Cultures and sub cultures


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Cultures and sub cultures

  1. 1. Cultures and Sub Cultures International Advertising
  2. 2. Importance of knowing culture • Each country exhibits cultural differences that influence the consumers’ needs and their method of satisfying them. • Space you live in? • Their response to a message at times also depends on any of the cultural aspect. • There have been umpteen examples when lack of knowledge on cultures lead to blunders.
  3. 3. Concept of Culture • There are 160 definitions to describe culture. • A complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired collectively by individuals as members of a society. • Culture is not inherent or innate. It is learned. • This learning takes place in family, mosque and school. • Another invisible place where we learn culture is mass media. • Culture is that aspect which is actually shared by the members of society and is a common factor.
  4. 4. Self Reference Criterion • When we examine other’s cultures we tend to do so with our own culturally tinted glasses. • If our culture place its weight on Education and Cleanliness we “assume” that other cultures also place the same value on these aspects. • This is one reason why marketers operating abroad behave in a culturally myopic manner.
  5. 5. Self Reference Criterion • People at times behave “culturally centered”. They evaluate all other societies by the standards of their own culture but also believe that their culture is the best or superior when compared to others’. • People in all cultures display this tendency. • Unfortunately this behavior prevents marketers from developing effective marketing strategies.
  6. 6. Self Reference Criterion • Gap has experienced similar challenges in moving abroad. • Sales in Gap’s 525 stores aboard was extremely poor. This made Gap cut their growth abroad to 20 percent which was 40 % in the previous year. • They simply believed that since their marketing strategy has been extremely successful in US it will be the same abroad.
  7. 7. Self Reference Criterion • Tags on cloths are in “English” and employees greet customers with a “Hi” which is offending for mannerly Japanese. • Different cultures have varying expectations about personal space and physical contact. Many Europeans and South Americans customarily kiss a business associate on both cheeks in greeting instead of shaking hands.
  8. 8. Self Reference Criterion • While Americans are most comfortable at armslength from business associates, other cultures have no problem standing shoulder-to-shoulder with their peers to whom they are speaking. • Our example based on gender treatment. • In Russia, according to the University of California, female colleagues often walk arm in arm, while the same behavior in other cultures may signify a more personal or sexual relationship.
  9. 9. A visual example of Cultural Collision
  10. 10. Subcultures • It is important to recognize that variations within cultures may be even greater than variations among cultures. • Sindhi, Mohajir, Punjabi, Baloochi, Pathan, Saraeki and Kashmiris. • On the other hand subcultures based on religious differences like deobandi, barelvi, ahle hadees, sheea and sunni. • Such subcultures are more difficult to recognize for the international marketers.
  11. 11. Subcultures • For example if KFC and MaC Donalds start playing modern Naat’s in their restaurants, will that be acceptable for some of the sects who visit their outlets to dine out. • This may also be obvious due to differences in income groups. The language, the accent, the slang all have an impact and may require time for identification. • How many accents our society exhibit?
  12. 12. Subcultures
  13. 13. Subcultures
  14. 14. Culture & Communication • International marketers must become students of culture. • Consideration of local language is necessary. • Can a multinational Fast Moving Consumer Good move in our society with out promotion in Urdu. • Can Lux run English TVCs in our society.
  15. 15. Culture & Communication • Notice the use of local models. • An American shoe manufacturer made an ad campaign with bare foot. Although such a concept may not have any problem in many cultures, In south east asia bare foot is a sign of insult. The campaign failed miserably. • Computer games is one example of cultural clashes.
  16. 16. Culture & Communication • When it comes to communication important factors are verbal communication both oral and written and the various forms of non verbal communication like gestures and other symbols. • When entering a foreign market a marketer must talk to government, business leaders as well as potential employees and suppliers.
  17. 17. Culture & Communication • Cultural aspects needs to be kept in perspective while choosing brand name, selecting copy or text to be included on product packaging, developing advertising slogans and creating advertising messages. • English is fast / most accepted as a global language. • Although 3 out of 4 world population doesn’t know English, still it is the most commonly spoken language in the world. More than any other language.
  18. 18. Culture & Communication • There are strong cultures and there are not so strong cultures. • Some cultures just do not let other cultures intervene. • Others some how let that happen.
  19. 19. Culture & Communication • The French and English clash. • French are mono lingual and they are defensive about their language. • French society has shown protesting attitude against use of English language or even mixing of English words. • French as well as international advertisers have come under fire for using English words in advertising copy.
  20. 20. Culture & Communication • The advertising standards regulator BVP argues that only 35% of the population speak enough English to be able to follow slogans such as JUST DO IT or THINK DIFFERENT. • In line with a 1994 law NIKE, APPLE and others have to develop slogan in French translation. • France is not alone in protecting its language there are other cultures like Koreans who go to every limit to protect their language.
  21. 21. Culture & Communication • Translation is the most important aspect while understanding the international commercial communications. • Errors in the translation of brand names, packaging copy and advertising messages have cost businesses millions of dollars. • Translators must also be familiar with idioms, accents and slangs etc.
  22. 22. Culture & Communication • The American Dairy Association campaign “Got Milk” was a tremendous success in US but when it decided to extend it to Mexico the translation meant “Are You Lactating?” • Coors translated its slogan “Turn it Loose” into Spanish where it was read as “ Suffer from Diarrhea”. • Bacardi’s fruity drink with the name “Pavian” to suggest French chic meant “Baboon” in German.
  23. 23. Culture & Communication • KFC Slogan Finger Licken Good in Chinese translation came out as “Eat Your Fingers Off”. • When Vicks introduced in German they came to know that V is pronounced as F which in German is the vulgar equivalent of sexual penetration.
  24. 24. Culture & Communication • China, as we’re repeatedly reminded, is a market of huge opportunity. With such an enormous, increasingly wealthy group of consumers on our doorstep, it’s important that your branding doesn’t backfire if you attempt to break into the Chinese market. • An entire industry has sprung up to advise foreign businesses on how to brand themselves correctly to Chinese consumers.
  25. 25. Culture & Communication • Chinese translation also proved difficult for Coke, which took two tries to get it right. • They first tried “Ke-kou-ke-la” because when pronounced it sounded roughly like Coca-Cola. It wasn't until after thousands of signs had been printed that they discovered that the phrase means "bite the wax tadpole" or "female horse stuffed with wax", depending on the dialect. • Second time around things worked out much better. After researching 40,000 Chinese characters, Coke came up with "ko-kou-ko-le" which translates roughly to the much more appropriate "happiness in the mouth".
  26. 26. Culture & Communication • Reebok has gone for Rui Bu, or “quick steps”, while Colgate’s Gao lu jie means “revealing superior cleanliness.” • Alas, Peugeot hasn’t fared so well. The French car brand is the butt of jokes in southern China, where it sounds unhappily like the regional slang for “prostitute.”
  27. 27. Culture & Communication • Things weren't much easier for Coke's arch-rival Pepsi. When they entered the Chinese market a few years ago, the translation of their slogan "Pepsi Brings you Back to Life" was a little more literal than they intended. In Chinese, the slogan meant, "Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back from the Grave". • But it's not just in Asian markets that soft drinks makers have problems. In Italy, a campaign for "Schweppes Tonic Water" translated the name into the much less thirst quenching "Schweppes Toilet Water".
  28. 28. Culture & Communication • The American slogan for Salem cigarettes, "Salem – Feeling Free," got translated in the Japanese market into "When smoking Salem, you feel so refreshed that your mind seems to be free and empty." • General Motors had a perplexing problem when they introduced the Chevy Nova in South America. Despite their best efforts, they weren't selling many cars. They finally realized that in Spanish, "nova" means "it won't go". Sales improved dramatically after the car was renamed the "Caribe."
  29. 29. Culture & Communication • Things weren't any better for Ford when they introduced the Pinto in Brazil. After watching sales go nowhere, the company learned that "Pinto" is Brazilian slang for "tiny male genitals." Ford pried the nameplates off all of the cars and substituted them with "Corcel," which means horse. • Sometimes it's one word of a slogan that changes the whole meaning. When Parker Pen marketed a ballpoint pen in Mexico, its ads were supposed to say "It won't leak in your pocket and embarrass you." However, the company mistakenly thought the Spanish word "embarazar" meant embarrass. Instead the ads said "It won't leak in your pocket and make you pregnant."
  30. 30. Culture & Communication • An American T-shirt maker in Miami printed shirts for the Spanish market which promoted the Pope's visit Instead of "I Saw the Pope" (el Papa), the shirts read "I Saw the Potato" (la papa)
  31. 31. Culture & Communication • One useful technique used world wide is called back-translation. • One individual is responsible for initial translation. The second translator then translates the meaning back into original language. If the message does not translate back there is a problem.
  32. 32. Culture & Communication • "We should first realize that there is no such thing as a universal form of communication. • Take the simple gesture of a smile. It is not unusual for Americans to exchange smiles with complete strangers. They consider it a friendly gesture. However, in other cultures a smile can take on a completely different meaning. • A smile can be considered insulting or it can signal embarrassment. Common gestures such as shrugging one's shoulders or scratching one's forehead can be completely misinterpreted by someone from another country.
  33. 33. Culture & Communication • Usually, cross-cultural gaffes stem from misjudging situations that involve mingling and communicating with others. These include: the dress code for appointments, the manner in which we introduce ourselves and greet others, expressing thanks to the hosts as well as proper etiquette for the presentation of gifts. • The interpretation of these social commitments varies from country to country. If we fail to educate ourselves in advance as to what is and what isn't acceptable, then we prime ourselves for unintentional embarrassment, possibly at the worst given moment. • Understanding and accepting cultural differences is critical if one expects to be successful in an overseas assignment.
  34. 34. Non Verbal Communication • 70% percent of all communication between two individuals is non verbal. • This can pose serious and more difficult challenges for international marketers. • Gestures refers to any movement of fingers, hands and arms. • The American OK gesture means Zero in France, signifies money in Japan and Korea but in Greece and Brazil it has vulgar connotations.
  35. 35. Non Verbal Communication • AT&T thumbs up campaign had problems when in Russain and Polish cultures it meant some thing extremely offensive due to visibility of the palm. The agency had to reshoot it to show the back of the hand is shown which was acceptable then. • Ronald MaCDonalds hand wave had to be changed in Thailand to show more respect and acceptability in the locals and appeal them more.
  36. 36. Non Verbal Communication • Some culture employ more gestures than others. It is said that if an Italian’s hand are tied he will not be able to communicate. Similarly Americans and Northern Europeans employ least gestures.
  37. 37. Country Behaviors Malaysia • The inhabitants of Malaysia belong to various ethnic groups. Malaysian partners take a long time to become acquainted with their potential partners and to build positive relations and mutual trust before they enter a business.
  38. 38. Country Behaviors Koreans • While negotiating with Koreans it is crucial to remember that it is a country of strong confucian traditions (a system of social and ethical philosophy), appreciating hierarchism, ceremonials, respect for old age and work etiquette. The social status of a Korean is determined by: ancestry, social standing of his family, biological age, professional status, gender, education
  39. 39. Country Behaviors • Age in Korean culture is an important issue. A youthful appearance in business can be a great obstruction. Therefore, people whose age does not imply experience and competence should not conduct negotiations with Koreans. • Women are not acceptable in business, either. Polish women coming to Korea for business purposes frequently find themselves in uncomfortable situations.
  40. 40. Country Behaviors Arab countries. Saudi Arabia • Religion has a huge impact on the way of taking decisions by Arabs. • In most Arab countries consumption of alcohol and pork is unacceptable. • If invited to a common table, one may not refuse. The Arabian negotiation technique is based on an ‘open door’ policy, which means that the door to the negotiation room is open to anybody, even people who have nothing to do with the business, which considerably extends the talks.
  41. 41. Country Behaviors • A lack of professional training, insufficient knowledge of history and customs of the other party’s country, and relying on improvisation in action are the basic faults of Polish managers. • Except an understanding of the cultural differences, the other factor of success in a specific region is local market customization. It requires an appropriate organization structure, as well as thorough knowledge of the market, its customs
  42. 42. Country Behaviors Conclusion • Cultural and social factors are of great importance in international business. A variety of cultures coexist in the global market and many of them might be entirely new and strange to us. Every company planning to enter a specific market ought to become acquainted with the culture of the country where they are going to operate, otherwise the probability of blundering increases. • Considering cultural differences in business and adapting to partner’s actions are some of the sources of success in confrontation with foreign Businesspeople. Nevertheless, the choice of behaviour cannot be inapplicable to the company’s action strategy .
  43. 43. Non Verbal Communication • • • • Intimate distance Personal distance Social distance Public distance.
  44. 44. Non Verbal Communication • Intimate distance: extends roughly 18 inches (46 cm) from the individual and is reserved for family, pets and very close friends. Displays of affection and comforting are commonly conducted within this space. The only strangers an individual typically accepts within his or her intimate space are health care professionals. • Personal distance: extends 1.5 to 4 feet (0.46–1.2 m) and is reserved for friends and acquaintances. A handshake will typically place strangers at least 2 to 4 feet (0.61–1.2 m) apart, preserving the personal distance. However, a friendly kiss on the cheek of a woman as a greeting is widely practised.
  45. 45. Non Verbal Communication • Social distance: extends from about 4 to 12 feet (1.2–3.7 m) and is used for formal, business and other impersonal interactions such as meeting a client. • Public Space: extends more than 12 feet (3.7 m) and is not guarded. Secret Service agents will commonly attempt to ensure 12 feet (3.7 m) of open space around dignitaries and high-ranking officials.
  46. 46. Non Verbal Communication • All above are defined differently in different Cultures. • We actually live in a bubble. In different cultures size of the bubble is different.
  47. 47. Cultural Distance and Psychic Distance: Cultural Distance and Psychic Distance. • Psychic Distance captures the manager’s individual perception of the differences between the home and the host country. It exists in the head of the person. • Psychic distance influences how managers formulate international marketing strategies and how they adapt marketing programs to different circumstances. • Cultural distance refers to the degree to which cultural values in one country are different from those in another country.
  48. 48. Cultural Distance and Psychic Distance: • Treating psychic distance as an individual-level phenomenon enables the firm to select sales and marketing people that are more likely to be successful in a particular foreign market by considering the person’s psychic distance toward that market. An appropriate match should increase the firm’s probability of success. • The probability of a religiously oriented person’s success in a foreign society. • The consequences of psychic distance may be addressed by the firm, but this is not the case with cultural distance, which is outside the firm’s control.
  49. 49. Cultural Distance and Psychic Distance: • Psychic distance can be identified and altered for better productivity of the manager. • Example of a hard line religious person sent to Thailand to manage a business.
  50. 50. Time Symbolism • Its not just Space but attitude towards “Time” is also very important. • Monochronic. Schedules are every thing. • US, Switzerland, Germany and Scandinivia. • Polychronic. Schedules mean little, but there are other human considerations as well. • Middle eastern and Asian cultures. • Both the cultures are poles apart.
  51. 51. Importance for Business P-TIME or M-TIME • Consider the agency client relationship. • Assume that both are operating on different time system. • If the client belongs to M-Time system and Agency belongs to P, Just imagine the irritation. • Telecom Company message for its Latin American audience where wife asks her husband to go downstairs and inform that they are 30 mins late. The campaign failed miserably and became an object of ridicule.
  52. 52. Colors, Symbols and Signs • International marketers must know the culture affiliations that countries have with different colors. That’s where product design, packaging, logos, advertisements and other collaterals become important. • Colors are taken for granted by international marketers. • Black a color of mourning in US and our part of the world. White is the color of death in Japan, Hong Kong and India. • White Lilies are funeral flowers in England, Canada and Sweden. In Mexico WHITE Lilies are said to raise spirits.
  53. 53. Colors, Symbols and Signs • Black a color of mourning in US and our part of the world. White is the color of death in Japan, Hong Kong and India. • White Lilies are funeral flowers in England, Canada and Sweden. In Mexico WHITE Lilies are said to raise spirits. • Yellow flowers are for death in Mexico and Taiwan and Purple is a color of death in brazil and are meant for funerals.
  54. 54. Colors, Symbols and Signs • In soviet union yellow flowers are considered sign of disrespect for women. • In Taiwan wearing a green hat signifies an unfaithful wife. • International marketers must know the culture affiliations that countries have with different colors. That’s where product design, packaging, logos, advertisements and other collaterals become important.
  55. 55. Colors, Symbols and Signs • When colors mean same across boundaries standardization strategy works. • Blue, green seem to well liked across the world. • Red, white and black are troubled colors and meanings vary. • Study of colors is advisable to marketers and advertisers.
  56. 56. Colors, Symbols and Signs • Some times companies failed to sell their products in certain markets and never knew why that happened. • Back of the mind occupancy of certain beliefs play their role. • The colors used were simply inappropriate. • Golf ball packaging color and number in a packet became reason for failure in Japan and china. White packaging and the number of balls were 4 a number of death in these societies. • 13 bad luck in US 7 in Kenya but good luck in Czechoslovakia.
  57. 57. Colors, Symbols and Signs etc. • Animals – owl is wisdom in US and UK. • In our part of the world Owl means different. And what about donkeys. • Thailand animals wearing sunglasses campaign failed. • In North Africa Cologne campaign showing man with Dog failed.
  58. 58. Colors, Symbols and Signs etc. • Alcoholic beverages are not consumed in most Muslim countries. • Pig in Islamic countries is totally prohibited. • Cow in Hinduism. • These have resulted riots in these societies. • Should we study proverbs of a society to learn more about the culture?
  59. 59. Colors, Symbols and Signs etc.
  60. 60. Religion, Morals and Ethical Standards • Knowledge of religion and morals is a must. • In our culture its more complicated as religion is defined in distinctly different manner by different groups. • In islamic cultures you can not use religious pics on packaging or logos. Nike example with logo resembling Allah. Logo meant to look like flames instead it resembled word Allah. • Hayat hotels give extra consideration to religion when they open in a market.
  61. 61. Religion, Morals and Ethical Standards • Gillette faced challenge in Iran. • They finally discovered that shaving is not just for face………….. And that’s how they were able to advertise it finally. They had to take a fatwa for their ad campaign. • Refrigerator ad portraying pork stored. • The case of POLOROID camera success in Arab. • Women in Arab advertising is an interesting study.
  62. 62. Religion, Morals and Ethical Standards • Women only appear in products which are related to them. • And that too while dressed very very appropriately with heads covered completely and in long dresses not showing hair or any other skin of the body. • In 1960s a Listerine ad failed as male and female were shown kissing in a public place. They discovered that such a move in public is not liked by Thai people.
  63. 63. Religion, Morals and Ethical Standards • Festivals and religious holidays like Ramadan, Eid. • ganga jamna sraswati festival in India for Hindus. MNCs cash on big time in such events. • It is important to study values. • We are a heterogeneous society when it comes to values.
  64. 64. Religion, Morals and Ethical Standards • You can not pinpoint one value and say that it is practiced by all in a society. • Working hard or having a good time may be perceived as a value. • Respect for elders is different in different societies. Does that have an impact on your advertising message?
  65. 65. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture The sample for this research shows that it is comprehensive. • 117,000 questionnaires. • 88,000 respondents. • 2o languages. • 66 countries.
  66. 66. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Hofstede worked out 4 important dimensions that can be used to classify countries. 1. Power distance or societal desire for hierarchy. 2. Individualism, society preference for a group or individual orientation. 3. Masculinity Versus Femininity 4. Uncertainty Avoidance
  67. 67. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Power distance • Degree of equality or inequality in a society. • Cultures with high Power Distance Index PDI tend to be more accepting of hierarchies and autocratic leadership. • Giving of authority is considered normal. • Individuals tend to obey elders, teachers and Bosses. • Manhole Cover manufacturer example from Malaysia. • Celebrities endorsements are given more weight age.
  68. 68. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture • Egalitarianism should be avoided in such societies. • (1) a negative attitude towards rules and principles, and (2) a positive attitude towards group decision-making • In cultures high on Egalitarianism or low on PDI authority has a negative connotation. • Americans avoid becoming dependent on others and don’t let others depend on them. • Consumers make decisions on the basis of facts and reasoning.
  69. 69. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Individualism, society preference for a group or individual orientation. • Americans are considered highly individualistic. It is said that the best and the worst in their society comes from Individualism. • This means loneliness and selfishness.
  70. 70. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture • A low Individualism ranking indicates a collectivistic society. • In such societies social ties are very strong. • Decisions are taken on collective grounds. • They think and take decisions in group. A failure reflects on a group and not individual. • Japanese are an example. • The concept of permanent jobs, life long medical and educational benefits all stem from this approach. This can be very easily seen in our society. • This aspect is also reflected in advertising.
  71. 71. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Masculinity versus Feminity • Masculine societies tend to strive for maximum social differentiation. • Men are given more important and productive roles in a society whereas a woman has more of a caring and nurturing role. • Venezuela is the largest Masculine society which means that there is much greater definition of roles in that society.
  72. 72. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture • Sweden on the other hand is the lowest Masculine society . Swedish woman earns as much as 90% when compared with men. Also one third seats in parliament belong to women. • This attitude also reflects in advertising and marketing and a professional must be sensitive to this.
  73. 73. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Uncertainty Avoidance • The degree to which society reinforce or does not reinforce uncertainty and ambiguity. • People in low Uncertainty Avoidance cultures are comfortable with ambiguity. • They feel that there should be as few rules as possible and they believe in common sense.
  74. 74. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Uncertainty Avoidance • When Uncertainty Avoidance is high there is more need for rules regulations and controls. • This often translates into search for truth. • Uncertainty Avoidance requires logical and direct information on the part of the communicator.
  75. 75. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture • Conflict and misunderstanding is avoided in such cultures. • Consumers in high Uncertainty Avoidance cultures are likely to be drawn to products that emphaisze low risk or safety features. • Facts and reasons in creative. • You can not exaggerate product features to sell.
  76. 76. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Long term / Short term orientation • Long term orientation means that the country subscribes to long term commitment and tradition. • Long term awards are expected on the basis of today’s hard work.
  77. 77. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture • In low Long term orientation societies change can occur more rapidly. • They look to past for motivation and inspiration. China, Japan and Korea examples. • People with Short term orientation perceive that the past is over and done with.
  78. 78. Why Consumers Buy Abraham Maslow Theory • He said that people needs are in hierarchy. • At the base are psychological needs. Food, water and shelter. • As these are met higher needs emerge for safety, security and protection from the environment. • Once this is done social needs arise for affection from family and friends and to belong to a group. • Higher order needs include the needs for esteem, self respect, success, prestige and achievement.
  79. 79. Abraham Maslow Theory
  80. 80. Why Consumers Buy • But people are definitely locked as people pursuing for esteem also have to fulfill psychological need. • Needs that dominate a particular culture depends heavily on the level of development. • More developed a society, there is more need for products that satisfy esteem. • Care must be adopted in following this model internationally as this study was done in western countries and may not hold true in eastern culture.
  81. 81. What Consumers Buy • Market Basket differs from countries to countries although most products are bought to satisfy basic psychological needs. Example of beef. In thai and Hindu cultures consumption of beef is minimal for cultural and religious reasons. • When Disney expanded to Europe just outside Paris they did not offer alcoholic beverages as they are banned in US in a park. To avoid losses they had to offer these drinks.
  82. 82. Who Makes Purchase Decision • The Marketer must know who in the market is the primary decision maker. • In Japanese culture housewife makes major consumption decisions from food to leisure. From saving to kids education. • In Libya, it is the other way round as man make all buying decisions. • In US people make their own buying decisions from children to teens and to adults. That reflects on INDIVIDUALISM we earlier studied.
  83. 83. How Much Consumers Buy • Even the quantity of products bought in different cultures is not the same. American make purchases on weekly basis. • In Europe and Japan purchasing is done on daily basis and that is due to shortage of storage space. This cultural aspect actually dictates packaging size. • In Spain 2 litre coke bottles failed as the local population uses small size refrigerators which could not accommodate this size. • In Japan when Philips introduced small size coffee maker sales took off.
  84. 84. ENDS
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