Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development






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    Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Presentation Transcript

    • Erikson’s PsychosocialStages of Development EDU105
    • Erik EriksonBorn Erik SalomonsenGerman DevelopmentalPsychologistJune 15, 1902 (Frankfurt Main,Germany) – May 12, 1994(Harwich, Cape Cod,Massachusetts)
    • Erik Salomonsen
    • INTRO TO THE 8PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Psychosocial – psychological (or the root, “psycho” relating to the mind, brain, personality, etc.) & social (external relationships and environment) Erikson’s theory was greatly influenced by Sigmund Freud
    • INTRO TO THE 8PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTHis theory is a basis for broad or complexdiscussion and analysis of personality andbehavior, and also for understanding andfacilitating development – of self and others.Each stage involves a “psychosocial crisis” of twoopposing emotional forces
    • INTRO TO THE 8PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT2 DISPOSITIONS:*SYNTONIC – POSITIVE*DYSTONIC – NEGATIVEIf both dispositions are not managed well, we maydevelop MALADAPTATION & MALIGNANCYVIRTUES are being carried if a stage is managedwell
    • BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST Stage 1 Infancy Too Much Trust Too Much MistrustMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Sensory Trust Vs. Mistrust WithdrawalMaladjustmen t Virtue Hope
    • BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUSTINFANT STAGE: Birth to 8 monthsGOAL: to develop trust withoutcompletely eliminating the capacityfor mistrustDeveloping trust is the first task ofthe ego, and it is never complete.
    • BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUSTTRUST – Firm belief in reliability,truth, ability, or strength of someoneor something.MISTRUST – State of beingsuspicious; lack of trust
    • BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST MALADAPTATION: SENSORY MALADJUSTMENT –Overly trusting MALIGNANCY: WITHDRAWAL – Characterized bydepression, paranoia & psychosis
    • BASIC TRUST VS MISTRUST VIRTUE: HOPE – strong belief that whenthings are not going well, they willwork out well in the end.
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT Stage 2 Early Childhood Too Much Autonomy Too Much Shame and DoubtMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyImpulsiveness Autonomy Vs. Compulsiveness Shame and Doubt Virtue Will
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBTTODDLER STAGE: 18 months to 3yearsGOAL: to achieve autonomywhile minimizing shame anddoubt.
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBTAUTONOMY – IndependenceSHAME – A painful feeling ofhumiliation or distress caused bythe consciousness of wrong orfoolish behavior.DOUBT – Feeling of uncertainty orlack of conviction
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBTShame develops with the childsself-consciousness.Doubt has to do with having afront and back – a "behind"subject to its own rules. Left overdoubt may become paranoia.
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT MALADAPTATION: IMPULSIVENESS – Sort ofshameless willfulness that leadsyou in later childhood and evenadulthood, to jump into thingswithout proper consideration ofyour abilities.
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT MALIGNANCY: COMPULSIVENESS – A personfeels as if their entire beingrides on everything they do,and so everything, must bedone perfectly
    • AUTONOMY VS SHAME AND DOUBT VIRTUE: WILL POWER – Controllingdeliberately exerted to dosomething or to restrain one’sown impulses.
    • INITIATIVE VS GUILT Stage 3 Early Childhood Too Much Initiative Stage Too Much GuiltMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyRuthlessness Initiative Vs. Guilt Inhibition Virtue Courage
    • INITIATIVE VS GUILTEarly childhood stage: Ages 3 or4 to 5 or 6GOAL: to learn initiative withouttoo much guilt.
    • INITIATIVE VS GUILT INITIATIVE – a positive response to the world’s challenges, taking on responsibilities, learning new skills, feeling purposeful. – the attempt tomake that non-reality a reality.
    • INITIATIVE VS GUILTThis stage is a time for play, notfor formal education.OEDIPAL CRISIS – the reluctance achild feels in relinquishing his/hercloseness to the opposite sexparents.
    • INITIATIVE VS GUILTRUTHLESNESS – to be heartless orunfeeling or be “without mercy.”INHIBITION – too much guilt.COURAGE – the capacity for actiondespite a clear understanding ofyour limitations and past failings
    • INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY Stage 4 School AgeToo Much Industry Stage Too Much InferiorityMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Narrow Industry Vs. Inertia Virtuosity Inferiority Virtue Competency
    • INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY6 – 12 years oldThey must learn the feeling ofsuccess, whether it is in schoolor on the playground, academic,or social.
    • INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITYINFERIORITY – CompetenceJust a touch of inferioritykeeps us sensible and humble.
    • IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION Stage 5 Adolescence Too Much Identity Too Much Role ConfusionMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Fanaticism Identity Vs. Role Repudiation Confusion Virtue Fidelity
    • IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONPuberty to ages 18 0r 20GOAL: to achieve EGOIDENTITY and avoid ROLECONFUSION
    • IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONEGO IDENTITY – knowing whoyou are and how you fit in tothe rest of the society.PSYCHOSOCIAL MORATORIUM– taking a little “time out”
    • IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONPSYCHOSOCIAL MORATORIUM– one of Erikson’s suggestionsfor adolescence in our society.We need to dream a little.
    • IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSIONA fanatic believes that his wayis the only way.REPUDIATION – state ofrejection
    • INTIMACY VS ISOLATION Stage 6 Young Adulthood Too Much Intimacy Too Much IsolationMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis Malignancy Promiscuity Intimacy Vs. Exclusion Isolation Virtue Love
    • INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONYoung Adulthood: 18 to 30 yearsoldGOAL: to achieve some degreeof intimacy, as opposedremaining in isolation.
    • INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONINTIMACY – ability to be close toothers, as a lover, a friend, andas a particular participant insociety.“Fear of commitment” – anexample of immaturity
    • INTIMACY VS ISOLATION MALADAPTATION: PROMISCUITY – The tendency tobecome intimate too freely, tooeasy, and without any depth toyour intimacy.
    • INTIMACY VS ISOLATION MALIGNANCY: EXCLUSION – The tendency toisolate oneself from love,friendship and community, and todevelop a certain hatefulness incompensation for one’sloneliness.
    • INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONVIRTUE:LOVE – Being able to put asidedifferences and antagonismsthrough “mutuality ofdevotion.”
    • GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION Stage 7 Middle Adulthood Too Much Stagnation Too Much GenerativityMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyOverextension Generativity Vs. Rejectivity Stagnation Virtue Caring
    • GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONMiddle Adulthood – the timewhen we are actively involved inraising children.GOAL: to cultivate the properbalance of generativity andstagnation.
    • GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONGENERATIVITY – an extension oflove into the future.STAGNATION – self absorption,caring for no one.
    • GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONThe stagnant person STOPSto be a reproductivemember of the society.
    • GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATIONMALADAPTATION:OVEREXTENSION – Somepeople try to be generative thatthey no longer allow time forthemselves, for rest andrelaxation.
    • GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION MALIGNANCY: REJECTIVITY – Too littlegenerativity and too muchstagnation and you are nolonger participating in orcontributing to society.
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR Stage 8 Late Adulthood Too Much Ego Integrity Too Much DespairMaladaptation Psychosocial Crisis MalignancyPresumption Ego Integrity Vs. Disdain Despair Virtue Wisdom
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIREGO INTEGRITY – Coming toterms with your life, and therebycoming to terms with the end oflife.DESPAIR – The complete loss orabsence of hope.
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIRLate adulthood/Maturity/Old ageBegins sometime aroundretirement, around 60GOAL: to develop ego integritywith a minimal amount ofdespair.
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIRWomen go throughsometimes dramaticmenopause; Men often findthey can no longer “rise to theoccasion.”
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIROlder people becomedepressed, spiteful,paranoid, hypochondriacal,or developing the patternsof senility with or withoutphysical bases.
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR MALADAPTATION: PRESUMPTION – Happens whena person “presumes” egointegrity without actually facingthe difficulties of old age.
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR MALIGNANCY: DISDAIN – A contempt oflife, one’s own, or anyone.
    • EGO INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR VIRTUE: WISDOM – Someone whoapproaches death withoutfear.
    • “It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him.”— Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)