1
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The Green Roundtable
         and




    Introduction
         to
   Green Building
Green Roundtable




                                      Consulting, education, training
                               ...
Questions for tonight


 • What is the imperative of green building?
 • How do we define green building?
 • How do we crea...
Global Warming??



                                        5
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Even if you‟re a GW skeptic,
               here‟s the problem…




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 200...
Some sad realities….
Even if you don‟t believe that the global warming
threat is real, we are facing these certain realiti...
And if global warming is real…

• Crop failure on a massive scale
• Increases in drought frequency
• Deadly heat waves
• R...
On a more local or personal level…

• Rapidly rising energy costs
• Escalating prices on consumer goods
• Blackouts/ brown...
Some sobering facts…




 The United States produces 25% of global
   greenhouse gas emissions. Americans
produce twice as...
Some sobering facts…




  Water tables are now falling in countries that
     contain over half the world‟s people




  ...
Some sobering facts…




There are currently 1,243 EPA Superfund sites
  on the National Priorities List and 60 more
     ...
Some sobering facts…




     The incidence of asthma has increased
  dramatically over the last 25 years in the U.S.
    ...
Some sobering facts…




 The EPA estimates that indoor air can be up
 to five times as contaminated with VOCs as
        ...
Some sobering facts…




      The EPA also reports that the airborne
    contaminants found in our homes are three
    ti...
Some sobering facts…




     Cancer clusters have been identified in
   some more-affluent communities and have
     been...
Some sobering facts…




      A 15-year study in Oregon concluded that
     women who work in the home have a 54%
     hi...
Some sobering facts…

China recently caught up to the United States
  in terms of overall energy consumption.

           ...
Some sobering facts…




   The U.S., with 5% of the worlds population,
  consumes more than a third of it‟s resources
   ...
Where do buildings fit in…

    Half of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come from
             buildings (construction/ oper...
22
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Additional housing sector facts…



 According to HUD, if Americans can reduce
 home energy use by 10% over the next ten
 ...
Additional housing sector facts…
There are more than 76 million residential
buildings in the USA today

Estimates of resid...
Food for thought….



                                           25
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 200...
26
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Perhaps the most sobering fact of all…




                                          27
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © ...
Yikes!


     It has been estimated that in order for
      the current population of the Earth to
       live at the same...
This we know…

           We live on a planet of finite natural resources


              We are currently using those res...
This we know…

 Energy prices are likely to trend in only one direction
for the foreseeable future! Most other resource pr...
Carbon Footprint




  The amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere as a
result of a given process, enterprise or activity...
The bottom line:




        As resource consumers, we all bear
               some responsibility!




                  ...
A solution:
                                      Green Building




                                                     ...
Defining green building:


The effective and responsible integration
 of the built environment into the natural
 world to ...
The primary key to success:

                                      MINDSET
  • Understanding that virtually everything tha...
Mindset

 Green Design and Construction is NOT:

 •          Applying „green‟ add on stuff



 Green Design and Constructi...
“Going beyond”

Much of the focus in green building is on how we can
  minimize harm to the natural world and human
   sys...
Keys to success

Maintaining an awareness throughout that all
products have life-cycle impacts will go a long
way toward h...
Keys to success

• Careful design

• Early planning

• Taking a systems approach

• Using a team approach between owners,
...
Keys to success: Integrated Design Process


          Goto:
          www.nexusboston.com/space/events/ar
          chive...
Mindset




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Why build green?
Building green:
• Reduces the ecological footprint of the building
• Creates a safer and healthier indoor...
“The Triple Bottom Line”

• People


• Planet


• Prosperity




                                      43
The Green Roundt...
The three prime movers (in order):

• Economics- Reducing energy cost/ protecting the
bottom line

• Health- Maintaining a...
What makes it green?

• Low embodied energy (entire lifecycle)

• Minimizes impact on wildlife habitat, green space,
water...
What is embodied energy?

The quantity of energy required to manufacture, and
supply to the point of use including:




  ...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
General strategies:

• Minimize impact on building sites/ area

• Incorporate energy efficient design details

• Create a ...
Underlying all:



          Scale
          Scale
           Scale




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable...
Consider this:




   The average size of a U.S. single-family
 house has increased by 33% since 1975. At
    the same tim...
How green is it?

• The “no-build” option is always the greenest way


• Smaller is greener


• More efficient material re...
Measuring green: Design Standards


• LEED - www.usgbc.org

• Energy Star Homes - www.energystar.gov

• Home Efficiency Ra...
Measuring green: Design resources
• Building America-
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/
about.html
• ...
Architects
                                           Product
                         Federal,          Manufacturer
 Bui...
2006:
                                                            642 million
                                            ...
• INSERT GRAPH FROM LEED
  BROCHURE HERE
                                  Launched in late „07




The Green Roundtable
(...
Additional construction costs




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The LEED Credit Categories

                                            Sustainable Sites


                              ...
More info on LEED & LEED Accreditation:


http://www.nexusboston.com/action/information_resources/
leed_at_a_glance.html

...
What is LEED?




                        LEED          Leeds
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Famous Green Buildings in the Area




                                            Boston Nature Center, Boston MA        ...
Cornerstones of green building (structure
itself)
              Site                    Site




              Site       ...
A sampling of strategies &
                       approaches




                                              63
The Gree...
General strategies:




                                      Energy




                                               64...
Energy: A green building key…



Improving energy efficiency might be
  considered the bedrock of green
              buil...
Energy: A green building key…




Since buildings are so energy-intensive
  in their construction, operation and
 maintena...
Energy: A green building key…



 A University of Michigan study demonstrated that
greater than 90% of the embodied energy...
Key Principle- Saving energy


 As a general rule the greatest energy savings will
be achieved through managing the demand...
Some potential exceptions:

    Exceptions to this may include passive solar, and
   situations where you qualify for a su...
General strategies:
• Incorporate energy efficient design details

• Create a high-performance building envelope

• Use en...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Preventing heat loss- building envelope

• Insulate

• Air seal (prevent infiltration)

• Use landscape features- vegetati...
Minimizing air infiltration
     (sealing building envelope)

• Min .35 Air changes per hour (ACH) for good
ventilation; m...
Building wrap to
                                      minimize air
                                      infiltration &
 ...
Blower door
test to
measure air
leakage




   The Green Roundtable
   (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Air leakage pathways
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Insulate header/ rim joists w/ rigid foam & expanding foam

The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Air sealing, online product sources


• efi.org


• conservationtechnology.com




 The Green Roundtable
 (copyright © Gre...
Insulating


• Resistance to heat flow (insulating ability) measured
in R-value; relative scale of effectiveness, and the
...
Insulating guidelines
• Go for low-hanging fruit- e.g. add more attic
insulation first if it is accessible and is not well...
Bridging heat loss caused wall-staining over structural members

The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Windows
• Typical heat loss through windows about 20%

• Performance measured in “U-value”; inverse of R-
value; measure o...
NFRC Label




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Windows

• Used „tuned” glazing strategies

• E.g., Use windows w/ low SHGC on west-facing
windows; high SHGC on south-fac...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Green Practice:
                       HVAC/ Plumbing/ Lighting




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 200...
High-efficiency heating

• Choose Energy Star!

• “Right-size” systems using analysis tools (Manual J)
rather than rule-of...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
High-efficiency heating

• Closed-cycle, condensing-type boilers and furnaces
are more efficient; they extract additional ...
HVAC & Plumbing Systems

• Use zoned heating
• Use demand pumps in DHW supply system
(gothotwater.com)
• Use heat recovery...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Tankless water heaters

• Examples of brands: Rinnai, Noritz, Takagi
• Gas-fired typically more responsive and can provide...
Ductwork

• Move duct runs into conditioned spaces (thermal
envelope) if possible

• Seal ducts; use duct mastic for this ...
Lighting strategies

• High-efficiency lighting (CFLs, LED, etc)

• Zone lighting

• Solar landscape/ parking lot lighting...
Appliances

• Buy Energy Star!


• Specify horizontal axis washing
machines-They can have fast payback
because they save w...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
General analysis tools

A general list of tools offered by the U.S. Department of Energy
are available over the web at:
ht...
Online Business Energy Analyzer (Keyspan)

www.freeenergyanalysis.com/KeySpanbusiness




 The Green Roundtable
 (copyrigh...
General strategies:




                                      Materials




                                              ...
A new paradigm:




                           The Cradle-to-Cradle Lifecycle
   See McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry
...
Old Cradle to Grave Model: Linear flow




 Materials
extraction/                                Mfg/
harvesting          ...
Cradle to Cradle: Cyclical, Regenerative


                                      End Use




                             ...
Selection criteria: Materials

• Efficiently uses energy & resources

• Derived from rapidly renewable resources

• Contai...
Selection criteria: Materials

• Biodegradable

• Locally sourced

• Poses minimal harm in production, use, disposal

• Ec...
Recycled Content




Post-Consumer                         vs.   Pre-Consumer
                                            ...
Points to remember

• It may be difficult to determine the best-in-class
for a product category

• Determining most import...
The Precautionary Principle


 Precautionary Principle: "When an activity raises
      threats of harm to human health or ...
Some things we may want to write off:

• Vinyl-based products

• Products containing heavy metals like arsenic

• Products...
3rd Party Resources for Judging Products

• Online green product databases (e.g. GreenSpec)

• Certification organizations...
Online resources


• Environmental Building News/ Greenspec-
http://www.buildinggreen.com


•http://www.austinenergy.com/E...
Product Certification

• GreenSeal (www.greenseal.org)




• Scientific Certification Systems
(www.scscertified.com)




•...
Product Certification

• Green Label (http://www.carpet-rug.org/) (2nd party)




• Forest Stewardship Council (http://www...
Green Seal Product Categories

• Anti-Corrosive Paints (GC-03)**
• Commercial Adhesives (GS-36)
• Compact Fluorescent Lamp...
Green Seal Product Categories

• Paints (GS-11)**
• Powdered Laundry Bleach (GC-11)
• Printing and Writing Paper (GS-07)
•...
Software tools




                                                       118
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roun...
A sampling of software tools

• BEES 4.0
(http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/software/bees.htm)
• Pharos (http://www.healthybuil...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
PHAROS




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
General strategies:

• Choose materials that produce minimal off-gassing

• Use salvaged materials whenever possible
• Loo...
Last but not least:

         Effectively manage construction waste

  Reduce construction waste in the first place by
emp...
General strategies:




                                      Water




                                              124
...
General strategies:

• Use low-flow & automatic fixtures

• Use dual-flush toilets & waterless urinals (or “micro-flush”)
...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
www.gothotwater.com

                                        127
  The Green Roundtable
  (copyright © Green Roundtable 20...
Gray water

• Collected from drain-waste-vent system other than
toilets, dishwashers & kitchen sinks with garbage
disposal...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Gray water: A direct approach




http://www.gaiam.com/product/eco-home-outdoor/energy-
efficient-climate-control/energy-s...
MWRA- A water conservation resource




               Order a free water saving kit at:
           www.mwra.com/04water/h...
Water conservation resources

•http://www.mwra.com/comsupport/conservation/
gardeningtips.htm

• www.waterwiser.org

• www...
General strategies:




                                      Durability




                                             ...
Consequences of ignoring durability

• Early failure of systems

• More intensive maintenance routines

• Reduced indoor e...
Why is durable design greener?

• Fewer replacement cycles


• Simplified maintenance routines


• Healthier indoor enviro...
General strategies:

• Keep it small, keep it low to minimize maintenance

• Avoid complicated designs w/ many intersectin...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
General strategies:

• Use products suited to climate & conditions

• Incorporate protective design elements like
overhang...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Design for durability – Overhangs

Effective overhangs:

• Protect the walls from precipitation

• Protect wall finishes f...
General strategies:




                                      IEQ




                                            141
The ...
General strategies:

• Minimize indoor pollutants

• Provide adequate ventilation

• Allow occupant control of comfort

• ...
Skylights may contribute to summer overheating
                     and winter heat loss.
The Green Roundtable
(copyright ...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Sky tube (TDD)




 The Green Roundtable
 (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
General strategies:




                                      Site




                                             147
Th...
General strategies:
Goals:
• Minimizing heat urban island effect

• Effectively managing stormwater (LID)

• Conserving wa...
Stormwater management

Effective stormwater management can:

• Assure effective groundwater recharge

• Minimize flooding ...
Stormwater Mgmt: Strategies

• Slow water down/ retain on site

• Increase permeability of ground surfaces

• Minimize soi...
Approaches
• Minimize building footprint & „hardscaping‟
• Use light-colored roof finishes & pavement
• Use water-retainin...
Slowing down/ retaining stormwater




Retention Pond                           Bioswale/ Raingarden   Vegetated Buffer

 ...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Cistern




                    Drywell




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Permeable surface options

• Brick/ masonry pavers

• Gravel

• Stabilized soil/ stone dust

• Recycle rubber paver mats/ ...
Permeable surface options




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Permeable surface options



Gravel driveways &
walkways: Simple,
low-cost, effective!




   The Green Roundtable
   (cop...
Permeable surface options




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Permeable surface options




„Drivable grass‟




    The Green Roundtable
    (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Permeable surface options




   See www.rubbersidewalks.com

The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Green roofs

• Can provide stormwater management

• Reduce urban heat islands

• Help to minimize global warming by conser...
Green roofs




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Modular green roof system




See:
http://www.liveroof.net/ &
http://www.westonsolutions.com/pdf_docs/B-D066-
GreenGrid.pd...
Green roofs


• Properly designed, can pay for themselves in 10 –
15 years via reduced energy cost

• Especially effective...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Stormwater mgmt resources
• http://www.unh.edu/erg/cstev/

• http://www.mapc.org (email lid@mapc.org)

• http://nemo.uconn...
Rainwater collection
• For 1000 sq ft roof area, 15 – 25,000 gallons of
rainwater can be collected annually in Eastern sta...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
See www.conservationtechnology.com &
http://www.wattsradiant.com/rainwater/?t=professional%20rainwater

   The Green Round...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The simplest
approach to
collecting
rainwater




          http://www.cleanairgardening.com/33galrainbar.html


  The Gre...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Xeriscaping (low-water-landscaping)
• Major principles:
       -Making maximum use of available precipitation
       -Sele...
Landscaping- The single best thing you can do:




                                       LOSE THE LAWN!!!




 The Green ...
The trouble with turf
Lawn maintenance routines create multiple threats to
the environment through:

• Heavy fertilizer re...
The Low-impact landscape




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Minimizing light pollution




                                      Source: International Dark Sky Association




The Gr...
“BAD” FIXTURES




Flood Light                                                  Cobra Head
If used as in the picture.     ...
Residential accent lights
can be some of worst
offenders; they can be
energy wasters too




The Green Roundtable
(copyrig...
“GOOD” FIXTURES




            Box Design.
 Can have round, cylindrical or
other shape head. Receded bulb                ...
Resources

For a examination of some of the issues, and and an
example of zoning restrictions on outdoor lighting see:
htt...
Additional considerations:
• Maintaining IAQ during the construction process
      - Effective isolation of work areas
   ...
Dust collector
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Portable dust
                         collector




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Plastic barrier w/ zippers;
see example at:
www.protectiveproducts.com/
zipwall.html




    The Green Roundtable
    (cop...
Construction waste management (CWM)

• Include a CWM plan in the project docs

• Minimize waste by employing good design
p...
Construction waste management
• See http://www.carpetrecovery.org/index.php and
http://www.nps.gov/sustain/spop/carpet.htm...
Construction waste management

• Drywall recycling (new scrap):
GYPSUM RECYCLING AMERICA (GRA)
www.gypsumrecycling.us
135 ...
Construction waste management


• Donate or harden (kitty litter or commercial product)
used latex paint


• Use curbside ...
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
Key words/ terms
• Ecological or environmental footprint
• Embodied energy
• Life-cycle impacts
• Rapidly renewable
• VOC‟...
We have a choice……




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
We have a choice……




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
...to shape the future
Excerpt: Scientific
     American
    (Sept. 2006)
„A choice between
    two futures‟




      The...
Resources
          GRT: www.greenroundtable.org
          Building Green: www.buildinggreen.com
          Energy Star: ww...
And don‟t forget about NEXUS!


 • Upcoming workshops
 • Reference library
 • Samples library
 • Cyber Lounge
 • Online re...
Local Resources




The Green Roundtable
(copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
THANK YOU
                              www.greenroundtable.org
                             info@greenroundtable.org
    ...
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Basics Of Green Building

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Covers the fundamentals of residential green building. Topics include fundamentals of life-cycle analysis, energy conservation as the foundation of green building, energy & resource efficient design details, the fundamentals of building envelope design, more environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional building materials, water conservation and design for durability. The discussion will also cover the basics of project planning, green building economics, including rebate & incentive programs, and maintaining indoor air quality during the construction process. Time permitting, there will be a brief discussion of construction waste management and Universal Design. This program is intended for homeowners and professionals alike, and no prior construction experience is required.

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Basics Of Green Building

  1. 1. 1 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  2. 2. The Green Roundtable and Introduction to Green Building
  3. 3. Green Roundtable Consulting, education, training and strategic planning to create healthy environments by integrating principles of sustainability into mainstream planning, design and construction. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  4. 4. Questions for tonight • What is the imperative of green building? • How do we define green building? • How do we create green buildings? • How do we measure green? • What do I do next? The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  5. 5. Global Warming?? 5 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  6. 6. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  7. 7. Even if you‟re a GW skeptic, here‟s the problem… The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  8. 8. Some sad realities…. Even if you don‟t believe that the global warming threat is real, we are facing these certain realities: • Ozone depletion • Air & water pollution • Destruction of worlds forests & green spaces • Species & biodiversity loss • Acid rain • Collapse of world‟s fisheries • Fresh water scarcity • Topsoil loss; Soil contamination 8 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  9. 9. And if global warming is real… • Crop failure on a massive scale • Increases in drought frequency • Deadly heat waves • Rising sea levels/ coastal flooding • Increased frequency & duration of storm activity • Expansion of desert areas • Increases in disease vectors 9 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  10. 10. On a more local or personal level… • Rapidly rising energy costs • Escalating prices on consumer goods • Blackouts/ brownouts • Water shortages • Supply chain interruptions • More frequent economic losses due to increased storm intensity & flooding 10 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  11. 11. Some sobering facts… The United States produces 25% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Americans produce twice as much per person than other industrialized nations 11 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  12. 12. Some sobering facts… Water tables are now falling in countries that contain over half the world‟s people 12 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  13. 13. Some sobering facts… There are currently 1,243 EPA Superfund sites on the National Priorities List and 60 more proposed (as of 3/20/07) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  14. 14. Some sobering facts… The incidence of asthma has increased dramatically over the last 25 years in the U.S. and other industrialized nations. 14 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  15. 15. Some sobering facts… The EPA estimates that indoor air can be up to five times as contaminated with VOCs as outside air. 15 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  16. 16. Some sobering facts… The EPA also reports that the airborne contaminants found in our homes are three times more likely to cause cancer than the pollutants outside The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  17. 17. Some sobering facts… Cancer clusters have been identified in some more-affluent communities and have been attributed to chemically-intensive landscape management practices 17 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  18. 18. Some sobering facts… A 15-year study in Oregon concluded that women who work in the home have a 54% higher death rate from cancer than women who work outside the home The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  19. 19. Some sobering facts… China recently caught up to the United States in terms of overall energy consumption. India isn‟t far behind. The U.S. & Canada are still the per capita leaders by far 19 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  20. 20. Some sobering facts… The U.S., with 5% of the worlds population, consumes more than a third of it‟s resources and over a quarter of its energy resources. 20 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  21. 21. Where do buildings fit in… Half of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions come from buildings (construction/ operation) Buildings account for nearly half of the total energy use in the United States Buildings represent the single largest energy consumer in the U.S., followed by the transportation sector 21 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  22. 22. 22 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  23. 23. Additional housing sector facts… According to HUD, if Americans can reduce home energy use by 10% over the next ten years (a doable number!), it will be the energy equivalent of 40 new power plants (600 Mw) and the greenhouse gas equivalent of 25 million vehicles The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  24. 24. Additional housing sector facts… There are more than 76 million residential buildings in the USA today Estimates of residential energy consumption as a proportion of the nation‟s total energy load range from around 20 – 40% From 2000 to 2005, winter heating costs for natural gas increased by 115%, oil by 135%, and electricity by 18% The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  25. 25. Food for thought…. 25 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  26. 26. 26 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  27. 27. Perhaps the most sobering fact of all… 27 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  28. 28. Yikes! It has been estimated that in order for the current population of the Earth to live at the same quality of life as the industrialized nations, it would require the resources of four „Earth equivalents‟. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  29. 29. This we know… We live on a planet of finite natural resources We are currently using those resources at an unsustainable rate As a nation, the United States uses a disproportionate share of the world‟s natural resources 29 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  30. 30. This we know… Energy prices are likely to trend in only one direction for the foreseeable future! Most other resource prices are likely to follow the same trend These conclusions are rooted in simple physics, chemistry, biology and economics 30 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  31. 31. Carbon Footprint The amount of CO2 released to the atmosphere as a result of a given process, enterprise or activity (used to measure global warming potential) See: http://www.carbonfootprint.com/USA/calculator.html 31 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  32. 32. The bottom line: As resource consumers, we all bear some responsibility! 32 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  33. 33. A solution: Green Building 33 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  34. 34. Defining green building: The effective and responsible integration of the built environment into the natural world to protect natural resources and ensure healthy and comfortable indoor environments 34 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  35. 35. The primary key to success: MINDSET • Understanding that virtually everything that we consume has some kind of impact • Accepting accountability for that impact The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  36. 36. Mindset Green Design and Construction is NOT: • Applying „green‟ add on stuff Green Design and Construction IS: • Looking at what we do in a new way • More closely aligning natural and human systems • Don‟t limit discussion just to “green” The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  37. 37. “Going beyond” Much of the focus in green building is on how we can minimize harm to the natural world and human systems while creating the built environment Perhaps we can shift the focus to how the built environment can have a net positive impact on the natural environment & the human sphere of activity “Regenerative design” The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  38. 38. Keys to success Maintaining an awareness throughout that all products have life-cycle impacts will go a long way toward helping you to green your projects Taking a systems approach to project design and viewing the building holistically, with the understanding that any given element or system could have an impact on all others The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  39. 39. Keys to success • Careful design • Early planning • Taking a systems approach • Using a team approach between owners, design professionals and code officials, and bringing everybody together early in the process The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  40. 40. Keys to success: Integrated Design Process Goto: www.nexusboston.com/space/events/ar chived_events.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  41. 41. Mindset The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  42. 42. Why build green? Building green: • Reduces the ecological footprint of the building • Creates a safer and healthier indoor environment • Saves on utility expenses • May improve property resale value • May increase affordability • Typically results in a more durable, maintenance-free building • Provides security/ passive survivability • Reduces our dependence on foreign oil The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  43. 43. “The Triple Bottom Line” • People • Planet • Prosperity 43 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  44. 44. The three prime movers (in order): • Economics- Reducing energy cost/ protecting the bottom line • Health- Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for one‟s family & oneself • Personal impact- Addressing the greater good- minimizing environmental footprint 44 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  45. 45. What makes it green? • Low embodied energy (entire lifecycle) • Minimizes impact on wildlife habitat, green space, waterways, etc • Minimizes depletion of natural resources • Poses minimal harm to humans during its manufacture, transport, installation, end-use or disposal The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  46. 46. What is embodied energy? The quantity of energy required to manufacture, and supply to the point of use including: • Extraction • Assembly • Transportation • Installation • Manufacturing • Some definitions also include: Disassembly & Removal The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  47. 47. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  48. 48. General strategies: • Minimize impact on building sites/ area • Incorporate energy efficient design details • Create a high-performance building envelope • Use energy-efficient lighting, equipment & appliances • Employ water conservation strategies • Employ natural daylighting techniques • Create comfortable & healthy indoor environments 48 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  49. 49. Underlying all: Scale Scale Scale The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  50. 50. Consider this: The average size of a U.S. single-family house has increased by 33% since 1975. At the same time average family size has decreased The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  51. 51. How green is it? • The “no-build” option is always the greenest way • Smaller is greener • More efficient material resource use is better • The more durable (in use) & maintenance free the better • The lower the required operating energy, the better The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  52. 52. Measuring green: Design Standards • LEED - www.usgbc.org • Energy Star Homes - www.energystar.gov • Home Efficiency Rating System (HERS) - http://www.energy.ca.gov/HERS • International Energy Conservation Code (IEEC) - http://www.iccsafe.org/ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  53. 53. Measuring green: Design resources • Building America- http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/ about.html • Environmental Building News/ Greenspec- http://www.buildinggreen.com •http://www.austinenergy.com/Energy%20Efficiency/P rograms/Green%20Building/Sourcebook/index.htm •http://www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings/residential/pdfs/ guide07.pdf •DOE‟s High Performance Building Case Studies DB: http://eere.energy.gov/buildings/database The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  54. 54. Architects Product Federal, Manufacturer Building Local, s Owners and State Governments Nonprofit Planners Leaders USGBC Engineers Interior Financial Utility Designers Planners Landscape Managers Architects Building Tenants Property Code Managers Officials
  55. 55. 2006: 642 million square feet. Increase 2005: in LEED 500 million Projects square feet. 2004: More than 180 million square feet. 2003: More than 141 million square feet. 2002: More than 80 million square feet.
  56. 56. • INSERT GRAPH FROM LEED BROCHURE HERE Launched in late „07 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  57. 57. Additional construction costs The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  58. 58. The LEED Credit Categories Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation & Design Process The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  59. 59. More info on LEED & LEED Accreditation: http://www.nexusboston.com/action/information_resources/ leed_at_a_glance.html http://www.usgbc.org http://www.gbci.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  60. 60. What is LEED? LEED Leeds The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  61. 61. Famous Green Buildings in the Area Boston Nature Center, Boston MA Genzyme Center, Cambridge MA Forbes Lofts, Chelsea MA Macallen Building South Boston MA Manulife Building, Boston MA The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  62. 62. Cornerstones of green building (structure itself) Site Site Site Site 62 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  63. 63. A sampling of strategies & approaches 63 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  64. 64. General strategies: Energy 64 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  65. 65. Energy: A green building key… Improving energy efficiency might be considered the bedrock of green building The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  66. 66. Energy: A green building key… Since buildings are so energy-intensive in their construction, operation and maintenance, much of green design focuses on ways to moderate this energy consumption The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  67. 67. Energy: A green building key… A University of Michigan study demonstrated that greater than 90% of the embodied energy in a home is attributable to operating energy The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  68. 68. Key Principle- Saving energy As a general rule the greatest energy savings will be achieved through managing the demand side of the equation, rather than the supply side. In other words, you’ll get better bang for your buck through energy conservation measures, like insulating & minimizing air infiltration, than incorporating expensive renewable energy systems such as wind and solar. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  69. 69. Some potential exceptions: Exceptions to this may include passive solar, and situations where you qualify for a substantial rebate and/or credit for other renewable energy systems (keep in mind the embodied energy of systems though!) There are other compelling reasons to perform upgrades like this, such as reduced reliance on foreign energy resources, promotion of renewable energy & local industry, passive survivability, etc. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  70. 70. General strategies: • Incorporate energy efficient design details • Create a high-performance building envelope • Use energy-efficient equipment & appliances • Right-size heating & cooling equipment • Use energy-efficient lighting • Employ natural daylighting techniques • Incorporate renewable energy sources • Educate building occupants on use of systems! 70 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  71. 71. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  72. 72. Preventing heat loss- building envelope • Insulate • Air seal (prevent infiltration) • Use landscape features- vegetative shields, etc. • Address lifestyle issues • Best bang for buck (residential) through air sealing! Begin here! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  73. 73. Minimizing air infiltration (sealing building envelope) • Min .35 Air changes per hour (ACH) for good ventilation; max .50 for energy efficiency (Energy Star) • Seal obvious openings- pipe penetrations, attic scuttles, electrical receptacles, recessed lights, etc. • Openings to attic spaces are some of worst offenders • Any place where two building planes meet is good candidate for air sealing • For additions/ new construction, use exterior air barrier to minimize infiltration The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  74. 74. Building wrap to minimize air infiltration & protect from moisture The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  75. 75. Blower door test to measure air leakage The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  76. 76. Air leakage pathways The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  77. 77. Insulate header/ rim joists w/ rigid foam & expanding foam The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  78. 78. Air sealing, online product sources • efi.org • conservationtechnology.com The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  79. 79. Insulating • Resistance to heat flow (insulating ability) measured in R-value; relative scale of effectiveness, and the higher the R value, the better the insulating value • Code represents absolute minimum; newer code has more stringent requirements; tied to window area; R-49 ceiling, R-21 walls, R-30 floors, R-13 basement typical The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  80. 80. Insulating guidelines • Go for low-hanging fruit- e.g. add more attic insulation first if it is accessible and is not well insulated; Don‟t forget the basement! • Remember that insulation reduces cooling load as well! • Try to eliminate bridging (perimeter) heat loss through structural elements, as it greatly reduces overall insulation effectiveness • Look for additional opportunities to insulate (other than typical wall/ ceiling cavity insulation) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  81. 81. Bridging heat loss caused wall-staining over structural members The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  82. 82. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  83. 83. Windows • Typical heat loss through windows about 20% • Performance measured in “U-value”; inverse of R- value; measure of material‟s ability to conduct heat; the lower the U-value, the better • Look for U-value of .35 or less • Double-glazed, argon filled preferred; Diminishing returns with triple glazing • „Low-e‟ coating reflects heat back into structure • Always look for Energy Star & NFRC labels (energystar.gov; nfrc.org) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  84. 84. NFRC Label The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  85. 85. Windows • Used „tuned” glazing strategies • E.g., Use windows w/ low SHGC on west-facing windows; high SHGC on south-facing • Incorporate/ install overhangs & other shading devices where appropriate • Provide nighttime insulation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  86. 86. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  87. 87. Green Practice: HVAC/ Plumbing/ Lighting The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  88. 88. High-efficiency heating • Choose Energy Star! • “Right-size” systems using analysis tools (Manual J) rather than rule-of-thumb methods; a right-sized system can be up to 40% smaller than a conventionally-sized system • Make sure heating systems have Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) of at least 83% for oil- fired and 90% for gas-fired, and Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) of at least 13 for cooling systems • Boilers tend to have higher AFUE than furnaces The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  89. 89. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  90. 90. High-efficiency heating • Closed-cycle, condensing-type boilers and furnaces are more efficient; they extract additional heat from water vapor in flue gases • These systems often don‟t need conventional flue pipe, they can side vent, but they require a dedicated combustion air source (coaxial flue pipe) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  91. 91. HVAC & Plumbing Systems • Use zoned heating • Use demand pumps in DHW supply system (gothotwater.com) • Use heat recovery devices on DWV pipes (gfxtechnology.com) • Use instantaneous hot water heaters (tankless) • Use structured plumbing & PEX piping The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  92. 92. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  93. 93. Tankless water heaters • Examples of brands: Rinnai, Noritz, Takagi • Gas-fired typically more responsive and can provide needed capacity more effectively • Cost more than standard water heaters but last longer • More choices as to location/ placement • Direct-venting; e.g. can exhaust through wall • Look for min. flow rates of 0.3 – 0.5 gal./min. • Save energy by eliminating standing heat loss (vs. conventional tank-style water heater); estimated savings 24 – 34% The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  94. 94. Ductwork • Move duct runs into conditioned spaces (thermal envelope) if possible • Seal ducts; use duct mastic for this if possible, otherwise make sure duct tape is UL listed • Insulate ducts in unconditioned spaces; for cooling (A/C) ductwork, make sure insulation has external vapor barrier to minimize condensation • When insulating ducts in unconditioned basement, you may make basement too cold; insulate basement walls instead The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  95. 95. Lighting strategies • High-efficiency lighting (CFLs, LED, etc) • Zone lighting • Solar landscape/ parking lot lighting • Motion sensor outdoor lights • Timer switches on bathroom fans • Natural daylighting strategies • Dimmer switches, dimming ballasts, etc. (especially where natural daylighting employed) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  96. 96. Appliances • Buy Energy Star! • Specify horizontal axis washing machines-They can have fast payback because they save water as well as energy • Specify dishwashers w/ booster heater • Don‟t specify oversized AC equipment! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  97. 97. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  98. 98. General analysis tools A general list of tools offered by the U.S. Department of Energy are available over the web at: http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/subjects. cfm/pagename=subjects/pagename_menu=whole_building_analysis /pagename_submenu=load_calculation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  99. 99. Online Business Energy Analyzer (Keyspan) www.freeenergyanalysis.com/KeySpanbusiness The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  100. 100. General strategies: Materials 102 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  101. 101. A new paradigm: The Cradle-to-Cradle Lifecycle See McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry http://www.mbdc.com/c2c_home.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  102. 102. Old Cradle to Grave Model: Linear flow Materials extraction/ Mfg/ harvesting Processing End Use Disposal The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  103. 103. Cradle to Cradle: Cyclical, Regenerative End Use Demolition/ Re-Manufacture/ Removal/ Re-Processing Collection The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  104. 104. Selection criteria: Materials • Efficiently uses energy & resources • Derived from rapidly renewable resources • Contains re-used/ salvaged material • Contains high recycled material content • Can be reused/ recycled at the end of it‟s useful life • Can be down-cycled at the end of it‟s useful life The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  105. 105. Selection criteria: Materials • Biodegradable • Locally sourced • Poses minimal harm in production, use, disposal • Economics & environmental justice also important! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  106. 106. Recycled Content Post-Consumer vs. Pre-Consumer aka Post-Industrial The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  107. 107. Points to remember • It may be difficult to determine the best-in-class for a product category • Determining most important criteria can be very subjective • Certain greenness criteria may be more important/ applicable to some product classes than to others • A product may be green on some attributes but not on others • Need to be wary of so-called “green” resources sponsored by manufacturer associations 109 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  108. 108. The Precautionary Principle Precautionary Principle: "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. In this context the proponent of an activity, rather than the public, should bear the burden of proof." - Wingspread Statement on the Precautionary Principle, Jan. 1998 (http://www.sehn.org/wing.html) 110 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  109. 109. Some things we may want to write off: • Vinyl-based products • Products containing heavy metals like arsenic • Products containing halogenated fire-retardants • Products that emit excessive amounts of formaldehyde • Appliances that contain HCFC‟s and do not meet the standards referenced by LEED The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  110. 110. 3rd Party Resources for Judging Products • Online green product databases (e.g. GreenSpec) • Certification organizations (GreenSeal, FSC, etc.) • LCA software tools (BEES, PHAROS, etc.) • Manufacturer Material Safety Data Sheets • Other online databases like NIH hazardous materials database (http://householdproducts.nlm.nih.gov/index.htm) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  111. 111. Online resources • Environmental Building News/ Greenspec- http://www.buildinggreen.com •http://www.austinenergy.com/Energy%20Efficiency/Progr ams/Green%20Building/Sourcebook/index.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  112. 112. Product Certification • GreenSeal (www.greenseal.org) • Scientific Certification Systems (www.scscertified.com) • GreenGuard (www.greenguard.org) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  113. 113. Product Certification • Green Label (http://www.carpet-rug.org/) (2nd party) • Forest Stewardship Council (http://www.fscus.org/) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  114. 114. Green Seal Product Categories • Anti-Corrosive Paints (GC-03)** • Commercial Adhesives (GS-36) • Compact Fluorescent Lamps (GS-05)+ • Degreasers (GS-34) • Food Service Packaging (GS-35) • Green Procurement Criteria (GS-38)*** • Household Cleaners (GS-08) • Industrial & Institutional Cleaners (GS-37)# • Occupancy Sensors (GC-12) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  115. 115. Green Seal Product Categories • Paints (GS-11)** • Powdered Laundry Bleach (GC-11) • Printing and Writing Paper (GS-07) • Recycled Content Latex Paint Standard (GS-43) • Re-Refined Engine Oil (GS-03) • Tissue Paper (GS-01) • Windows (GS-13) • Window Films (GS-14) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  116. 116. Software tools 118 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  117. 117. A sampling of software tools • BEES 4.0 (http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/software/bees.htm) • Pharos (http://www.healthybuilding.net; http://www.pharosproject.net/) • Sylvatica (http://www.sylvatica.com/tools.html) • LISA (http://www.lisa.au.com) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  118. 118. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  119. 119. PHAROS The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  120. 120. General strategies: • Choose materials that produce minimal off-gassing • Use salvaged materials whenever possible • Look for high (post-consumer) recycled content • Source locally • Use structure as finish • Ask: What happens to this at the end of its useful life? • Don‟t forget durability! • Keep it small! 122 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  121. 121. Last but not least: Effectively manage construction waste Reduce construction waste in the first place by employing resource-efficient design strategies such as advanced framing 123 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  122. 122. General strategies: Water 124 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  123. 123. General strategies: • Use low-flow & automatic fixtures • Use dual-flush toilets & waterless urinals (or “micro-flush”) Some Brands: Caroma, Kohler, Toto, Waterless • Collect & use rainwater for utility purposes • Incorporate gray water systems • Use composting toilets • Use demand pumps (see www.gothotwater.com) 125 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  124. 124. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  125. 125. www.gothotwater.com 127 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  126. 126. Gray water • Collected from drain-waste-vent system other than toilets, dishwashers & kitchen sinks with garbage disposals (“Black water”) • Generally used for flushing toilets, landscape irrigation & other non-potable, utility purposes • May be difficult to get local code approval The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  127. 127. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  128. 128. Gray water: A direct approach http://www.gaiam.com/product/eco-home-outdoor/energy- efficient-climate-control/energy-saving-tools/toilet+lid+sink.do The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  129. 129. MWRA- A water conservation resource Order a free water saving kit at: www.mwra.com/04water/html/watsense.htm The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  130. 130. Water conservation resources •http://www.mwra.com/comsupport/conservation/ gardeningtips.htm • www.waterwiser.org • www.irrigation.org • www.epa.gov/watersense • See also: Reliable Rain- A Practical Guide to Landscape Irrigation, Howard Hendrix & Stuart Straw, Taunton Press, 1998 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  131. 131. General strategies: Durability 133 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  132. 132. Consequences of ignoring durability • Early failure of systems • More intensive maintenance routines • Reduced indoor environmental quality • Increased cost of ownership • Reduced resale value • Aesthetic issues The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  133. 133. Why is durable design greener? • Fewer replacement cycles • Simplified maintenance routines • Healthier indoor environments The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  134. 134. General strategies: • Keep it small, keep it low to minimize maintenance • Avoid complicated designs w/ many intersecting planes • Manage air, vapor & moisture flows w/ effectively detailed wall sections (e.g. rain screen wall systems) • Choose best-in-class, durable materials 136 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  135. 135. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  136. 136. General strategies: • Use products suited to climate & conditions • Incorporate protective design elements like overhangs • Minimize roof penetrations • Employ effective flashing details 138 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  137. 137. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  138. 138. Design for durability – Overhangs Effective overhangs: • Protect the walls from precipitation • Protect wall finishes from UV • Help to direct water away from the structure • May facilitate attic ventilation • May help to minimize ice dams • Provide summer shade to reduce unwanted solar gains The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  139. 139. General strategies: IEQ 141 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  140. 140. General strategies: • Minimize indoor pollutants • Provide adequate ventilation • Allow occupant control of comfort • Use effective lighting techniques • Incorporate natural daylighting • Ensure acoustic comfort • Employ Universal Design elements 142 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  141. 141. Skylights may contribute to summer overheating and winter heat loss. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  142. 142. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  143. 143. Sky tube (TDD) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  144. 144. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  145. 145. General strategies: Site 147 The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  146. 146. General strategies: Goals: • Minimizing heat urban island effect • Effectively managing stormwater (LID) • Conserving water in landscape maintenance • Minimizing light pollution • Minimizing toxic & sediment run-off • Providing good transportation access • Maintain „wild spaces‟ if possible The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  147. 147. Stormwater management Effective stormwater management can: • Assure effective groundwater recharge • Minimize flooding potential • Reduce contamination of oceans, lakes, rivers • Promote lush, green landscapes • Provide secondary benefit of reducing urban heat island effect The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  148. 148. Stormwater Mgmt: Strategies • Slow water down/ retain on site • Increase permeability of ground surfaces • Minimize soil compaction • Use collected water for landscape irrigation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  149. 149. Approaches • Minimize building footprint & „hardscaping‟ • Use light-colored roof finishes & pavement • Use water-retaining/ filtering landscape features like bio-swales & rain gardens • Install pervious paving • Incorporate green roofs • Provide rainwater collection systems • Employ xeriscaping methods in landscape maintenance • Install full cut-off lighting • Provide bicycle racks The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  150. 150. Slowing down/ retaining stormwater Retention Pond Bioswale/ Raingarden Vegetated Buffer The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  151. 151. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  152. 152. Cistern Drywell The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  153. 153. Permeable surface options • Brick/ masonry pavers • Gravel • Stabilized soil/ stone dust • Recycle rubber paver mats/ bricks • Plastic driveway mats • Permeable asphalt The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  154. 154. Permeable surface options The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  155. 155. Permeable surface options Gravel driveways & walkways: Simple, low-cost, effective! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  156. 156. Permeable surface options The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  157. 157. Permeable surface options „Drivable grass‟ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  158. 158. Permeable surface options See www.rubbersidewalks.com The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  159. 159. Green roofs • Can provide stormwater management • Reduce urban heat islands • Help to minimize global warming by conserving energy • May extend the life of your roof • Provide green space & wildlife habitat • Improve acoustic comfort The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  160. 160. Green roofs The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  161. 161. Modular green roof system See: http://www.liveroof.net/ & http://www.westonsolutions.com/pdf_docs/B-D066- GreenGrid.pdf The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  162. 162. Green roofs • Properly designed, can pay for themselves in 10 – 15 years via reduced energy cost • Especially effective in reducing cooling costs • By some estimates, can reduce cooling costs by up to 30% in single-story structures • See www.greenroofs.com (industry ass‟n) & www.conservationtechnology.com (supplier example) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  163. 163. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  164. 164. Stormwater mgmt resources • http://www.unh.edu/erg/cstev/ • http://www.mapc.org (email lid@mapc.org) • http://nemo.uconn.edu/tools/publications/tech_papers/tech_paper_8.p df • http://www.georgiastormwater.com/ • http://www.georgiastormwater.com/vol2/3-3-8.pdf • http://extension.missouri.edu/xplor/envqual/eqm102f.htm • http://www.lid-stormwater.net/background.htm • http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/docs.cfm?program_id=6&view=allprog&sort =name#retrofit_manual The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  165. 165. Rainwater collection • For 1000 sq ft roof area, 15 – 25,000 gallons of rainwater can be collected annually in Eastern states • Combined with drip-irrigation systems, collected rainwater can keep landscaping vibrant even during drought conditions • Using rainwater helps to maintain aquifers and public water supplies at adequate levels • Rainwater does not contain chlorine so it is better for plants, garden ponds, etc. • Rainwater is free, and inexpensive to collect & store! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  166. 166. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  167. 167. See www.conservationtechnology.com & http://www.wattsradiant.com/rainwater/?t=professional%20rainwater The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  168. 168. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  169. 169. The simplest approach to collecting rainwater http://www.cleanairgardening.com/33galrainbar.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  170. 170. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  171. 171. Xeriscaping (low-water-landscaping) • Major principles: -Making maximum use of available precipitation -Selecting species with low water requirements • Use mulches • Create water retaining landscape features • Use drip irrigation • Group plants • Use plantings to create windbreaks & shade to protect from drying winds and sun • Use native plantings, they are better suited to natural rainfall patterns The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  172. 172. Landscaping- The single best thing you can do: LOSE THE LAWN!!! The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  173. 173. The trouble with turf Lawn maintenance routines create multiple threats to the environment through: • Heavy fertilizer requirements • Pesticide and herbicide use • Need to mow regularly and the resources that this requires (gas, electricity, equip. maint., etc) • Water use They are energy and resource intensive. If possible, LOSE THE LAWN! Substitute ground covers, shrubs, flower beds, vegetable gardens, rock gardens, etc. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  174. 174. The Low-impact landscape The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  175. 175. Minimizing light pollution Source: International Dark Sky Association The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  176. 176. “BAD” FIXTURES Flood Light Cobra Head If used as in the picture. The most used 30-50% light goes design upward for street lights (If pointed down- Unchanged since Zero light loss.) photo © BGE 1960s Decorative ~30% upward ~70% photo © BGE upward photo © BGE Source: Baltimore Gas & Electric The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  177. 177. Residential accent lights can be some of worst offenders; they can be energy wasters too The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  178. 178. “GOOD” FIXTURES Box Design. Can have round, cylindrical or other shape head. Receded bulb Decorative Flat lens 100% downward Only ~5% upward photo © BGE Source: Baltimore Gas & Electric The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  179. 179. Resources For a examination of some of the issues, and and an example of zoning restrictions on outdoor lighting see: http://www.ci.neptune-beach.fl.us/2007agenda/ 4_16_07/2007-XXProposedLightingOrdinance.pdf For some outdoor lighting design tips see: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/resources/ darksky/3307541.html?showAll=y&c=y The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  180. 180. Additional considerations: • Maintaining IAQ during the construction process - Effective isolation of work areas - Ventilating during process - Pre-occupancy flush-out • Effectively managing construction waste - Minimize in the first place using material- efficient design strategies - Recycling/ diverting where possible • Protecting the site during the construction process - Managing erosion & sediment run-off - Avoiding soil compaction - Preserving existing topsoil - Preserving existing vegetation The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  181. 181. Dust collector The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  182. 182. Portable dust collector The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  183. 183. Plastic barrier w/ zippers; see example at: www.protectiveproducts.com/ zipwall.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  184. 184. Construction waste management (CWM) • Include a CWM plan in the project docs • Minimize waste by employing good design practices and efficient construction methods • Choose an environmentally-sensitive waste hauler • See recycling services directory at www.wastecap.org • Donate new left-over materials to non-profits like the Boston Building Materials Resource Center (www.bostonbmrc.org) & Habitat for Humanity The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  185. 185. Construction waste management • See http://www.carpetrecovery.org/index.php and http://www.nps.gov/sustain/spop/carpet.htm for info on carpet recycling/ take-back programs • See resources like http://www.recyclenow.com/what_more_can_i_do/ca n_it_be_recycled/ for product specific recycling info • See General Service Administration‟s Construction Waste Management Database at http://www.wbdg.org/tools/cwm.php?a=1 • See Institution Recycling Network‟s website: http://www.wastemiser.com/resources.html • See http://www.greengoat.org/ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  186. 186. Construction waste management • Drywall recycling (new scrap): GYPSUM RECYCLING AMERICA (GRA) www.gypsumrecycling.us 135 Fawcett Street, Cambridge, MA (near Fresh Pond) • Good general recycling info: http://www.cambridgema.gov/TheWorks/ departments/recycle/donaterecycle.html The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  187. 187. Construction waste management • Donate or harden (kitty litter or commercial product) used latex paint • Use curbside recycling for product packaging! Set up recycling containers in work areas • Set up “free wood” bin on site for cut-offs & scrap; use scraps in woodstoves & sawdust in compost pile (non pressure treated only!) The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  188. 188. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  189. 189. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  190. 190. Key words/ terms • Ecological or environmental footprint • Embodied energy • Life-cycle impacts • Rapidly renewable • VOC‟s- Volatile Organic Compounds • IEQ- Indoor Environmental Quality • IAQ- Indoor Air Quality • Building envelope The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  191. 191. We have a choice…… The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  192. 192. We have a choice…… The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  193. 193. ...to shape the future Excerpt: Scientific American (Sept. 2006) „A choice between two futures‟ The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  194. 194. Resources GRT: www.greenroundtable.org Building Green: www.buildinggreen.com Energy Star: www.energystar.gov Charles River Watershed: www.crwa.org US Green Building Council: www.usgbc.org Renewable Energy: www.nrel.gov US DOE: www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ EPA: www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings Residential Green Building Guide: A Web Source Book for New England www.epa.gov/ne/greenbuildings NAHB: Model Green Home Building Guidelines: www.nahb.org The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  195. 195. And don‟t forget about NEXUS! • Upcoming workshops • Reference library • Samples library • Cyber Lounge • Online resources at nexusboston.com (in the pipeline) • Local green building community The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  196. 196. Local Resources The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
  197. 197. THANK YOU www.greenroundtable.org info@greenroundtable.org 617-374-3740 The Green Roundtable, Inc. (GRT) is an independent non-profit organization whose mission is to mainstream green building and sustainable design and become obsolete. We work toward this goal by promoting and supporting healthy and environmentally integrated building projects through strategic outreach, education, policy advocacy and technical assistance. Located in downtown Boston, NEXUS welcomes all to come ask questions, research topics, and attend tours and www.nexusboston.com events on green building and 38 Chauncy Street, Boston sustainable design innovation. The Green Roundtable (copyright © Green Roundtable 2007)
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