Case Study: Zero Net Energy and the Changing Shape of Architecture

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Join us as Finegold Alexander presents the study for the Lowell Trial Court, a 250,000 SF state courthouse designated by Gov. Patrick’s Zero Net Energy Building Task Force as one of three public demonstration projects addressing the challenge of designing public buildings to high sustainability standards.

The engineering components of the study involved proposals for energy reduction and on-site production, investigated through a multitude of computer models and cost-to-benefits charts and analysis. Architecture and architects must change. Architectural form is a critical element in achieving any sustainable goals, including zero net energy. This session will look at the Lowell Trial Court design process and the iterative schemes the team produced. We will discuss building massing, orientation, urban context and all the elements we always address in every project. Now we find our attitudes toward these traditional design criteria are influenced by the integration of sustainable design. Design for zero net energy caused this team to think and collaborate differently with consultants, client and user groups.

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  • The energy story is based on a methodical approach that has proven to be both life cycle cost effective and capable of achieving factor 4 (75%) or greater energy savings. It is summarized in the accompanying graphic, highlighting 6 steps of cumulative performance improvement. It is coupled with the operational carbon story in step 6 through the use of green power purchasing (equivalent in many respects to carbon trading).
  • Delete “option 3” bar
  • Concordia University, Canada Erlangen City Hall, Germany
  • Policy first Then Project Then…code/regulations Fall River LEED Silver Internal policy Mass LEED + Executive Policy Support by AOTC = comprehensive Justice Center Lowell EO 484 – Lead By Example – Govt role in leading the marketplace Reduce energy demand Generate renewable energy Reduce carbon emissions Established AOTC and DCAM Energy Teams
  • Case Study: Zero Net Energy and the Changing Shape of Architecture

    1. 1. Zero Net Energy and the Changing Shape of Architecture Case Study: Trial Court, Lowell, Massachusetts Governor’s ZNEB Task Force Demonstration Project
    2. 2. ZNE Definition <ul><li>“ A Zero Net Energy building is one </li></ul><ul><li>that is optimally efficient and, </li></ul><ul><li>over the course of a year, </li></ul><ul><li>generates energy onsite, </li></ul><ul><li>using clean renewable resources, </li></ul><ul><li>in a quantity equal to or greater than </li></ul><ul><li>the total amount of energy consumed onsite.” </li></ul><ul><li>Governor’s ZNEB Energy Task Force Report 3/11/09 </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Minimize Energy Use </li></ul>ZNE Design Challenges
    4. 4. <ul><li>Minimize Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Renewables </li></ul>ZNE Design Challenges
    5. 5. <ul><li>Minimize Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Architectural and Systems Designs at Concept Phase </li></ul>ZNE Design Challenges
    6. 6. <ul><li>Minimize Energy Use </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Architectural and Systems Designs at Concept Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Cost Analysis – First Cost vs Operating Cost </li></ul>ZNE Design Challenges
    7. 7. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul><ul><li>How to express program and energy on the exterior? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul><ul><li>How to express program and energy on the exterior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ZNE a moral imperative regardless of cost? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul><ul><li>How to express program and energy on the exterior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ZNE a moral imperative regardless of cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Can energy strategies have psychological impact? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul><ul><li>How to express program and energy on the exterior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ZNE a moral imperative regardless of cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Can energy strategies have psychological impact? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a “Demonstration Project” ? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul><ul><li>How to express program and energy on the exterior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ZNE a moral imperative regardless of cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Can energy strategies have psychological impact? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a “Demonstration Project” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the owner committed? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Philosophical Challenges <ul><li>Should building advertise it is ZNE? </li></ul><ul><li>How to express program and energy on the exterior? </li></ul><ul><li>Is ZNE a moral imperative regardless of cost? </li></ul><ul><li>Can energy strategies have psychological impact? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a “Demonstration Project” ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the owner committed? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the users be educated? </li></ul>
    14. 14. ZNE Buildings USA
    15. 15. Hawaii Gateway Energy Center, USA 2005 3,600 SF Ferraro Choi And Associates, Ltd.
    16. 16. Hawaii Gateway Energy Center, USA Ferraro Choi And Associates, Ltd.
    17. 17. Aldo Leopold Legacy Center, WI 2007 11,900 SF The Kubala Washatko Architects, Inc.
    18. 18. A J Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, OH 2000 13,600 SF William McDonough + Partners
    19. 19. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Research Support Facility, CO 2010/2011 222,000 SF RNL Design with Stantec
    20. 20. SUPERGREEN OUTSIDE USA
    21. 21. BREEAM , UK Environmental Assessment Method for Buildings Around The World 110,000 buildings certified over 500, 000 registered for certification
    22. 22. Salisbury Law Courts, UK 2009 40,700 SF Stride Treglown/ Fielden and Mawson
    23. 23. Salisbury Law Courts, UK Stride Treglown/ Fielden and Mawson
    24. 24. Salisbury Law Courts, UK Stride Treglown/ Fielden and Mawson
    25. 25. Leeds Metropolitan University, UK 2007 110,600 SF GWP Architecture Ltd
    26. 26. G park Blue Planet, UK 2008 382,000 SF Chetwoods Architects
    27. 27. Zero Net Emissions Development, Wallington, UK 2002 82 units + 27,000 SF of offices The ZED Factory Ltd
    28. 28. PASSIVHAUS, Germany Passivhaus Institut Darmstadt (PHI) quality criteria for Passive Building : Annual heating requirement ≤ 15kWh/(m²a) Primary energy consumption ≤ 120kWh/(m²a) Air tightness for building envelope n50 ≤ 0.6/h
    29. 29. PASSIVHAUS, Germany Existing Buildings New Buildings Passive Building
    30. 30. 2009 2010 Pasivhaus Award – 1 st prize Multi family house, Switzerland Halle 58 Architekten
    31. 31. 2003 2,750 SF Office Building, Boladen, Germany oehler + faigle archkom
    32. 32. 2002 80,000 SF Energon Passive Office, Germany oehler + faigle archkom
    33. 33. Energon Passive Office, Germany oehler + faigle archkom
    34. 34. 2004 86,111 SF Primary School Frankfurt, Germany Architekten 4a
    35. 35. MINERGIE-P – Standard defines buildings with a very low energy consumption, (especially heating energy demand) Corresponds to the international passive –house standard. Some requirements: 10”-14” insulation, R=min 25 for walls, roof , floors. Switzerland
    36. 36. HOLINGER SOLAR OFFICES, BUBENDORF, CH 2004 6,700 SF 50% Thermal solar energy 50% Electrical water heater Solar Offices Bubendorf, CH F. Fregnan, FHBB, Muttenz
    37. 37. 2007 72,473 SF 80% Gas 20% Solar Thermal Sporthalle Ruti, CH Architekturbüro Beat Ernst
    38. 38. 2007 153,000 SF 100% GSHP Lager Umnutzung Store Albis, CH Stücheli Architekten AG
    39. 39. ZNE FUTURE BUILDINGS
    40. 40. Energy Tower by SOM, China 2011 2.3 million SF Wind turbines in mechanical floors
    41. 41. Burj Al- Taqa, UAE Eckhard + Gerber Architekten
    42. 42. Vision
    43. 43. Case Study of Courthouse
    44. 44. Supreme Court
    45. 45. Fall River Justice Center LEED Gold Pending
    46. 51. 100% ASHRAE Building 73% Fall River Justice Center <ul><li>Daylight in Courtrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Total Energy Wheels </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 Control of Fresh Air </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Speed Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Premium Efficiency Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Commissioning </li></ul>Fall River Justice Center Energy Reduction Strategies
    47. 52. Lowell Trial Court Zero Net Energy Building
    48. 58. <ul><li>Dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Access </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul>Lowell Trial Court Guiding Principles of Design
    49. 59. Lowell Trial Court 250 000 SF Program <ul><li>5 Court Divisions </li></ul><ul><li>16 Jury Courtrooms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Judicial & Jury Deliberation Suites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Jury Assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clerk & Probation Transaction Offices </li></ul><ul><li>Detainee Holding </li></ul><ul><li>Library, Grand Jury, District Attorney </li></ul><ul><li>Building and Court Support </li></ul>
    50. 60. <ul><li>Benchmark Research </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Energy Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred Energy Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Reduction Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy Strategies </li></ul></ul>Zero Net Energy Project Approach
    51. 61. Organizing Principles <ul><li>Courtrooms Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60’ </li></ul></ul>Circulation Zones <ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul></ul>
    52. 62. Various Courtrooms Configurations <ul><ul><li>2 courtrooms per floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 courtrooms per floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 courtrooms per floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 courtrooms per floor </li></ul></ul>
    53. 63. Proposed Configuration <ul><ul><li>4 courtrooms per floor </li></ul></ul>
    54. 64. <ul><li>Respond to urban context & site </li></ul><ul><li>Civic presence </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize Natural Daylight </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfill Program </li></ul>Design Objectives
    55. 66. Energy Cycle
    56. 67. Lowell Trial Court Energy Reduction <ul><li>Natural Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Façade Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Chilled Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and Artificial Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pumps </li></ul>
    57. 68. Energy Consumption with Proposed Systems Compared to Base 100% 100% 52% 0% 73% ASHRAE Based Building Fall River Trial Court Lowell Trial Court Energy Reduction 11,057 x10^6 BTU/Year 7,980 x10^6 BTU/Year 5,720 x10^6 BTU/Year
    58. 69. Renewable Options Considered <ul><li>Solar Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Photovoltaics </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuel Boiler </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuel CHP </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul>
    59. 70. <ul><li>Solar Wall 4 % $208,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Photovoltaics 6-17 % $2- $3.6m </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal 6 % $1.3 m </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuel CHP 52-64 % $500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuel Boilers 34-39 % $120,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower * 100 % no data </li></ul>Potential Savings Cost Renewable Options Considered
    60. 71. Options Considered
    61. 72. Lifecycle Costs
    62. 73. Lifecycle Costs
    63. 74. Renewable Energy
    64. 75. Preferred Options
    65. 76. Proposed Option 2E <ul><ul><li>36 % Renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Net Energy </li></ul></ul>
    66. 77. Lowell Trial Court Case Study <ul><li>Original Goal : LEED Silver </li></ul><ul><li>Revised Goal : LEED Platinum </li></ul><ul><li>Toward: Zero Net Energy </li></ul>
    67. 78. Basic Building Configurations & Siting <ul><ul><li>Less efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% More efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No impact </li></ul></ul>
    68. 79. <ul><ul><li>30º Rotation </li></ul></ul>
    69. 80. <ul><li>12 of 16 courtrooms with direct natural light </li></ul>Energy Reduction
    70. 82. <ul><li>12 of 16 courtrooms with direct natural light </li></ul><ul><li>2 of 3 double height public spaces - community gardens </li></ul>Energy Reduction
    71. 84. <ul><li>12 of 16 courtrooms with direct natural light </li></ul><ul><li>2 of 3 double height public spaces - community gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Lightwell in collegial suite - more integral </li></ul>Energy Reduction
    72. 86. <ul><li>12 of 16 courtrooms with direct natural light </li></ul><ul><li>2 of 3 double height public spaces - community gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Lightwell in collegial suite - more integral </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Façade Performance </li></ul>Energy Reduction
    73. 89. <ul><li>12 of 16 courtrooms with direct natural light </li></ul><ul><li>2 of 3 double height public spaces - community gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Lightwell in collegial suite - more integral </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Façade Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Chilled Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Source Heat Pumps </li></ul>Energy Reduction
    74. 91. Massing
    75. 92. Program
    76. 93. Program
    77. 94. Program
    78. 95. Program
    79. 96. Daylight
    80. 97. Air Circulation
    81. 98. Air Circulation
    82. 99. Energy Strategies
    83. 104. Community Court
    84. 105. The Learning Curve ZNE PLATINUM GOLD LEED SILVER MASS LEED+ CODE MIN. ‘ 98 2000 ‘ 02 ‘ 04 ‘ 06 ‘ 08 ‘ 10 ‘ 12 ’ 14 ‘ 16 ZNE Task Force Lowell Cthse Fall River ASHRAE 90.1 Today Stretch Code
    85. 106. “ You build with stone, wood, cement; You make houses, places: That’s construction .(..) Then suddenly you catch my heart, I’m happy and I say: that’s beautiful. That’s architecture .” Le Corbusier Le Poeme de l’angle droit, 1955
    86. 107. Sherman “Pat” Morss, Jr., AIA, LEED AP Associate Principal [email_address] Tony Hsiao, AIA, LEED AP Principal, Director of Design [email_address] Asia Dubiel, LEED AP Project Designer [email_address] Finegold Alexander + Associates 77 N Washington Street Boston MA 02114 (617) 227-9272 www.faainc.com Presenters

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