impact of advertising on brand loyalty with the moderation of consumer buying behaviour


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impact of advertising on brand loyalty with the moderation of consumer buying behaviour

  1. 1. AUGUST 2011 VOL 3, NO 4 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON BRAND LOYALTY WITH THE MODERATION OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR; A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Aamna Shakeel Abbasi Army Public College of Management Sciences Department of Management Sciences Ordinance road Lalkurti Zip code: 46000, State code: 66 Email id: Ali Muslim Bin Aqeel Army Public College of Management Sciences Department of Management Sciences Ordinance road Lalkurti Zip code: 46000, State code: 66 Email id: Ali Naseer Awan Army Public College of Management Sciences Department of Management Sciences Ordinance road Lalkurti Zip code: 46000, State code: 66 Email id: maliknali@hotmail.comCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 1
  2. 2. Acknowledgements: Mr. Adnan Riaz and Ms Fozia Malik have remained specially supportive and encouraging during the course ofcompletion of this research study and have provided the author with their useful and knowledgeable guidance. ABSTRACTThis paper epitomizes the substance of advertising on the purchasing behaviour of the consumers. Likeability,persuasiveness and brand personality created by the advertisement are the key factors which weight theintentions of the consumers regarding the brand and the purchasing behaviour. With more ad likeability thepurchase behaviour will be strongly influenced. A creative and well executed ad has the power to persuade theconsumers regarding their purchase decisions and behaviour. Similarly brand personality created in the ad has adirect impact on the purchasing behaviour of the buyer because the users relate the brand dimensions with theirown personality traits. Therefore the paper concludes that the positive impact of all these dynamics on thebuying behaviour of the consumer actually escorts towards consumer brand loyalty which is the main dimensionof getting competitive lead in this dynamic era.Keywords: Likability, persuasiveness, brand personality, buying behaviour, brand loyalty. 1. IntroductionAdvertising can be sketched reverse to the commencement of the traced record as it is the world‟s second oldestprofession. The custom of Rock art and wall painting can be traced back to Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome andIndia which is practiced to this day in many parts of the world (Kotler and Armstrong, 2008). Variouscryptograms depicting diverse events and offers have been dug up by archaeologists in the states around theMediterranean Sea. Walls were painted by Romans to make known the gladiator fights; pictures were paintedby Phoenicians to sponsor their merchandise on hefty rocks along the spectacle course (Kotler and Armstrong,2008). History depicts that bill boards and out door advertising are the most aged type of advertising. With theexpansion of the town and the cities and due to the inability of the masses to read different sort of merchantsused different images coupled with their trades just as cobbler a boot, tailor a suit, blacksmith a horse shoe.Merchants used street callers to announce their whereabouts for the expediency of the shoppers.As the education became an obvious need as well as the printing, the urbanized form of advertising began toinflate. With this the tradition of news paper advertising and hand bills emerged and became common. Withmore economic expansion and the success of print advertising and hand bills the idea of mail order advertisingsurfaced and then radio advertisement and then leading towards Tele vision advertising. Even with the advent ofelectronic advertising consumers are keener to disburse attention and route the information in printadvertisement (Wright, 1974; Batra, 1986). Now with the trends of E-commerce and globalization theadvertisers are encountering new boundaries and are moving forward to web advertising adding to the dot comboom. 21st century has actually given birth to online advertising by focusing on a relevant frame work, self-effacing and low profile ads seeking to help rather then overwhelming the users. This has come with analogousefforts and an escalating drift of interactive marketing.The magnitude of effective advertisement in the current spirited era is enhanced as the companies strive to pulloff competitive positioning through better advertising their products and services endeavour to differentiate theirofferings in the mind of their consumers and customers. Effective advertising is related towards likeness,persuasion and attitude towards the advertisement (Mehta, 2000; Stone et al., 2000). Now companies aredevoting huge budgets on advertising aspiring to persuade the customers. Firms are willing to spend millionsand billions of money on making an ad of 60 seconds or even less as they know that an attractive ad will grabthe attention of the customers, change their opinion regarding the product or the service, persuade them topurchase and ultimately enhancing the sales to increase the profit. Companies are now shifting to Google adwords and Google ad sense to persuade the viewers.The importance of advertising in the current situation cannot be denied as it is the initial as well as the mostimportant step in reaching and persuading the audience (Siropolis, 1997). We see advertisements every wherearound us, on the Tele vision, radio, internet, mobile, carts, banners, sign boards, bill boards, news papers,COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 2
  3. 3. magazines, trade journals and in store advertising. Due to this imperativeness of advertising in the modern erathe education of advertising is also becoming extensively common in bachelors, masters and the doctoratedegrees. A flow of advertising awareness is normally accredited to the strapping relation ship between culturaland technological modifications.Advertising is seen as a vital element for economic growth and success of the companies Ryans (1996) butactually companies emphasize diminutive on the advertising research refuting its significance. Hence theadvertising research is the determinant to success of an ad in any realm. Hence the companies should not merelyfocus on the production of an ad to enhance the sales solely but to identify the needs and taste of their customersdepending upon the culture (Fam 2006a) through advertising research and then fulfilling these needs through thecreation of an eye catchy ad to clutch the awareness of the customers and finally persuading them to purchasetheir offerings. The advertisement strategies should be creative, artistic and should be executed in an artfulmanner to gain long term benefits, brand loyalty and competitive advantage through emotional bonding,persuading the buying behaviour of the customers by changing their intentions regarding the market offerings,creating a unique brand personality and brand image. 2. Literature reviewThere is a mishmash of studies that pull glimmer on the atrociousness of advertising and its prominence onconsumer buying behaviour. In present world it has become dramatically difficult for the companies and theadvertisers to lead the concentration of their viewers and consequently have a brunt on their buying behaviour(Robinson, 1997). In fact looking at advertisements is considered to be a squander of time and effort by themajority people (Collett, 1994; Hollis, 1995). This habitually ends in wide awake attempts to steer clear ofadvertisements (Byrant and Zillman, 1994) and rebuttal to retort to advertisements (Cummins, 1996). Theadvertisements which are liked by the audience are considered to be finer and of high quality for enhancing theassenting perceptions and the genuine brand image. With the passage of time it is now understood thatadvertising likeability plays a vital role in influencing the consumer behaviour (Beil and Bridgewater, 1990). 2.1. Brand loyaltyPrevious studies have shown that positive consumer behaviour through effective advertising lead to brandloyalty. To fabricate and sustain the consumer loyalty mass media advertising is supplemented with more directand interactive methods (Baldinger and Robinson, 1996; Stewart, 1996). Brand loyalty results in meaningfulmarketing gain, minimization of business costs and elevating business leverage (Aaker, 1991), confrontationbetween the loyal customers to offering of the competitors (Dick and Basu, 1994) and uplifting revenues(Reichheld, 1996). It is a vital link moving the market share and relative prices (Chauhduri and Holbrook,2001). Oliver (1999) argued that it is imprudent to conclude loyalty merely from recurring buying pattern orbehavioural loyalty. Jacoby and Kyner (1973) integrated the two contradicting approaches, behavioural loyaltyand attitudinal loyalty to define the term brand loyalty.Hypothesis 1: Brand loyalty is positively increased by increasing consumption behaviour. 2.2. Buying BehaviourConsumer buying behaviour is given huge importance in the literature study of advertisements effectiveness.According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) forecasting the consumers purchase behaviour is a source of computingtheir intentions to procure just earlier than they make the actual purchase. The actual consumer behaviour isleaded by the individual intentions (Ajzen, 2002). Personal attitude has a great control on the buying behaviourwhen encountered with social pressures (Cooper and Donald, 2001) on the other hand Future actions or thebehaviour can be connected to the intentions that allow the individuals to attain the particular objectivesinfluenced by the social forces (Baggozi and Warshaw, 1990). The specific action of consumer depends uponthe beliefs about the benefits engaging with that exacting action or behaviour (Peter and Olson, 1996).Consumer buying behaviour is influenced by the liking of the advertisement (DuPlessis, 1994a; Smith et al.,2006), the emotions that form the attitude towards an advertisement (Morris et al., 2002), which then influencesthe buying behaviour of consumers (Allen et al., 1992). The attitude towards advertisement is not only a strongfactor in determining the effectiveness of the advertisement but also work as an interceding variable betweenCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 3
  4. 4. advertising and buying intentions of the viewers (Shimp, 1981), purchasing decision and behaviour dependsentirely on the advertisement without any assessment of the product itself (Gorn, 1982).Hypothesis 2: Increased buying behaviour will augment the brand loyalty. 2.3. LikeabilityThere is a wide range of data that suggests the weight of advertisement likeability for envisaging the intentionsand behaviour of consumers. The review of the literature proposes diverse ideas, Some believe that likeabilityand attitude towards advertisement is a result of cognitive viewpoint which can foresee the consumer behaviour(Fishbein and Middlestadt, 1995) others assume that likeable advertisement corresponds to two times moreeffective then an average advertisement (Beil and Bridgewater, 1990) still others concluded that likeability ofadvertisements depends upon the element of entertainment and information provided ( Halley and balldinger,1991). DuPlessis (1994b) considered involvement as an imperative aspect of likeability of advertisementswhereas product category (Beil and Bridgewater 1990) and culture (Fam 2006a) were proposed as an importantdimension in likeability of ads. Likeability is a noteworthy factor in advertising effectiveness having an impacton the consumer intention and buying behaviour (Mitchell and Olson, 1991) whereas if the advertisement is ableto create a positive notion then it will make possible the consumer involvement ( MacKenzie and Lutz, 1989)mounting the capability to stimulate and affect the buying behaviour ( Brown, 1991) developing liking for thebrand and then translating this likeability to purchase intention ( Smith et al., 2006).Hypothesis 3: Brand loyalty is positively increased by advertisement likability. 2.4. PersuasivenessDifferent ideas have been proposed depicting on the significance of persuasiveness of ads. Wells (1997)believed that successful ads are persuasive, informative and salient whereas the persuasion is associated to adliking (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) in the context of involvement and relevance (Beil and Bridgewater, 1990).Persuasion is related to Brand salience in TV advertisements (Haley et al., 1984), affective and cognitiveresponses (Holbrook and Batra, 1987a), brand differentiation strategies in ads (Stewart and Furse, 1986),advertising content (Mcewen and Leavitt, 1976; Pechman and Stewart, 1989). Therefore the advertisers shouldclearly focus on the creativity and the execution of the advertising strategies in a strategic manner to persuadethe viewers.Hypothesis 4: Brand loyalty is positively increased by advertisement persuasiveness. 2.5. Brand PersonalityBrand personality is considered as the central element of brand identity (Aaker, 1996). The view of personalitycreation in advertising actually retorts to the propensity in modern culture to worth personal relationships. Itactually refers the imperativeness of relationships in personal life. Brand personality sways the assessment phasein the consumer buying behaviour and for this phase and the general target advertisement is measured to be themost effectual communication means (Brassington and Pettitt, 2000) the expressive face of the brand imagewhich is the vital facet of brand equity (Ouwersloot and Tudorica, 2001). The most common method forpersonality creation in advertisements is perhaps celebrity endorsement. But this was practiced back a century(Erdogan and Baker, 2000), but Redenbach (2000) observed that this custom is still eminent currently. Brandpersonality reveals that how people deem about a particular brand rather then thinking about what that branddoes (keller, 1998) distinguishing the brand on extent to detain a person‟s traits and extending it to the realm ofthe brand. Supported by the human personality traits (Batra, Lehman and Singh, 1993), Sincerity, Excitement,Ruggedness, Competence and Sophistication (Aaker, 1997) as the big five brand dimensions related to brandpersonality.Hypothesis 5: Brand loyalty is positively increased by brand personality. Insert table 1 hereCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 4
  5. 5. There are some other factors such as social pressures, personal attitude, future intentions and consumer buyingbehaviour which are interlinked to each other and give an enhanced impact on buying behaviour and brandloyalty. Insert figure 1 here 3. MethodologyAs it is a conceptual framework paper therefore the methodology being used for developing the conceptualframework is the thorough study of previous literatures by eminent authors on effective adverting campaignsand the advertising factors leading towards brand loyalty. Keeping in view the basic purpose of the paperdifferent authors ranging from David Aaker and Philip Kotler, to Armstrong has been studied to develop theconceptual model for this study. The thorough study of the past researches suggested that likeability, persuasionand brand personality are those major facets of advertising that have a huge impact on the consumer buyingbehaviour and intentions and that the positive buying behaviour of the consumer will produce brand loyalty. Insert Table 2 here4. Theoretical framework This vast array of knowledge depicts that organizations and advertisers should be taking care of the differentfactors of advertising particularly brand personality, persuasiveness, likeability factor in their advertisements toaffect the buying behaviour of the consumers. Here Likeability, persuasiveness and brand personality are theindependent variables; consumer behaviour is the moderating variable whereas brand loyalty is dependentvariable. The advertisers should more likely emphasize on an integrated mix or combination of all these factorsto possibly influence the intentions and the purchasing behaviour of the consumers because positive intentionsand purchasing behaviour will lead to loyal consumer and customer base for that particular brand which is theultimate goal of every company. Insert figure 2 here 5. DiscussionsConsumers nowadays consciously avoid the advertisement considering them annoying (Bishop, 1997; Byrrantand Zillam,1994) therefore research conducted on this area suggested that likeability is the most effectiveadvertising strategy to minimize this problem (Sacharin, 2001).Advertisers should focus on advertising strategies that would greatly impact on the purchasing behaviour of themasses. If an advertisement will not be liked by the consumer his intention regarding the brand will not positiveand he will not purchase that product depending upon his disliking regarding the ad. There fore the advertisersshould focus on the likings and disliking of the masses while creating an ad because ultimately the ad and thebrand is for the consumer and if ad will not be liked, the product also will not be purchased. Advertisinglikeability usually has a strong and positive impact on the consumer buying behaviour (Beil and Bridgewater,COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 5
  6. 6. 1990; Mitchell and Olson, 1991). In general informative and entertaining ads are liked by the consumers whicheventually impact on their purchasing intentions and behaviour. Effective advertisement strategies focuspreferences of people to make them watch the ad, involving them fully and then augmenting the sales andprofits by influencing the buying behaviour of the users.Likeability of the advertisement also depends upon the culture and social values. As many internationalresearchers have observed the cultural differences in the content of the advertisement (Mueller, 1992; Nevett,1992; Cheng and Schweitzer, 1996) therefore cultural values should never be compromised while making the adbecause they have huge impact on the overall likeability of the advertisement.In general consumers are not easily persuaded by certain advertisements because they have their own needs anddemands and they will not get easily involved in an ad until they will find something related to the satisfactionof their needs. Some consumers are only persuaded by ads having strong body language while others by propercommunication rhetoric and selling techniques adopted by the advertisers.Stanton Herbst (2006) demonstrated that the collective known market strengths i.e. the brand share, the numberof the competing brands and the brand loyalty have a much stronger impact on the persuasion as compared tothe element of creativity in the ad. Furthermore Petty and Cacioppo (1986) advocated two roads to persuasion, acentral analytic route and a peripheral route that is affective and holistic. Personality tests and conflict approachinventory should be devised by the advertisers to better assist their advertising strategy in persuading the usersto reach their goals. The strategy should be formulated and executed keeping in view the diverse personalities ofthe users to persuade them. As persuading the consumer depicts the overall buying behaviour of the user.Persuasive advertising eventually boost the sales to a remarkable point. If the advertisement will not bepersuasive the real purpose of the advertising campaign will be demolished because they will not purchase thebrand until they are persuaded by the advertiser. In other words the success of the advertisement depends uponthe extent to which the ad is able persuade and convince the general populace.Every successful advertisement should have a unique brand personality to influence the behaviour of the users.Advertising by generating or reinforcing the brand personality adds to the brand equity and the overall value. Italso assists to gain the market share and offers prolonged competitive position. Endorsers, cryptograms, imagesand execution rudiments are the major advertising elements that chip in to the brand personality. Every personhas certain personality traits and he relates his personality traits with the brand personality shown in theadvertisement. For this purpose the human personality can be conceptualized by using a trait approach(Anderson and Rubin, 1986). A trait is any discerning feature through which an individual may differ from other(Guilford, 1973). If a relationship is subsisted among the human traits and brand dimensions related to brandpersonality then the buying behaviour of the consumer will be strongly influenced by this relative ness amongthe traits. Generally people are having sentiments for certain celebrities so the advertisers need to identify thosecelebrities to endorse them to create a brand personality so as to influence the buying behaviour of theconsumers and will also lead to brand loyalty.Consumer buying behaviour is typically influenced by the set of beliefs and the attitude the consumer hasregarding the brand and its benefits. Sometimes the positive emotions shown in the advertisement developpositive attitude towards the advertisement (DeCock and DePelsmacker, 2000) and sometimes a positiveconsumer behaviour regarding the product (Walker and Dubitsky, 1994). Sometimes the advertisements overexaggerate the benefits and depict the advantage in such an artful manner that it sturdily pressurise the buyingbehaviour and the intentions regarding the brand. Likeability of the ad results in enhanced purchased intentions(Smith et al., 2006) and has a brawny impact on the buying behaviour. Sometimes the emotional perspectiveshown in any ad also influences the purchasing behaviour of the users. The marketers and the advertisers shouldunderstand the psychology of the humans depicting their behaviour regarding certain actions. For exampleconsumers are more amenable to food advertising when they are hungry so understanding this behaviour of theconsumers likeable ads should be developed, executed and placed on the media in the late after noon. The factorof culture should not be compromised as it has wide force on the purchasing behaviours.Brand managers at the present time are inducing extraordinary efforts in creating brand loyalty and maintainingit through proper use of advertisement strategies. The companies should understand the imperativeness of loyalcustomer base in this competitive era. Effective advertisements tend to generate loyal customers. Brand loyaltyCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 6
  7. 7. often refers to repeat purchase (Jacoby and Chestnut, 1978; Oliver, 1999). Brand personalities assist the firms increating brand loyalty. In the current state of affairs companies should employ online advertising to provide aninteractive edge to the users to broaden the brand loyalty. Huge market share can be captured by loyal customerbase. Indeed brand loyalty is a factor which can be generated by effective advertising, will increase the profits(Reichheld, 1996) and relative prices and high market share (Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001) will provide thebrand a superior position in the eyes of the customers leading to sustainability.Therefore companies should identify the needs and demands of the consumers to create an effectiveadvertisement so that likeability should be created. If an ad is liked by the person then it can persuade him.Similarly unique brand personalities relating to the human personality traits depicted in the ad can also createlikeability and persuasion which can affect the consumer buying behaviour and change their intentionsregarding the brand which results in brand loyalty. Insert figure 3 here 6. Importance of Brand loyaltyThe importance of brand loyalty cannot be denied for the creation and growth of strong brands. Companies arenow millions and billions of amounts on their advertisement campaigns. The more the number of thecompetitors in the market the more the companies are trying to get the loyal customer base. Marketing is allabout the human psychology. Marketing actually starts from the customers and ends on the customers. Byadvertising the companies want to create strong brand positioning, perception and differentiation of theirproducts and services in the minds of the customers. Companies should make a blend of all the promotional andadvertising strategies to fit the needs and preferences of the specific target market. Successful companies notonly mean to enhance the sales through advertising campaigns but also to create brand equity and brand loyaltywhich leads them towards competitive advantage in this dynamic era.The basic point behind superior advertising campaign or marketing a product or service it to create brandawareness among the consumers. The advertising should be aimed to create unique brand image and position ofthe brand in the mind of the consumers. This brand image should be definable and memorable becauseultimately this brand image creates awareness among the target market which is actually the first step in creatingbrand value and loyalty. This exclusive brand image will then create brand equity. This brand equity is actuallythe brand preference which the consumers make after watching the ad and by comparing it with other relatedbrands. If positive brand image is created by the ad then the brand will be preferred by the consumer creating thebrand equity and leading towards brand loyalty which means repeat purchase of the brand finding it valuableafter the first purchase. If a brand delivers what it promises in the ad then brand loyalty would be createdforming a loyal customer base with repeat purchase intentions regarding the brand. The more the advertisingcampaign of the brand would be effective and the more it delivers what it promises in the campaign the more itwould be able to create brand loyalty and brand value which would help to sustain the competitive advantage. Ifthe company has an effective marketing strategy but it is not fulfilling what has been shown in the ad then onetime purchase is possible but not the repeat purchase. Therefore companies not only try to attract the newcustomers by advertising but also to retain the old ones through advertising and fulfilling of promises. 7. ConclusionIn this paper it has been demonstrated that marketing edge can be gained by formulating and executing effectiveadvertising strategies. Research has proved that advertisers need to create likeable, persuasive ads supporting abrand personality to influence the buying behaviour of the users. Likeable and persuasive ads will have a directimpact on the purchasing behaviour and the future intentions regarding the brand. A link between brandpersonality dimensions and the human traits have been identified by this research which narrates that buyingbehaviour of the consumer will be positive if the ad consists of a unique brand personality relating to their ownexclusive persona. It has also been declared that likeability, persuasiveness and brand personality not onlyinfluence the buying behaviour but eventually lead towards brand loyalty through effective advertisinggenerating and retaining a huge loyal customer base.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 7
  8. 8. 8. Future researchAs this paper aims at formulating a conceptual framework for effective advertising leading towards loyalcustomer base through positive consumer behaviour therefore this research raises few interesting challenges forthe future researchers. This paper aims at building the conceptual model highlighting the meaning of advertisingeffectiveness through creating ad likeability, brand personality and persuasion to influence the purchasingbehaviour of the consumers. The more positive buying behaviour the more a customer will be loyal to thespecific brand. Understanding the significance of these advertising factors leading towards brand loyalty will nomore be exhaustive for the future researchers hence the future researchers might work on the underlying factoraffecting all other advertising dimensions i.e. consumer psychology. For making an effective ad the advertiserneed to understand the psychic of the consumers while putting himself in the shoes of the customer.Understanding the psychology of the consumers is of great significance as marketing and advertising is all aboutunderstanding the human nature and behaviour to provide the desired outcomes in the form of brand loyalty. 9. Limitations of the studyThe ideas proposed in this paper are meaningful in clarifying the significance of advertising factors to createbrand loyalty. Yet at the same time it has some limitations due to which the generalizations should be made withwatchfulness and consideration as the conceptual framework proposed in this study cannot be generalized to alltypes of ads. As the type of ad, the medium being used and the product or service being advertised vary, theirlikeability factor, the degree of persuasion and significance of brand personality also differs. At the same timethe awareness and background knowledge of the consumers also create different results providing differentoutcomes as suggested in this study.ReferencesAaker, D.A., “Managing brand equity”. New York: The Free Press. 1991Aaker, D.A., “Building strong brands”. New York: The Free Press.1996Aaker, J.L., “Dimensions of brand personality”. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 3 (1997): 347-356.Ajzen, I. “Residual effects of past on later behaviour: Habituation and reasonedaction perspectives”. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(2002):107-122.Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. “Understanding attitudes and predicting socialBehavior”. Toronto, Ontario: Prentice-Hall, 1980.Allen, C.T., Machleit, K.A. and Kleine, S. “A Comparison of Attitudes and Emotions as Predictors of Behaviorat Diverse Levels of Behavioral Experience”. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 4 (1992): 493-504.Anderson, P. M. and Rubin, L.G. “Marketing communications: advertising, salespromotion, public relations, display, and personal selling”. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice-Hall, 1986.Bagozzi, R. P., and Warshaw, P. R. “Trying to consume”. Journal of ConsumerResearch, 17(1990): 127–140.Batra, R. Affective advertising: role, processes, and measurement. In R.A. Peterson, W.D. Hoyer and W.R.Wilson (eds) The Role of Affect in Consumer Behaviour. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, (1986): 53-86.Batra, R., Lehmann, D. and Singh, D. “The brand personality component of brandgoodwill: some antecedents and consequences”. In Aaker and Biel, Brand equity advertising:advertising’s rolein building strong brands, 83-95, 1993.COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 8
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  12. 12. Stewart, D.W. and Furse, D.H. “Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials”, Lexington,MA: Lexington Books. 1986.Stone, G., Besser, D. and Lewis, L. “Recall, liking and creativity in TV commercials: a new approach”.Journal of Advertising Research. , 40(2000): 7-18.Wells, W. “Measuring Advertising Effectiveness” (New Ed). US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. 1997.Wright, P.L. “Analyzing media effects on advertising responses”, Public Opinion Quarterly, 38(1974): 195-205.Human personality traits Brand personality dimensions SinceritySelf confidence ExcitementDominance RuggednessAggressiveness CompetenceSociability SophisticationDefensivenessTable 1Relation of human personality traits with the brand dimensions Social pressures Future intentions Personal Buying attitude behaviourCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 12
  13. 13. Figure 1 The link between social pressures, personal attitude, future intentions and consumer buying behaviour Factors Sources Findings Likeability results fromLikeability Beil and Bridgewater (1990), Brown (1991), DuPlessis cognitive viewpoint (1994b), Fishbein and Middlestadt (1995), Robinson providing entertainment (1997), Smith et al., (2006). information resulting in purchase intention Ads with InformativePersuasiveness Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), Haley et al., (1984), Stewart content, salience, cognitive and Furse (1986), Pechman and Stewart (1989) Beil and responses and brand Bridgewater (1990), Wells (1997). differentiation strategies are persuasive The distinguished brandBrand Batra, Lehmann and Singh (1993), Aaker (1996; 1997), identity creating brand image Keller (1998), Brassington and Pettitt (2000), based on or related to thePersonality human personality traits Ouwersloot and Tudorica (2001) Personal attitude, emotionsBuying Ajzen and Fishbein (1980), Bagozi and Warshaw when encountered with (1990), Allen et al (1992), DuPlessis (1994a), Cooper social pressures create futureBehaviour intentions relating to the and Donald (2001), Ajzen (2002), Morris et al., (2002), Smith et al., (2006). buying behaviour Brand loyalty results inBrand Jacoby and Chestnut (1978), Aaker (1991), Dick and marketing gain, market Basu (1994), Riechheld (1996), Oliver (1999), share, uplifting revenues andLoyalty elevation of business Chauhduri and Holbrook (2001). leverageTable 2Review of contributions made on the advertising factors. Likability Buying BehaviourAdvertising Persuasionfactors Brand Brand Loyalty personalityCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 13
  14. 14. Figure 2 The theoretical framework for this paper Advertisement campaign Brand image Brand equity Brand loyalty Brand value Figure 3 Importance of advertising campaigns in generating brand loyaltyCOPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research Page 14