Design For Durability
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Design For Durability

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Design For Durability Design For Durability Presentation Transcript

  • The Green Roundtable and Design for Durability Paul Marquis – 4-24-08 paul@greenroundtable.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Green Roundtable Consulting, education, training and strategic planning to create healthy environments by integrating principles of sustainability into mainstream planning, design and construction. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Objectives Answer the following questions: - Why are durable structures greener? - How does durable design integrate with other design strategies - What are the key design principles in creating durable structures - What are some specific strategies we can employ? - What are the economics of creating durable structures? The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Why build green? Building green: • Reduces the ecological footprint of the building • Creates a safer and healthier indoor environment • Saves on utility expenses • May improve property resale value • May increase affordability • Typically results in a more durable, maintenance-free structure • Provides security/ passive survivability • Reduces our dependence on foreign oil The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The three prime movers (in order): • Economics- Reducing energy cost/ protecting the bottom line • Health- Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for one’s family & oneself • Personal impact- Addressing the greater good- minimizing environmental footprint 5 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Defining green building: The effective and responsible integration of the built environment into the natural world to protect natural resources and ensure healthy and comfortable indoor environments 6 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • What makes it green? • Low embodied energy (entire lifecycle) • Minimizes impact on wildlife habitat, green space, waterways, etc • Minimizes depletion of natural resources • Poses minimal harm to humans during its manufacture, transport, installation, end-use or disposal The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Underlying all: Scale Scale Scale The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Consider this: The average size of a U.S. single-family house has increased by 33% since 1975. At the same time average family size has decreased. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • What is embodied energy? The quantity of energy required to manufacture, and supply to the point of use including: • Extraction • Assembly • Transportation • Installation • Manufacturing • Some definitions also include: Disassembly & Removal The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The LEED Credit Categories Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation & Design Process The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Cornerstones of green building (structure itself) Site Site Site Site 12 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • How green is it? • The “no-build” option is always the greenest way • Smaller is greener • More efficient material resources use is better • The more durable (in use) & maintenance free the better The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • General strategies: • Minimize impact on building sites/ area • Incorporate energy efficient design details • Create a high-performance building envelope • Use energy-efficient lighting, equipment & appliances • Employ water conservation strategies • Employ natural daylighting techniques • Create comfortable & healthy indoor environments 14 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Keys to success • Careful design • Using a systems approach- viewing the structure and all elements as integrated system • Early planning • Using a team approach between owners, design professionals and code officials, and bringing everybody together early in the process The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Economic realities Up front costs or first-costs of green building are often greater than conventional building That doesn’t need to be the case! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Justifying increased up-front costs Making the case for reduced Life-Cycle Cost or Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): • Green buildings usually use less energy to operate than their conventional counterparts • Green buildings are typically more durable & maintenance-free due to the application of sound principles of building science • There are typically additional benefits that help to warrant the increased cost The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Managing costs- Labor vs. materials Take advantage of marginal cost of installing higher quality materials- e.g. adding more durable materials/ systems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Consequences of ignoring durability • Early failure of systems • More intensive maintenance routines • Reduced indoor environmental quality • Increased cost of ownership • Reduced resale value • Aesthetic issues The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Why is durable design greener? • Fewer replacement cycles • Simplified maintenance routines • Healthier indoor environments The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for Durability- Key principles • Respect site & local climate • Direct water away from the structure • Create a weather-resistant shell • Manage interior moisture • Choose durable materials • Simplify maintenance The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for Durability- strategies • Avoid siting structures at bottom of hills, in low-lying or flood-prone areas, or generally, areas w/ poor drainage characteristics • Design for local wind & seismic conditions • Avoid complicated designs w/ many intersecting planes • Reduce envelope penetrations, esp. in roof • Use good flashing details • Use adequate roof overhangs • Employ double-shell or rain-screen designs The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for Durability- strategies, cont. • Reduce air movement through envelope • Provide adequate ventilation • Direct water away from foundation/ structure • Effectively design/ manage site vegetation • Familiarize occupants w/ proper maintenance routines The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Climate/ topo maps • http://www.nrel.gov/gis/maps.html- Solar, Wind resources •Topographical maps: http://store.usgs.gov/scripts/wgate/ZWW20/!?~langua ge=en&~theme=GP&OSTORE=USGSGP&~OKCOD E=START • Asst maps: http://maps.massgis.state.ma.us/massgis_ viewer/index.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Durability: Low-hanging fruit • Minimize roof penetrations • Incorporate overhanging roofs • Maintain proper grading & ground clearances • Keep vegetation away from structure • Use well-designed wall sections The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • What kills “stuff” • Moisture and associated problems (e.g. mold, rot) • Sunlight (UV) • Temperature extremes • Friction • Mechanical damage • Exceeding something’s mechanical capacity • Critters The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The prime suspect: Water The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Ways that water moves into a building • Gravity • Capillary (wicking) action & surface tension • Air movement (wind driven moisture) • Condensing water vapor • Hydrostatic pressure The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Preventing water from entering a building • “Be the drop of water” • Adequately direct water away from structure(s) in first place • Appropriately lap building materials; start at bottom! • Provide capillary breaks like drip channels & air gaps • Adequately seal gaps & penetrations The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Roof/ site drainage Good drainage • Reduces water infiltration • Reduces conditions favorable to structural pests • Reduces frost heaves against foundation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Roof/ site drainage • Provide adequate clearance (6-8” min) between siding and grade • Make sure your downspouts discharge a minimum of 4 feet from the foundation (5 – 6 ft ideally) • Don’t run downspouts (& basement window wells) into foundation drain system! • Discharge foundation drain pipes ‘to daylight’ where possible • Install gutter screens/ hoods The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Creating a weather-resistant shell • Choose ‘effective’ roof style • Minimize intersecting planes • Minimize roof penetrations • Provide adequate overhangs • Understand that outermost roof & wall finishes are typically only first line of defense • Use good flashing details • Provide good drainage planes/ ventilation cavities The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • An important note about process: Make shell weather tight ASAP! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for Durability- Roof structures • Hip roofs generally better than simple gable roofs The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability – Roof plane integrity • Minimal roof penetrations- use side venting, run along sides of house, etc. • Use AAVs (air admittance valves) instead of stack vents (where permitted by code) • Use direct-venting high-efficiency heating/ hot water • Use TDDs instead of skylights The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Skylights also more likely to contribute to summer overheating and winter heat loss. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Sky tube (TDD) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability – Overhangs Effective overhangs: • Protect the walls from precipitation • Protect wall finishes from UV • Help to direct water away from the structure • May facilitate attic ventilation • May help to minimize ice dams • Provide summer shade to reduce unwanted solar gains The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability – Effective flashing details • Provide flashing wherever two or more building planes meet, at margins of roof and around openings in shell • Common flashing materials: Aluminum, zinc, copper, galvanized steel, bituminous tape • Install water/ ice shields at roof margins (better to use on entire roof??) • Install ‘crickets’ or saddles behind chimneys & other large roof structures • Use step-flashing where appropriate • Caulking should not be used as flashing substitute! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
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  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Rain-screen wall The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability - Materials • Use materials and products appropriate to task- e.g. pressure-treated lumber, corrosion-resistant fasteners, UV-resistant finishes, etc. • Always use products in manner intended- e.g. proper temperature range, humidity; don’t overload, etc. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Characteristics of durable exterior finishes • Moisture resistant • Decay resistant • UV resistant • Wind & impact resistant • Fire resistant • Minimal maintenance requirements • Easy to replace The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Some durable siding options • Fiber cement -HardiPlank -Certainteed WeatherBoard • Masonry • Vertical-grain bevel siding • Eastern white cedar not bad if back-primed • Stucco The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Some durable roofing options • Clay tile • Metal • Slate • Faux slate, shakes, etc made from recycled plastics or rubber • Fiber-cement • Also, cedar shakes if from sustainable wood source & installed properly The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Some roofing examples • Ecostar- www.ecostarinc.com • Authentic Roof- www.authentic-roof.com • Interlock- www.interlockroofing.com • Naturals- www.naturalsroofing.com • Natural slate a fairly sustainable option • Note: Some of these given high marks based on durability more so than recycled content The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Some decking options • Composite • Ipe, if from sustainable source • Vertical-grain lumber; douglas fir, hemlock, etc.; look for FSC ceretified • Pressure treated if maintained properly • Cedar & redwood not typically sustainable (usually from old-growth forests) • Torrefied lumber (see www.purewood.net) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability – Exterior finishing details • Always seal or back prime backside of wood siding, trim, etc. (DON’T back prime fiber-cement siding) • Seal end grain of all exterior wood, even if pressure treated (w/ boiled linseed oil or paint) • Use water-shedding design details, such as slopes, bevels, overlaps, etc. • Maintain adequate ventilation in and around exterior trim where appropriate • Use drip-channels, drip edges & capillary breaks where appropriate • Glue shingle tabs at roof edges The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Painting/ caulking tips • Proper prep is critical- clean, sand, remove loose material as necessary • Clean surfaces thoroughly; remove mildew; can pressure wash, but be judicious! • Prime all raw wood before painting or caulking • Never paint if temperature is below 45 deg or above 85 deg, or there is excess humidity • Use proper brush- generally synthetics for latex, natural bristle for oil paint • Follow manufacturers recommendations for coverage; latex paints are often applied too thinly • Use ‘backer-rod’ where appropriate The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability - Vegetation • Keep overhanging vegetation to a minimum • Keep plantings immediately adjacent to the foundation to a minimum; maintain adequate clearance (18 – 24” & allow for additional growth) • Vegetation like vines attached to trellis-work rather than being allowed to grow on structure The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability- Foundations/ Basements • Avoid basements altogether! Favor pier foundations, FPSFs, etc. • Favor monolithic construction • Insulate & waterproof • Provide adequate foundation drainage • Ventilating basements & crawl spaces in summer may be a bad idea! • Never install carpeting or wood floor finishes directly on top of concrete floors The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • This usually better… The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • …than this. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Detail basement insulation correctly The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Frost-protected Shallow Foundations • Improves thermal performance • Reduce excavating expense • Reduce material expense • Reduce site impact • Implied approval in code: MA CMR 5403.1.4.1 Note: Local code officials may be resistant to approving The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability- Structural elements • Use engineered joists to minimize deflection • Engineered I-beam joists have pre-perforated punch-outs for plumbing/ mechanicals • Use drywall clips to minimize corner cracking • Use construction adhesive: - Increases strength - Minimizes squeaks - Provides additional air sealing • Use hurricane ties & anchor straps The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Laminated-veneer lumber (LVL) – stiffer & stronger The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Rafter (“hurricane”) ties The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Good Wall Sections/ Building Envelope The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Building envelope, definition All of the elements of a building that separate and isolate the unconditioned outdoor environment from the conditioned indoor environment. This may include walls and wall finishes, roofs and roof finishes, doors, windows, skylights and basement floors and walls. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Key Principle- Saving home energy As a general rule, for the average home/ homeowner, the greatest energy savings will be achieved through managing the demand side of the equation, rather than the supply side. In other words, you’ll get better bang for your buck through energy conservation measures, like insulating & minimizing air infiltration, than incorporating expensive renewable energy systems such as wind and solar. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Building envelope, functions • Protect structural elements and interior of structure from weather, esp. moisture • Help to maintain proper thermal regime within structure • Help to maintain proper humidity regime within structure • Prevent infiltration of outside air and contaminants • Acoustically isolate interior of structure from outside noise • In essence, act as ‘membrane’ for the structure The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Building envelope failure • Air leaks leading to: -Infiltration of unconditioned air/ Drafts -Direct escape of conditioned air to outside -Infiltration of outdoor contaminants • Excessive accumulation of interior moisture in wall cavities causing structural/ insulation failure & mold • Excessive heat transfer from inside to outside • External water leaks leading to: -Damaged structural elements -Damaged interior finishes -Insulation failure -Damaged interior furnishings and appliances -Mold problems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Effective wall section design Good wall sections: • Reduce air infiltration • Provide good thermal (& acoustic) insulation • Are breathable • Provide drying to the outside, inside, or both • Reduce passage of potentially moisture-laden interior air into wall cavities • Reduce possibility of cavity temperature to drop below dew point temperature The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Building envelope components • Exterior finish- wood siding, vinyl siding, brick, etc. • Weather membrane/ air barrier/ drainage plane- building paper, Tyvek, Typar, etc. • Exterior sheathing- usually plywood or OSB • Wall/ ceiling cavities (inc. structural members & insulation) • Vapor retarders/ barriers • Doors & windows • Interior wall finish The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Codes and standards • Sixth edition of MA building code was officially superseded by 7th edition as of January 1st, 2008 • New MA energy code based on 2006 International Energy Conservation Code; more stringent • Better to follow Energy Star Homes or HERS guidelines for maximum energy efficiency and code compliance (see resources slide) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Housewrap to minimize air infiltration & protect from moisture The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Minimizing air infiltration (sealing building envelope) • Min .35 Air changes per hour (ACH) for good ventilation; max .50 for energy efficiency (Energy Star) • Seal obvious openings- pipe penetrations, attic scuttles, electrical receptacles, recessed lights, etc. • Openings to attic spaces are some of worst offenders • Any place where two building planes meet is good candidate for air sealing • For additions/ new construction, use exterior air barrier to minimize infiltration The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Some important points about insulation • Effectively used, can reduce condensation in wall cavities (e.g thick foamboard sheathing) • Some insulating materials can provide air sealing • Open-cell foam types (e.g. Icynene) are not as effective at reducing infiltration, and are not as moisture-resistant as closed-cell types • Even open-cell types can help to reduce cavity condensation by minimizing air leakage through interior wall finishes • Moisture in wall cavities can permanently destroy some insulation’s effectiveness (e.g. fiberglass batts) • Some closed-cell foams can marginally increase structural integrity The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Blower door test to measure air leakage The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Air leakage pathways The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Air leakage proportion through various pathways The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Attic hatches/ scuttles are a major leakage pathway The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • A commercial solution for attic openings See also www.efi.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Insulate header/ rim joists w/ rigid foam & expanding foam The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Seal joints between intersecting planes w/ expanding foam The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
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  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Air sealing, online product sources • efi.org • conservationtechnology.com The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Minimizing interior air leakage Why minimize air leakage through interior wall finishes? Remember that as the air flows, so too does the moisture that it carries The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Ventilation & Vapor Barriers Issues: • Moisture control as it relates to: -Mold potential -Structural failure -Insulation failure -Aesthetic issues • Indoor air quality (IAQ) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Vapor barriers • Prevent transfer (and accumulation) of internal moisture into wall/ ceiling cavities • Required by code; always on winter warm side of insulation in cold climates like N.E. • In this part of country, vapor retarders are generally better than vapor barriers; vapor retarders allow wall to dry from the inside as well as outside • Asphalt-impregnated kraft paper (as seen on fiberglass batts) is excellent vapor retarder • New ‘smart’ materials like Certainteed’s Membrain create variable vapor barrier The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Vapor barriers, cont. • Eliminating air leaks in inside wall finishes minimizes vapor transfer into wall cavities • For retrofit of vapor barrier (w/ blown-in insulation for instance), consider a vapor barrier paint The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Ventilation • It’s almost impossible to make an old house too tight • Even in a tight house a bathroom fan is generally enough to provide adequate ventilation; control w/ timer (and/or humidistat) • Control internal sources of excessive moisture • Provide dedicated combustion air sources for large combustion appliances like furnaces & fireplaces • Proper attic ventilation may extend life of roof and help to eliminate ice dams • Extremely tight houses may need heat-recovery or multi-port supply or exhaust ventilation systems The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Ventilation • Ventilating basements & crawl spaces in summer may be a bad idea! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Make sure bathroom fans vent to outside The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Other ventilation strategies • Heat recovery ventilators • Multi-port supply & exhaust ventilation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
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  • Ventilation baffle for rafter cavity insulation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Ductwork • Seal ducts; use duct mastic for this if possible, otherwise make sure duct tape is UL listed • Otherwise, moisture-laden air passing through ducts can leak into unconditioned spaces and condense (affects energy-efficiency too!) • Insulate ducts in unconditioned spaces; for cooling (A/C) ductwork, make sure insulation has external vapor barrier to minimize condensation • When insulating ducts in unconditioned basement, you may make basement too cold; insulate basement walls instead The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Bridging heat loss • Conductive heat loss through structural members • Eliminate with: -Double wall construction (very expensive!) -Foam skin -Cross-banding attic batt insulation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Bridging heat loss- snow melts over roof rafters The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Bridging heat loss caused wall-staining over structural members The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Thermograph to check heat loss through walls (insulation effectiveness) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • NFRC Label The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Considerations for Choosing Best-in-Class (a brief sampling) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • What makes it green? (in review) The jumping off point for all product classes: • Low embodied energy (entire lifecycle) • Minimizes impact on wildlife habitat, green space, waterways, etc • Minimizes depletion of natural resources (rapidly renewable, recyclable, etc.) • Poses minimal harm to humans during its manufacture, transport, installation, end-use or disposal The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Selection criteria: Materials • Efficiently uses energy & resources • Derived from rapidly renewable resources • Contains high recycled material content • Can be reused/ recycled at the end of it’s useful life • Can be down-cycled at the end of it’s useful life • Biodegradable The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Recycled Content Post-Consumer vs. Pre-Consumer aka Post-Industrial The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Lumber • Naturally decay-resistant • Resists checking, cracking, warping, etc. • From sustainably managed forests • Sourced locally • Easy to work with (milling, finishing, etc.) • Locally salvaged or salvaged from demo phase • Sawdust & natural volatiles non-toxic The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Engineered lumber/ composites • Moisture & mold resistant • Dimensionally stable, warp resistant • Accepts finish well • Good screw-holding characteristics • Made w/ low-VOC, formaldehyde-free adhesives • Contain recycled fibers or rapidly renewable fibers (FSC, GreanSeal, SCS, etc.) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Paints • Good coverage (minimal coats) • Durable- scrubbable • Easy touch-up (e.g. good color matching w/ old vs. new) • Do not pose a disposal hazard • Low or no VOC; low odor • Pose minimal occupational hazard during manufacture (meets ISO 14001, OSHA, etc) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Adhesives/ Sealants • UV resistant • Flexible (or not, depending upon application!) • Freeze-tolerant • Easy clean-up • Adequate ‘open time’ • Low or no VOC • Do not pose a disposal hazard The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Carpeting and Flooring • Abrasion, impact & moisture resistant (hard flooring) • Stain resistant • Mold resistant (carpeting) • Simplified installation (e.g. doesn’t require adhesive) • Requires minimal maintenance (cleaning, refinishing) • Easy sectional replacement (e.g. carpet tiles) • Formaldehyde-free • Made from rapidly renewable or recycled materials The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Exterior Decking • Requires a minimum of maintenance (sealers, etc.) • UV & fade resistant • Stable- resistant to checking & warping • Naturally decay resistant • Recyclable (all-plastic vs. composites like Trex) • Made from rapidly renewable or recycled materials The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Insulation • High thermal insulating characteristics! Good resistance to air infiltration (these may trump other factors if it can reduce embodied energy of structure enough) • Moisture/ mold resistant • Low flame-spread/ non-combustible • Formaldehyde free (e.g. binders in fiberglass batts) • High recycled content (fiberglass, cellulose, denim) • HCFC-free blowing agents (foam board) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Kitchen counters • Abrasion, heat, impact & stain resistant • Require minimal maintenance • Easily resurfaced • Minimal off-gassing from adhesives/ binders • Made from rapidly renewable or recycled materials • Mechanically fastened The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Exterior Siding • Weather resistant; UV resistant • Requires fewer paint/ refinishing/ repointing cycles • Easy to install/ repair • Breathable • Made from rapidly renewable or recycled materials The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Roofing • Wind & UV resistant; fire-resistant; impact resistant • Easy to repair • Low or no maintenance requirements • Made from rapidly renewable or recycled materials • High-reflectance (improves longevity, minimizes heat island effect, keeps building cooler in summer) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • HVAC & Plumbing Systems • Use demand pumps in DHW supply system (gothotwater.com); can extend life of water heaters • Use instantaneous hot water heaters (tankless) - Greater longevity than tank-type - No tank to leak! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Tankless water heaters • Cost more than standard water heaters but last longer • Direct-venting; e.g. can exhaust through wall • More choices as to location/ placement • Gas-fired typically more responsive and can provide needed capacity more effectively • Look for min. flow rates of 0.3 – 0.5 gal./min. • Save energy by eliminating standing heat loss (vs. conventional tank-style water heater); estimated savings 24 – 34% • Examples of brands: Rinnai, Noritz, Takagi The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Plumbing/ piping • Shut-off valves in supply pipes at every plumbing fixture and in every branch run • Adequate number and location of clean-outs in drain-waste-vent system • Stacked bathrooms to keep plumbing to a minimum • Use structured plumbing • Use PEX piping The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • PEX tubing for water supply piping • Facilitates structured plumbing; minimizes piping runs; shallow bends can improve delivery performance • Easier to install; less expensive w/ competent sub- contractor • Fewer notched joists! • More freeze-tolerant • Less embodied energy than copper • Less heat loss The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Green Practice: Effective Maintenance Routines The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Why good maintenance routines are green • Prevents premature failure; extends life, which means fewer resources used by avoiding replacement • Prevents failure of associated systems • Enhances or maintains operating efficiency • Reduces possibility of contamination/ toxics release; maintains IEQ • Reduces material sent to the waste stream The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Additional benefits • Aesthetics • Economics The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Maintenance Program • Get to know your home and its systems- perform a thorough inspection and get to know where everything is: shut-off valves, cut-off switches, breakers, etc. ahead of time • Clearly label valves, switches, breakers, etc, and create diagrams detailing their locations if necessary • Perform regularly scheduled follow-up inspections • Create a maintenance plan • Keep and maintain a maintenance log book (3-ring binder) • Hire a professional to perform routine inspections/ examinations if your are unsure about anything The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Key Maintenance Principles • Time is often critical; that’s why it’s important to know the locations of valves, switches, etc. • Little problems left unattended will often mushroom into much bigger problems, create secondary problems, etc • A little attention often goes a long way; don’t put it off; often things will fail only because they were ignored completely • Use materials and products appropriate to task- e.g. pressure-treated lumber, corrosion-resistant fasteners, UV-resistant finishes, etc. • Always use products in manner intended- e.g. proper temperature range, humidity; don’t overload, etc. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Design for durability/ Ease of maintenance • Access panels where appropriate • Floor drains in strategic locations (like near water heater) • Furnaces and basement appliances kept off floor on concrete pads • Lights in crawl spaces, attics, etc. • Permanent ladder tie-off points installed at strategic locations The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Seize opportunities • Never close off a wall without photographing or documenting the cavity spaces • Never close off a wall without adding access panels if appropriate • Never close off a wall before installing anticipated new services (cable runs, etc.) • Never re-install a door on it’s hinges without first lubricating the hinges or reassemble anything if there are additional maintenance opportunities The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Seize opportunities, continued • Employ ‘batch’ maintenance routines- for example, if you have the oil can out, lubricate everything that you can think of that may need lubrication • When performing maintenance/ repairs to a system or component, inspect all nearby systems/ components The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Basic steps in preventive maintenance • Know it! • Seal it! • Protect it! • Lubricate it! • Clean it! • Tighten it! • (Store it properly) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Good maintenance practices • Inspect your roof up close and personal at least once every season; check chimney too! Clear roof of moss and debris • Keep your gutters clean!! • Maintain proper grading around foundation • Keep a regular routine of spot touch-ups of siding and trim between major paint jobs; replace missing/ dried-up caulking too The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Good maint practices, cont. • Re-point brickwork as necessary • Keep shrubs trimmed away from house • Keep weeds from growing in pavement cracks • Fill pavement cracks w/ flexible sealer The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Defining green: Design resources • Building America- http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/ about.html • Environmental Building News/ Greenspec- http://www.buildinggreen.com) •http://www.austinenergy.com/Energy%20Efficiency/Progr ams/Green%20Building/Sourcebook/index.htm • Building Sciences Corporation- http://www.buildingsciences.com The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Measuring Green: Rating Systems • Energy Star Homes- www.energystar.gov • HERS (http://www.energy.ca.gov/HERS) • International Energy Conservation Code (IEEC)- http://www.iccsafe.org/ • LEED - www.usgbc.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Additional Resources GRT: www.greenroundtable.org Building Green: www.buildinggreen.com Energy Star: www.energystar.gov Charles River Watershed: www.crwa.org US Green Building Council: www.usgbc.org Renewable Energy: www.nrel.gov US DOE: www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ EPA: www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings Residential Green Building Guide: A Web Source Book for New England www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings NAHB: Model Green Home Building Guidelines: www.nahb.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • And don’t forget about NEXUS! • Upcoming workshops • Reference library • Samples library • Cyber Lounge • Online resources at nexusboston.com (in the pipeline) • Local green building community The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • Local Resources The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  • THANK YOU www.greenroundtable.org info@greenroundtable.org 617-374-3740 The Green Roundtable, Inc. (GRT) is an independent non-profit organization whose mission is to mainstream green building and sustainable design and become obsolete. We work toward this goal by promoting and supporting healthy and environmentally integrated building projects through strategic outreach, education, policy advocacy and technical assistance. Located in downtown Boston, NEXUS welcomes all to come ask questions, research topics, and attend tours and www.nexusboston.com events on green building and sustainable 38 Chauncy Street, Boston design innovation. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)