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Management and leadership

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  • 1. What is a manager?‘A person who is responsible for coordinating resources and the actions of others for the achievement ofgoals. ‘Therefore managers are involved in two tasks namely, • Leading people to achieve goals • Need to coordinate the actions of people along with the other resourcesPeter Drucker sees management as a task. Management is a discipline. But management is also people.Every achievement of management is the achievement of a manager. Every failure is a failure of themanager.Factors that affect a manager’s job role • External Environment • Internal Environment o Nature of the organisation o Activities and tasks o People o Structure o Technology o Level in the organisationDifference between managers • Based on the levels and the functions of management o First Line Managers (Junior Managers) o Middle Managers o Senior Managers • Based on the functional area o Marketing Managers / Finance Managers
  • 2. o General ManagersIs Management similar to Administration?There is a usual confusion between management and administration. It is generally seen thatManagement is a general descriptive label while administration refers to the implementation of systemsand procedures instigated by management.Administration takes place in accordance with some form of rules or procedures while managementimplies a greater degree of discretion.Management as a Science Successful managers are those who have learned the appropriate body of knowledge and have developed an ability to apply acquired skills and techniquesManagement as an art Successful managers are those born with appropriate intuition, intelligence and personality which are developed through the practice of leadershipManagement as Magic Successful managers are those who recognize that nobody really knows what’s going on and who persuades others of their own powers by calling up the appropriate gods by engaging in the expected ritualsManagement as Politics Successful managers are those who can work out unwritten laws of life in the organizational jungle and are able to play the games so that they winQualities of ManagersDifferent sets of skills are required at different levels of management. Technical Competence – This relates to the application of specific knowledge, methods and skills at discreet tasks. Technical Competence is more required at the operational level management. Social and Human Skills – This refers to interpersonal relationships in working with and through other people and the exercise of judgment. A distinctive feature of management is the ability to secure the effective use human resources of the organisation. This involves effective team work, direction and leadership of staff to achieve coordinated effort. Conceptual Ability – This is required in order to view the complexities of the operations of the organisation as a whole including environmental influences. It also includes decision making skills.
  • 3. Eleven qualities are put forward by Pedler et al of a successful manager. 1. Command of Basic Facts 2. Relevant professional understanding 3. Continuing sensitivity to events 4. Analytical, decision making and judgmental skills 5. Social skills and abilities 6. Emotional resilience 7. Proactivity 8. Creativity 9. Mental agility 10. Balanced learning habits and skills 11. Self Knowledge Managers Job Role According to Gulick and Urwick the main activities of managers are 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Staffing 4. Directing 5. Coordinating 6. Reporting 7. BudgetingMullins has identified three broad categories of managerial roles. • Interpersonal Roles
  • 4. o Figurehead o Leader o Liaison • Informational Roles o Monitor o Disseminator o Spokesperson • Decisional Role o Entrepreneur o Disturbance Handler o Resource Allocator o NegotiatorMinzberg’s Folklore and FactsFolklore Fact Study after study has shown that managers work at an unrelenting pace that their activities are characterized byThe manager is a reflective systematic brevity, variety and discontinuity and that they are stronglyplanner oriented to action and dislike reflective activities. In addition to handling exceptions, managerial work involves performing a number of regular duties, including ritual and ceremony, negotiations and processing of softThe effective manager has no regular information that links the organisation with itsduties to perform environment
  • 5. The senior manager needs aggregatedinformation which a formal management Managers strongly favour the oral media namely phoneinformation system best provides calls and meetings The managers programmes to schedule time, processManagement is or atleast is quickly information make decisions and so on remain locked deepbecoming a science and a profession inside their brainsLawrence’s Results Percentage of managers time Activity German British Attending regularly scheduled meetings 9.78 15.5 Attending irregular meetings 12.62 14.46 Ad hoc discussions 20.07 17.93 Being on the shop floor 16.87 17.35 On the phone 10.56 7.23 Working in the office 11.56 11.16 Talking to researchers 10.45 13.08 Various other activities 8.02 4.08 • From a study of 15 general managers Kotter found that although their jobs are different and they undertook their jobs differently all of them had two significant activities in common: Agenda Setting and Network Building. • Luthans did a study to find out what manager really do. Following are his findings.Communication Exchanging information, paper work 29%Traditional Management Planning, decision making, controlling 32%Networking Interacting with outsiders, socializing 19% Motivating, reinforcing, disciplining,Human resource management managing conflict 20%
  • 6. The way in which managers approach the performance of their jobs and the behavior they displaytowards subordinate staff is likely to be conditioned by predispositions about people and human natureand work.Drawing on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model McGregor put forward two suppositions about humannature and behavior at work. He argues that the style of management adopted is a function of themanagers attitudes towards people and assumptions about human nature and behavior. The twosuppositions are called theory X and theory Y.Theory X assumes on the carrot and stick approaches on which traditional organisations are built on. Itassumes the following. • The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of work • Most people must be coerced, controlled and directed in order for the organisation to function • Average person avoids responsibility and prefers to be directed and told what to do • Motivation occurs only at physiological and security levels.Theory Y assumes that the individual and organisation goals are well integrated. It assumes thefollowing. • For most people work is as natural as play or rest • People will exercise self direction and self control in the services of objectives to which they are committed to. • Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. • Given the right conditions the average worker can learn and accept and to seek responsibility • The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is distributed widely in the population. • The intellectual potential of the average person is only partially utilized. • Motivation occurs at social, self esteem and self actualization levels as well as the physiological and safety levels.The two views of Theory X and Theory Y tend to represent extremes. In practice the actual style ofmanagement behavior adopted will be influenced by the demands of the situation.
  • 7. Theory Y approach is better for jobs where the output is more qualitative. Further it is more suitable forscientific, professional jobs or organisations where the commitment is a prerequisite such as voluntaryor charity organisations.Theory X approach is suitable for jobs which offer little intrinsic reward or limited opportunities tosatisfy higher level needs.Building from the work of McGregor, Ouchi has put forward a theory Z approach. Theory Z environmentsare mostly seen in Japanese business models. Characteristics of theory Z approach are as follows. • Long term employment • Relatively slow process of evaluating and performance • Development of company specific skills and competencies • Informal control mechanisms supported by formal measures • Participative decision making • Broad concern for welfare of subordinates and coworkers.According to Ouchi, Theory Z organisations would be more effective as a result of an emphasis on trustwhich goes hand in hand with productivity, a less hierarchical and bureaucratic structure and higherlevels of worker involvement.Managerial / Leadership Grid attempts to evaluate different styles of management. There are two maindimensions of this model namely Concern for Production and Concern for People.
  • 8. The way in which managers approach the performance of their jobs and the behavior they displaytowards subordinate staff is likely to be conditioned by predispositions about people and human natureand work.Drawing on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model McGregor put forward two suppositions about humannature and behavior at work. He argues that the style of management adopted is a function of themanagers attitudes towards people and assumptions about human nature and behavior. The twosuppositions are called theory X and theory Y.Theory X assumes on the carrot and stick approaches on which traditional organisations are built on. Itassumes the following. • The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of work • Most people must be coerced, controlled and directed in order for the organisation to function • Average person avoids responsibility and prefers to be directed and told what to do • Motivation occurs only at physiological and security levels.Theory Y assumes that the individual and organisation goals are well integrated. It assumes thefollowing. • For most people work is as natural as play or rest • People will exercise self direction and self control in the services of objectives to which they are committed to. • Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. • Given the right conditions the average worker can learn and accept and to seek responsibility • The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is distributed widely in the population. • The intellectual potential of the average person is only partially utilized. • Motivation occurs at social, self esteem and self actualization levels as well as the physiological and safety levels.The two views of Theory X and Theory Y tend to represent extremes. In practice the actual style ofmanagement behavior adopted will be influenced by the demands of the situation.