&D waste material that has been separated from other C&D waste materials at the site of remodeling, repair, construction, demolition, or land clearing before it isHouston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) transported to a receiving facility.
  170. 170. Waste Prevention StrategiesPrevent waste from being generated in the firstplace. Architects and contractors can preventwaste during all phases of a project. • Use standard dimensions in the building design • Create less framing waste through techniques such as increased spacing of joists and studs and in-line framing ConstructionOwl.com
  171. 171. Waste Prevention Strategies • Use green building materials such as products with recycled content. • Consider used building materials. Most used building materials can be installed provided they do not act as structural components or Salvoweb otherwise compromise safety. Materials purchased at salvage yards are 10 to 50 percent of the cost of new materials.
  172. 172. Question: Why Develop A Waste Reduction Plan?Answer: To not pay twice Each time you throw away waste from a project, you are paying twice for materials: • First to buy them • And again to throw out what you don’t use Industrial Brokers Planning for waste reduction is the best way to save money and insure materials can be used most efficiently.
  173. 173. Construction Contract Components• Many contracts require the contractor to document their actual waste diversion performance throughout the project. The CWM Plan, therefore, should include progress reporting procedures to record actual diversion and cost. The Content Wrangler Community
  174. 174. Construction Contract Components• As the accepted Plan is a part of the contract document, it is often incorporated into the Contractors Quality Control and Owners Quality Assurance processes. Some public owners go so far as to specify that progress payments will not be approved until updated actual diversion performance reports are submitted. Livelymoney.blogspot.com
  175. 175. Construction Contract Components• Some contracts vest title to debris and waste materials to the contractor, and allow the contractor to accrue the economic benefits. These include cost avoidance through reduced debris tipping expenses, revenues from salvaged and recycled materials, and cost avoidance by using materials taken from the jobsite back into the project. Dealbreaker
  176. 176. Waste Reduction PlanningDevelopment of a Construction Waste ManagementPlan (CWMP) is critical. • Keep the plan simple. • Involve essential personnel in developing your plan. • Target materials with high potential for reuse and recycling. • Specify the methods to separate, store and collect materials. Make it as convenient as disposal, and protect materials from the elements or other damage.
  177. 177. Construction Waste Management PlanA successful plan should contain the followinginformation: • Name of individual(s) responsible for waste prevention and management • Waste recycling or reuse goals (estimated percentage of waste diverted by the plan) • Analysis of project waste: estimated material types and quantities • Actions that will be taken to reduce solid waste generation • List of specific waste materials to be salvaged and recycled
  178. 178. Construction Waste Management Plan• Description of the specific approaches to be used in recycling/reuse• Material handling procedures• Recycling facilities to be used. Waste cannot be sent to a facility that is not included in the plan.• Letters of certification from all facilities used• Identification of materials that cannot be recycled or reused• Name of landfill and the estimated costs, assuming no salvage or recycling
  179. 179. Construction Waste Management Plan• Identification of local and regional reuse programs• Information on how information will be communicated to the crew and subcontractors• Description of the regular meetings held to address waste management Boston Building Materials• Statement that hazardous Resource Center waste, soil and land-clearing debris are excluded from the calculations
  180. 180. Construction Waste Management Plan• Anticipated net cost or savings• Sample monthly recycling analysis report• The plan must be printed on the contractor’s letterhead; a plan on the waste hauling company’s letterhead is not acceptable.
  181. 181. To Sort or Not to Sort?Source Separation The source-separation of C&D materials on site for recycling is generally more cost-effective than disposal or commingled recycling and yields an average facility recycling rate of 90+ percent. Source-separation also helps create higher-end markets for recyclables, such as the manufacture of new recycled- content building materials. Whole Building Design Guide
  182. 182. Complexity vs. EconomicsRecycling Advantages DisadvantagesMethodSource • Higher • Multiple containersSeparation recycling rates on site • Lower • Workers must recycling separate materials costs; money for recycling paid for some • More complex materials logistics • Often a • Multiple markets; cleaner, safer more information to work site manage “Recycling C&D Wastes”, Institution Recycling Network
  183. 183. Complexity vs. EconomicsRecycling Advantages DisadvantagesMethodCommingled • Only one or two • LowerRecycling containers on site recycling rates • No need for • Higher workers to recycling costs separate materials for recycling • Easier logistics • One market; less information to manage “Recycling C&D Wastes”, Institution Recycling Network
  184. 184. Cost of Recycling, Boston Area Source: The Institution Recycling Network: http://www.wastemiser.com/costcomparisonchart.pdf
  185. 185. Summary of Key StrategiesPrevent ContaminationAdopt strategies to preventcontamination. • Clearly label the recycling bins and waste containers on site. • Post lists of recyclable and non- recyclable materials. • Conduct regular site visits to verify Houston-Galveston Area that bins are not contaminated. Council (H-GAC) • Provide feedback to the crew and subcontractors on the results of their efforts.
  186. 186. Recycling Databases: EPAwww.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/debris-new/bytype.htm
  187. 187. Recycling Databases: WBDG www.wbdg.org/tools/cwm.php
  188. 188. Recycling Database and More: WBDG www.wbdg.org/resources/cwmgmt.php
  189. 189. Recycling Databases, MA: Mass DEPwww.mass.gov/dep/recycle/reduce/managing.htm
  190. 190. Recycling Databases, MA: WasteCap RSD www.wastecap.org/wastecap/rsd2003/
  191. 191. Recycling Databases, MA: WasteCap RSD
  192. 192. Reuse Databases: Mass DEP www.mass.gov/dep/recycle/reduce/donation.htm
  193. 193. Regional Resources: Northeastwww.nerc.org/topic_areas/c_and_d.html
  194. 194. Regional Case Studies: Milford, MAMilford Fire Station • Consigli Construction • January 2003 • 83% C&D waste divertedMaterial Tons Recycling Cost Avoided Disposal Cost* SavingsAsphalt Paving 329 $790 $13,160 $12,370Concrete 192 $1,910 $7,680 $5,770Wood 1,26207 $0 $2,300 $2,300Metal 7.7 $5,279 $577 $298Cardboard 2.4 0 $180 $130Slate 18 0 $720 $720TOTAL 569.1 $2,979 $24,617 $21,638 Source: Mass DEP
  195. 195. Regional Case Study: Milford, MAClarke Distribution Corp • Consigli Construction • June 2004 • 98% C&D waste diverted Material Tons Recycling Cost Avoided Disposal Cost* Savings Ceiling Tiles 6 $625 $708 $83 Asphalt 970 $2,367 $114,460 $112,093 Concrete 1,267 $4,092 $149,506 $145,414 Metal 19 $785 $2,242 $1,457 Cardboard 0.86 $105 $101 (-$4) TOTAL 2,263 $7,974 $267,017 $259,043 Source: Mass DEP
  196. 196. Material Selection General Information
  197. 197. Embodied EnergyWhat is embodied energy?The quantity of energy required to manufacture,and supply to the point of use including: • Extraction • Assembly • Transportation • Installation • Manufacturing • Some definitions also include disassembly & removal
  198. 198. Embodied EnergyQuestion: Which of the following building materials commonly has the HIGHEST embodied energy? a. Brick b. Copper c. Aluminum d. Slate e. Glass
  199. 199. Embodied EnergyAnswer: Which of the following building materials commonly has the HIGHEST embodied energy? a. Brick b. Copper c. Aluminum d. Slate e. GlassSource: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs31.htm
  200. 200. Embodied EnergyGenerally, the more highly processed a materialis, the higher its embodied energy. Source: http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/yourhome/technical/fs31.htm
  201. 201. Embodied EnergyHow doesembodied energycompare withannual operatingenergy?The embodiedenergy in officebuildings can equalmore than 30 yearsof operating energyuse. Source: http://www.cmmt.csiro.au/brochures/tech/embodied/index.cfm
  202. 202. Life Cycle CostWhat is life cycle cost?The cost of a material over its entire life spanincluding: • First cost (manufacture & installation) • Operation • Maintenance • Cost of replacement • Disposal or salvage costs Whole Building Design Guide
  203. 203. BrainstormingWhat are some environmental considerationsin material selection?• Affordability • Materials Efficiency –Life cycle cost –Reuse & recycle –Dimensional –Cost of planning alternatives –Material• Embodied Energy management• Durability & • Resource Efficiency Maintenance
  204. 204. Brainstorming Additional environmental considerations in material selection are:• Indoor Air Quality • Energy Efficiency (IAQ) • Water Conservation – During construction – Initial occupancy • Toxicity & Pollution – Over time – In building – In ecosystem
  205. 205. ResearchWhere do you find green materials?• Sweets Green Collection www.construction.com/Sweets/GreenManufa cturers (by CSI division)• Sweets 3d Collection http://construction.com/Sweets/3Dmanufactu rers/Default.asp (by manufacturer) McGraw Hill Construction
  206. 206. Research
  207. 207. Materials and Resources Documentation A two-page Material Certification Data Sheet (MCDS) must be completed for every product/ material used on the project for credit.
  208. 208. Materials Reuse
  209. 209. Materials Reuse Salvoweb
  210. 210. Materials ReuseOption 1- 5% Salvaged, Refurbished or ReusedMaterialsOption 2- 10% Salvaged, Refurbished or ReusedMaterials Life Without Buildings
  211. 211. Materials ReuseIntent:Reuse building materials and products in order toreduce demand for virgin materials and to reducewaste, thereby reducing impacts associated withthe extraction and processing of virgin resources. Building Green Salvoweb
  212. 212. Materials ReusePotential Technologies and Strategies: • Identify opportunities to incorporate salvaged materials into building design and research potential material suppliers. • Consider salvaged materials such as: – Beams and posts – Flooring – Paneling – Doors and frames – Cabinetry and furniture Salvoweb – Brick and decorative items
  213. 213. Materials ReuseSources: • Purchased as salvaged • Donated as salvaged • Relocated from another facility Hednesford Reclamation - Includes facilities previously used by the occupantSynergies: • Regional Materials – salvaged materials from on-site and off-site can be included
  214. 214. Recycled Content
  215. 215. Recycled Content Hearlihy.com http://www.enviroglasproducts.com http://www.forbolinoleumna.com/
  216. 216. Recycled Content Option 1- 10% (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer) Recycled Content Option 2- 20% (post-consumer + ½ pre-consumer) Recycled ContentDurat recyclable tub with 50% recycled content/Trendir
  217. 217. Recycled ContentPost-Consumer vs. Pre-ConsumerMaterial generated by end- (Post-industrial) material divertedusers of the product from the waste stream during the manufacturing process. Excluded are materials capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it.
  218. 218. Recycled ContentRequirements:Use recycled content materials such that thesum of post-consumer recycled content plus halfof the pre-consumer content is at least 10% (or20% for two credits), based on cost, of the totalvalue of the project materials. RD4 Chair contains 100% recycled content/branchhome.com
  219. 219. Recycled ContentRules:1. 25% Steel Default: For steel products where no recycled content information is available, assume the recycled content to be 25% post- consumer. - Steel is the only material with a default - Steel items have a high recycled content (90%) Alibaba.com
  220. 220. Recycled ContentRules:2. Industrial Scrap: This credit excludes in-house waste from the definition of post-industrial recycled content as this would be considered conventional practice— ―Post-industrial recycled content is output from a process that has not been used as part of a consumer product, that is sold, traded, or exchanged under commercial terms (including auditable transactions between profit centers within an organization) as feedstock for another industrial process, that would otherwise be landfilled, incinerated or somehow disposed of as a waste, as defined by the Federal Trade Commission.‖
  221. 221. Recycled ContentRules:3. Recycling Range: Many companies provide a recycling content range, for example: ―Product X is made with 10-20% post- consumer recycled materials.‖ Without further documentation, LEED only allows the lower value of the range to be used.
  222. 222. Recycled ContentAssemblies:• Products composed of multiple materials• Determine percents of: – Post-consumer recycled content by weight – Pre-consumer recycled content by weight• No consideration given to relative costs Greener.Space
  223. 223. Recycled ContentConcrete Example:• Fly ash is a pre-consumer recycled content material• For concrete line item, enter 5% in pre- consumer column
  224. 224. Tips from the ProsTypical High-Cost Materials • Exteriors: The Financial Blogger – Structural steel – Concrete • Interiors: – Gypsum wall board – Acoustic ceiling tile – Carpet – Raised floor
  225. 225. Recycled ContentDocumentation for Initial LEED Submission:• LEED Online Letter Template• Tabulation of each material with recycled content used, including: – Description of the material – Vendor – Pre-consumer and/or post-consumer recycled content – Material cost
  226. 226. Recycled ContentDocumentation for LEED Review Comments:• Narrative describing any special circumstances• Supporting documentation – Cut sheets – Product literature (brochures) – Official statement from product manufacturer
  227. 227. Regional Materials
  228. 228. Regional Materials McGill Law School Flickr.com Production Cargo
  229. 229. Regional MaterialsOption 1- 10% Extracted, Processed &Manufactured RegionallyOption 2- 20% Extracted, Processed &Manufactured Regionally Social Rupture
  230. 230. Regional Materials Intent: Increase demand for building materials and products that are extracted and manufactured within the region, thereby supporting the use of indigenous RootsWeb resources and reducing the environmental impacts resulting from transportation.
  231. 231. Regional Materials Requirements: Use building materials or products that have been extracted, harvested or recovered, as well as manufactured, within 500 miles of the project site for a minimum of 10% (or 20% for two credits ), based on cost, of the total value of the projectPacific Southwest Concrete Alliance materials.
  232. 232. Regional MaterialsRules:1. Assemblies: For assemblies, if all the material sources are within 500 miles, use one line item in the table and state the greatest distance of the group. Otherwise, calculate the percentages of regionally and Rock Products, Inc. non-regionally extracted materials by weight.
  233. 233. Regional MaterialsRules:2. Recycled Materials: Recycled material obtained from a recycling facility within 500 miles is considered ―Regionally Extracted/Recovered‖.3. Salvaged Materials: If the material is salvaged within 500 miles (including on-site), it is considered ―Regionally Extracted/Recovered‖.
  234. 234. Tips from the ProsTypical High-Cost Materials: • Exteriors: – Structural Steel – Concrete – Masonry – Gravel & Fill California Bricks • Interiors: – Gypsum Wall Board – Raised Floor – Furniture Maispace
  235. 235. Regional Materials Make sure thisis set to ―Miles‖http://www.acscdg.com/
  236. 236. Regional MaterialsDocumentation for Initial LEED Submission:• LEED Online Letter Template• Tabulation of each regional material used, including: – Description of the material – Vendor – Material cost – Distance from product extraction and manufacture to site
  237. 237. Regional MaterialsQuestion:a) What is the current percentage of regionally extracted materials?b) If the target for this project is to spend $250,000 for local/regional materials, what dollar amount of materials still needs to be purchased regionally?
  238. 238. Regional MaterialsAnswer:a) 85% (3,225/3,789)b) $50,000 x .85 = $42,500 Target is $250,000. $42,500 x 6 batches = $255,000 – concrete alone could achieve this credit!Raw Materials Harvested Miles Weight MRc5 (weight)Sand Wilton, NH 45 1,200 1,200Stone Wilmington, MA 11 1,000 1,000Fly Ash Somerset, MA 67 750 750Water Wilmington, MA 11 275 275Cement Cleveland, OH 513 564 0 TOTAL 3,789 3,225
  239. 239. Rapidly Renewable Materials
  240. 240. Rapidly Renewable Materials Bamboo Revolution
  241. 241. Rapidly Renewable MaterialsWhat are some rapidly renewable building materials(made from plants harvested within a ten-year cycle orless)? Designbuild-network.com Inhabitat.com Cityfloors Global b2b Network
  242. 242. Rapidly Renewable Materials Intent: Reduce the use and depletion of finite raw materials and long-cycle renewable materials by replacing them with rapidly renewable materials.Germes Online
  243. 243. Rapidly Renewable MaterialsPotential Technologies and Strategies:Establish a project goal and identifyproducts/suppliers that can support this goal. Duringconstruction, ensure that the specified renewablematerials are installed. Consider materials such as:• Bamboo • Linoleum • Sunflower seed• Wool • Wheatboard • Kenaf• Cotton • Strawboard• Agrifiber • Cork NaiTazi.com
  244. 244. Tips from the Pros Denim insulation performs well for both acoustical and thermal applications. It’s available with or without foil facing. It also typically contains at least 90% post-industrial recycled content. Inhabitat.com
  245. 245. Certified Wood
  246. 246. Certified Wood Snowowl.com
  247. 247. Certified WoodIntent:Encourage environmentally responsible forestmanagement. Union College Department of Anthropology
  248. 248. Certified Wood Requirements: Use a minimum of 50% (by cost) of all wood- based materials and products which are Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified. Oikos Green Building Source
  249. 249. Certified WoodCommon wood materials:• Structural framing• General dimensional framing• Flooring• Sub-flooring• Wood doors• Finishes Wisconsin Green Building Alliance
  250. 250. Certified WoodRules:1. Wood cost only: Unlike the other material credits which are based on the total material cost for the project, this credit only considers the total cost of all wood items so as not to penalize projects with small amounts of wood. http://silentparagon.blogspot.com/
  251. 251. Certified Wood
  252. 252. Certified Wood
  253. 253. Indoor Environmental Quality
  254. 254. LEED Credits - IEQ 15 pointsEQ Pr 1 Minimum IAQ Performance ReqEQ Pr 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control ReqEQ C 1 Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring 1EQ C 2 Increased Ventilation 1EQ C 3.1 Construction IAQ Management Plan, During Construction 1EQ C 3.2 Construction IAQ Management Plan, Before Occupancy 1EQ C 4.1 Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives & Sealants 1EQ C 4.2 Low-Emitting Materials, Paints & Coatings 1EQ C 4.3 Low-Emitting Materials, Carpet Systems 1EQ C 4.4 Low-Emitting Materials, Composite Wood & Agrifiber 1EQ C 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control 1
  255. 255. Construction IAQ Management Plan During Construction
  256. 256. Construction IAQ Management PlanDuring ConstructionIntent:Reduce indoor air quality problems resultingfrom the construction/renovation process inorder to help sustain the comfort and well-beingof construction workers and building occupants. OMWorkspace
  257. 257. Construction IAQ Management Plan During ConstructionRequirements:Develop and implement an IndoorAir Quality (IAQ) Management Planfor the construction and pre-occupancy phases of the buildingas follows: PEATC1. During construction, meet SMACNA IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings under Construction, 2007, Chapter 3.
  258. 258. Construction IAQ Management Plan During ConstructionRequirements:2. Protect stored on-site or installed absorptive materials from moisture damage. Pursuing Wabi engadget

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