By: Aaron Bacon History 140 Dr. Michael T. Argüello Theme 3. Part 2 The Spanish Empire
A Brief History of Spain 1469 The marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Aragon and Princess Isabella of Castile1474 Isabella became Queen of Castile1479 Ferdinand became King of Aragon1480 The Spanish Inquisition was established1492 The Muslims of Granada were defeated1492 Christopher Columbus voyage to America was financed by the King and Queen1494 Spain and Portugal claimed the lands of the New World1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed Central America1516 Charles I became Spanish king and extended the Spanish Empire to include Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg 1519 Charles I became the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V1521 Hernando Cortes conquered the Mexican Aztecs1533 Francisco Pizarro conquered the South American Inca empire1588 Philip launched the Spanish Armada which the English defeated1714 The War of the Spanish Succession ended when Spain lost all of its European empire1763 Spain lost Florida to the United Kingdom Ferdinand & Isabella Spanish Inquisition
The Spanish Empire In the beginning of the 15th century, Spain was mainly separated by two kingdoms, the Castile Kingdom and the Aragon Kingdom. In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, unified Spain. The couple was known as the “Catholic Monarchs”. Ferdinand II Isabella I Under the Rule of the “Catholic Monarchs” Spain underwent some significant changes. The Monarchs oversaw the final stages of the Reconquista of Iberian territory from the Moors by conquering Granada and the Canary Islands. The Jews and the Muslims were expelled from Spain. The monarch also authorized the expedition of Christopher Columbus.
The Spanish Empire (Exploration & Trade) “In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue”, which lead to an influx of wealth into Spain. From there Spain became one of the first modern global empires. With the colonial expansions and the opening of trade routes across the oceans, Spain flourished. Columbus With the help of local factions in the “new world”, conquistadors conquered the civilizations of the Aztecs, Inca, and Maya and claimed large land areas in North and South America. They also unknowingly brought the devastation of diseases that wiped out the indiginous population. In the 1520s silver from the Americas was flowing into Spain. The surplus of silver helped fund Spain’s military both infantry and a powerful navy. Which they were more than willing to use.
The Spanish Empire (Wars) 1492. King Fernando and Queen Isabela'sarmy capture Granada after a long siege, the final defeat of the Moors in Spain. Jews are forced to convert to Christianity; those who refuse are expelled from Spain 1568–1648 a revolt against Philip II of Spain, for the territory of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. However, under the leadership of the exiled William of Orange the northern provinces continued their resistance and managed to oust the Spanish armies 1585–1604 Anglo-Spanish war between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared. 1590–1598 war with France 1618–1648 The Thirty Years‘ was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. 1701–1714The war of the Spanish Succession was fought among several European powers, principally the Spanish loyal to Archduke Charles, the Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and the Duchy of Savoy against the Spanish loyal to Philip V, France and the Electorate of Bavaria over a possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.
Spanish Kingdoms under the Habsburgs “Siglo de Oro” translatesto"the Golden Age of Spain“, this is what some say about the 16th & 17th century. This is also the time that the Habsburgs ruled the Castilian empire in America, the Aragonese Empire in the Mediterranean the Holy Roman Empire, the Low Countries, Franche-Comté, and Austria . King Charles I (also known as Emperor Charles V), became king of Spain in 1516 and at that time, the Habsburg monarch was the most powerful in Europe. Charles I (Emperor Charles V) After inheriting the Austria territory, Emperor Charles V, immediately transferred Austria to his brother Ferdinand, thus founding the Austrian line of the family. In his will Ferdinand divided the Habsburg patrimonial lands among his three sons. Ferdinand
Habsburgs Rule Continued Emperor Charles V abdicated power in 1556, to his successor, Philip II of Spain. Spain was firmly Roman Catholic at this point in time, while the rest of Europe was raging with religious conflicts. Fighting the Ottoman Turks and the heretics, Philip II, saw himself as a champion of Catholicism. The Protestant theology known as Calvinist, began to revolt in the 1560s, along with the beginning of the Eighty Years’ War , both issues started due to the plans to consolidate control of the Netherlands. With England being a supporter of the Dutch, and much of Spanish resources spent, Spain attempted to conquer England to stop English involvement in the Netherlands campaign , but the armada that was sent failed to defeat England, and 50 of the 130 ships were lost. Philip II of Spain Philip III, succeeded his father in 1598. The Dutch and Spanish had a ten year truce during Philip III reign, but the focus of Spain was on a new conflict, The Bourbon–Habsburg rivalry also known as the Thirty Years’ War. Philip IV of Spain inherited the empire in 1621, and with his death in 1665, ended the Habsburg reign, and issued in the Bourbon Dynasty in 1700. Philip III of Spain Philip IV of Spain