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Zachman Frameworks and Baseball
 

Zachman Frameworks and Baseball

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  • The demonstrating is holding a baseball above my head and dropping in onto a table at waist height.
  • Everyone in this room knows that these are the essential modeling and simulation tasks. Everyone in this room does each of these tasks for every one of their models. The importance of the slide is merely that it list the tasks all in one place, this might help people to not forget a task. Notice that validation is not an afterthought to be done after the model is finished. Describe the system to be modeled and its scope Determine the purpose of the model – and how it will be used Determine the level of the model – this includes the scale, e.g. p a plastic model of a P-51 Mustang might be ¼ inch per foot Gather experimental data describing system behavior Investigate alternative models Select a tool or language for the simulation Make the model– this includes describing inputs, functions and outputs Validate the model* Show that the model behaves like the real system Emulate something not used in the model’s design Perform a sensitivity analysis Show interactions with other models Integrate with models for other systems Analyze the performance of the model Re-evaluate and improve the model Suggest new experiments on the real system State the assumptions, definitions and evaluation criteria
  • Models of behavior describe how the system responds to external excitation, that is how the system functions transform the inputs into outputs. Models of structure describe the components and their interactions. Models of physical properties describe units, values and tolerances for properties such as weight, speed of response, power required, etc. These might be captured in requirements. Models for analysis are used calculate properties of the whole system from the properties of its parts using equations of science and engineering. For example, the time for a car to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph can be calculated from the mass of the car, the power of the drive train, the aerodynamic drag coefficient, and the friction of the tires on the pavement.
  • So, why do we create models?
  • Why do we use frameworks?
  • In this set of slides we talk mostly about the perspectives not the roles. The roles could be Planner, Owner, Architect, Designer, Builder, or CEO, President, Director, Chief Systems Engineer, Program Manager, Systems Engineering Team Lead, Systems Analyst, Requirements Engineer, Use Case Engineer, User Interface Designer, Architect, Component Engineer, Test Engineer, System Integrator, Integration Tester, System Tester, Assembler, Technician, Machinist, For the Baseball example in this paper, the owner of the scope models in row 1 will be a Planner, like the Commissioner of Baseball. The owner of the business models in row 2 will be an Owner of a baseball team. The owner of the system models in row 3 will be a General Manager of a baseball team. The owner of the technology models in row 4 will be a Team Manager. And finally, the owner of the detailed models in row 5 will be an individual Baseball Player.
  • Author, educator and historian. Dean of Faculties and Provost at Columbia University in the 1950s and 60s.
  • Cm is the center of mass CoP is the center of percussion, which is one of the facets of the sweet spot
  • The dark blue line is the model for the human. Put that into the equations of Physics, specifically conservation of momentum and coefficient of restitution, and you get the pink line, the predicted batted-ball speed.
  • There are many models for the batting facility blueprints, schedules, tradeoff studies on pitching machines, pitcher-batter interaction protocols.
  • About 1998 the NCAA outlawed Titanium bats. Easton sued.
  • For example, base-line to base-line in tennis is 60 feet, pitching rubber to the plate is 60.5 feet and the ball comes at 100 mph (I expect regulations to slow down present day male pros). Women's softball is 45 feet and pitchers throw at 60 mph. Little leaguers are at 46 feet and they throw at 55 mph. For all of these sports the ball is in the air about a half second. In this cell we push or challenge or test the boundaries of our system. I expanded it out to ball and stick games and then retreated back to baseball.
  • The original game of fantasy baseball was the Rotisserie League created in 1980.
  • Actually, the movement of the ball depends only on the ball’s velocity and spin, both of which are vectors with a magnitude and direction. The movement of the ball also depends on things that are not properties of the ball such as gravity, humidity, air density and lift and drag due to movement through the air.
  • The shown trajectories are for a 90 and a 95 mph fastball
  • In 2007 A-Rod signed a ten-year $305 million contract with the New York Yankees.
  • In our laboratory, balls are mounted on drills and are rotated at 1200 rpm, 20 revolutions per second.
  •   The state is composed of total runs scored by the visiting team, total runs scored by the home team, inning, whether it is the top or the bottom of the inning, last person who batted for the visiting team, last person who batted for the home team, outs in this half of the present inning, balls on present batter, strikes on present batter, whether or not there is a runner on first base, whether or not there is a runner on second base, whether or not there is a runner on third base, and a list of players who have been removed from the game. These are the things that would be needed to restart a rain-delayed game. Actions of the pitcher that are pertinent include the grip, the delivery (overhand, three-quarters, side arm), wrist snap Teamwork includes signals (catcher-pitcher, manager-coach-batter), hit and run, bunt, stealing bases, double plays Finances include return on investment, contracts, television revenue Other things include batters’ physiology, minor leagues, TV time outs, weather, altitude,
  • Examples of bad granularity would be a time scale based on (1) the orbital duration for a 3d electron of an atom in the cork center or (2) the earths orbital duration.
  • In each case I am pushing on the boundary of my system. In each case I enlarge it a bit and then shrink back to Baseball. An example of bad granularity would be using a team manager or the president of the United States for who.
  • Model 1.3.1 is allowed to communicate with model 1.2. But it is not a standard interface. Therefore a custom interface must be carefully designed, implemented and managed. I work for Rick Botta. I have communicated with Gerard Quintanar, Gene Rotterman and Dave Staley, but when I did so I was careful to make sure that Rick knew what I was doing. I never communicated with the VPs, Kathleen or Michael Sturm.
  • Which cells are important depends on your viewpoint and role There is an implication here that the columns should not be reordered.
  • Depends on who you are and what you are interested in.
  • This table combines all four sources 2004 Sports Engineering Conf. Hung & Pallis (2004), 2005 Sports Engineering Conf., 2004 Information Systems Journal, Note that there are no papers about row 6!
  • Bahill thinks that it is row 3 (System Model), column 1 (What) and column 2 (How). Who would pay for developing a framework such as this? Bahill thinks it would be the President or CEO, a vice president would not have the budget or authority to do it.
  • AV-1 would contain the ConOps and OV-1 would contain the OCD. AV-1 shows how our system will interact with other DoD systems.
  • The documentation shows examples of UML, IDEF0, Net-centric and CADM tools for implementing each product.
  • SV-5 is supposed to show the mappings between the activities of OV-5 and the functions of SV-4.
  • Bahill
  • Bahill
  • Bahill

Zachman Frameworks and Baseball Zachman Frameworks and Baseball Presentation Transcript

  • A Zachman Framework Populated with Baseball Models Terry Bahill Systems and Industrial Engineering University of Arizona [email_address] copyright ©, 2004-09, Bahill This file is located at http://www.sie.arizona.edu/sysengr/slides/
  • References
    • Bahill, A. T., Botta, R. and Daniels, J., The Zachman Framework Populated with Baseball Models, Journal of Enterprise Architecture, 2 (4): 50-68, 2006. This paper is available at
    • http://www.sie.arizona.edu/sysengr/publishedPapers/ZachmanBaseball.pdf
    • Bahill, A. T., Botta, R. and Daniels, J., A systems engineering approach to organizing baseball models, keynote address at the Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, Tokyo, September 11-14, 2005.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Definitions
    • A model is a simplified representation of some view of a real system.
    • A simulation is an implementation of a model, often on a digital computer.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Example
    • This is a perfect model for the vertical movement of a major league fastball
    • [Bahill does a demonstration here]*
      • That is how long the pitch is in the air
      • That is how far a fastball drops due to gravity
    • It is a good model because
      • The model is simpler than the real system
      • It models only one aspect of the real system
        • Vertical movement
      • It illustrates that all models are not mathematical
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Model do not have to be smaller
    • Models do not have to be smaller than the entity they model.
    • Geometrical lines are one-dimensional and, therefore, cannot be seen with our eyes.
    • ____________________________
    • Things like the above are models of the geometrical concept of a line.
    • They have a measurable width and are, therefore, not true lines.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Tasks in the modeling process *
    • Describe the system to be modeled
    • Determine the purpose of the model
    • Determine the level of the model
    • Gather experimental data describing system behavior
    • Investigate alternative models
    • Select a tool or language for the simulation
    • Make the model
    • Validate the model*
      • Show that the model behaves like the real system
      • Emulate something not used in the model’s design
      • Perform a sensitivity analysis
      • Show interactions with other models
    • Integrate with models for other systems
    • Analyze the performance of the model
    • Re-evaluate and improve the model
    • Suggest new experiments on the real system
    • State the assumptions
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Philosophy 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
    • Models of behavior
    • Models of structure
    • Models of physical properties
    • Models for analysis
    Kinds of models 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Purpose of models
    • Guide decisions
    • Understand or improve an existing system or organization
    • Create a new design or system
    • Control a system
    • Suggest new experiments
    • Guide data collection activities
    • Allocate resources
    • Identify cost drivers
    • Increase return on investment
    • Identify bottlenecks
    • Help sell the product
    • Reduce risk
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Purpose of frameworks
    • Organize integrated models of an enterprise
    • Assess completeness of the descriptive representation of an enterprise
    • Understand an organization or a system
    • Assist in identification and categorization
    • Provide a communication mechanism
    • Help manage complexity
    • Identify the flow of money in the enterprise
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Frameworks
    • Frameworks help people organize and assess completeness of integrated models of their enterprises.
    • There are few public examples where a framework has been completely populated.
    • This paper will fill in a complete framework for Baseball.
    • We know of no other enterprise that has
      • models in as many cells,
      • where the models are not proprietary,
      • where the models will be understood by a large number of people without a steep learning curve.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Common frameworks
    • Zachman,
      • Zachman Enterprise Architecture Framework
    • DoDAF,
      • Department of Defense Architecture Framework
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • An empty Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • The rows present *
    • different perspectives of the enterprise
    • different views of the enterprise
    • different roles in the enterprise
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • The rows
    • Scope describes the system’s vision, mission, boundaries, architecture and constraints. The scope states what the system is to do. It is called a black box model, because we see the inputs and outputs, but the not the inner workings.
    • Business model shows goals, strategies and processes that are used to support the mission of the organization.
    • System model contains system requirements, objects, activities and functions that implement the business model. The system model states how the system is to perform its functions. It is called a white box model, because we see its inner workings.
    • Technology model considers the constraints of humans, tools, technology and materials.
    • Detailed representation presents individual, independent components that can be allocated to contractors for implementation.
    • Real system depicts the operational system under consideration.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • The columns
      • I Keep six honest serving men
      • (They taught me all I knew):
      • Their names are What and Why and When
      • And How and Where and Who.
      • From “The Elephant’s Child,” Rudyard Kipling, 1902.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • The columns present
    • various aspects of the enterprise
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • The columns
    • What (data) describes the entities involved in each perspective of the enterprise. Examples include equipment, business objects and system data.
    • How (functions) shows the functions within each perspective.
    • Where (networks) shows locations and interconnections within the enterprise. This includes major business geographical locations, networks and the playing field.
    • Who (people) represents the people within the enterprise and metrics for assessing their capabilities and performance. The design of the enterprise organization has to do with the allocation of work and the structure of authority and responsibility.
    • When (time) represents time, or the event relationships that establish performance criteria. This is useful for designing schedules, the processing architecture, the control architecture and timing systems.
    • Why (motivation) describes the motivations of the enterprise. This reveals the enterprise goals, objectives, business plan, knowledge architecture, and reasons for thinking, doing things and making decisions.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Goal
    • Jacques Barzun* said, “Whoever wants to know the heart and mind of America had better learn baseball, the rules and realities of the game.” Zachman says the way to learn Baseball is to understand the models in the 36 cells of a Zachman framework.
    • Our goal was to populate a Zachman framework with objective simulatable models for the science of baseball that were published in peer reviewed journals.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, What (data)
    • The object modeled in column 1 is the baseball bat.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, Row 5
    • Many models for the baseball bat explain the sweet spot, moment of inertia (MoI), center of percussion (CoP), etc. (Adair, 1994: Cross, 1998: Nathan, 2000 and 2003); column 1 (what), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, Row 5
    • The swing of a bat can be modeled with a translation and two rotations, one about the batter’s spine and the other between the two hands (Brancazio, 1987: Watts and Bahill, 2000); column 1 (what), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, Row 4 *
    • There is an ideal bat weight and a best weight distribution for each batter (Bahill and Karnavas, 1989 and 1991: Bahill and Morna Freitas, 1995: Bahill, 2004). The team helps the individual select and acquire the right bat; column 1 (what), row 4 (technology model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, Row 3 *
    • Each organization provides facilities for batting practice, conditioning and skills development; column 1 (what), row 3 (system model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, Row 2
    • The NCAA has created rules governing the allowed dimensions and performance of aluminum bats (Crisco, 1997: Nathan, 2003), For example, the bat shall not weigh less (in ounces) than its length (in inches); column 1 (what), row 2 (business model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 1, Row 1 *
    • The rules of ball and stick games (baseball, softball, cricket, tennis) are written to challenge the physiological limits of the human in many dimensions (Regan, 1992). There are rules for each piece of equipment; column 1 (what), row 1 (scope).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Slivers
    • We cannot present all baseball models in one study.
    • So we only present slivers.
    • The sliver used in column 1 (what) was the physical baseball bat. An alternate sliver for column 1 is information.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Information 1
    • Multiple TV cameras in major league stadiums pick up the flight of the pitch. The TV signals can be used to construct a computer model for the flight of the ball. When these data are used by the TV networks to display to the TV audience the location of the pitch relative to the strike zone, then they are being used as a Detailed Representation: row 5, column 1, role TV audience.
    • These data could be used to determine if the ball passed through the strike zone and this Technology Model information could be transmitted in real time to the umpire to help him call balls and strikes, this would be row 4, column 1, role umpire .
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Information 2
    • These data could also be put on the Internet for researchers to use to help determine the speed and spin of the ball, to allow them to model the movement of the ball and for sports fans to play fantasy baseball; this would be row 4, column 1, role researcher .
    • http://webusers.npl.uiuc.edu/~a-nathan/pob/pitchtracker.html
    • When this information is put on a CD and given to the umpire at the end of the game to give him feedback to improve the consistency of the set of umpires, then it is being used in a System Model (www.QuesTec.com): row 3 column 1, role umpires .
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Information 3
    • When knowledge about the difference in the strike zones of American and National League umpires is used to regulate enforcement of baseball rules, then it is being used in the Business Model: row 2, column 1, role commissioner and owners .
    • If such information were gathered and analyzed for cricket and tennis, then the derived wisdom would transcend baseball and become row 1, column 1.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, How (function)
    • The activity modeled in column 2 is one pitch and people’s response to it.
    • One pitch and people’s response to it is called a sliver of Baseball. I cannot present all of the thousands of Baseball models. So to limit the scope, I present only a few slivers. To enlarge the coverage I use a different sliver in each column.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 5 *
    • The movement of the pitch depends only on gravity, the ball’s velocity, and the spin (Watts and Bahill, 2000: Bahill and Baldwin, 2004), the right-hand rules shows how the ball is deflected by spin-induced forces (Bahill and Baldwin, 2007); column 2 (how), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • From the perspective of a right-handed pitcher 06/08/10 SaD Sid © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 5
    • Two strategies are used by the batter for tracking the pitch using the saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement systems (Bahill and LaRitz, 1984: McHugh and Bahill, 1985); column 2 (how), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Two strategies
    • The optimal hitting strategy : track the ball with smooth pursuit eye movements and fall behind in the last five feet.
    • The optimal learning strategy : track the ball over the first part of its trajectory with smooth pursuit eye movements, make a fast saccadic eye movement to the predicted point of bat-ball collision, then let the ball catch up to the eye. The batter observes the ball, makes a prediction of where it will hit his bat, sees the actual position of the ball when it hits the bat, and uses this feedback to learn to predict better next time.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 5
    • A neurophysiological model shows how the batter predicts where and when the ball will cross the plate ( Karnavas, Bahill and Regan, 1990: Bahill and Baldwin, 2004); column 2 (function, how), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Neurophysiological model 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 5
    • Underestimating the pitch speed can induce the perceptual illusion of the rising fastball (Karnavas, Bahill and Regan, 1990: Bahill and. Karnavas, 1993); column 2 (how), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 4
    • Teamwork and signals allow the manager, the batter and the runners to execute tactics such as hit and run, bunt, steal, take the pitch, swing away, etc.; column 2 (how), row 4 (technology model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 3
    • Stadiums can be equipped with a variety of optional equipment that can record and playback the pitch, such as the multiple television cameras used to aid the umpires (www.QuesTec.com) or entertain the TV audience (http://www.gueziec.org/kzone.html) and the stadium instant replay screens for the benefit of the players and spectators; column 2 (how), row 3 (system model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 2
    • Major League Baseball Inc. defines the strike zone and manages umpires; column 2 (how), row 2 (business model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 2, Row 1
    • The rules of baseball evolved over its first 50 years, but have been relatively stable over the last century (Gould, 2003) ; column 2 (how), row 1 (scope).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • A Zachman framework 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 3, Where (network)
    • The topic of column 3 is the baseball field; column 3 (where), row 6 (real system).
    • The human brain does not have x, y and z coordinates of objects. Humans must track objects using neurophysiological parameters. As a result outfielders run a curved path when tracking down fly balls (McBeath, Shaffer and Kaiser, 1995); column 3 (where), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • Batters must predict where and when the ball will cross the plate (Karnavas, Bahill and Regan, 1990: Bahill and Baldwin, 2004); column 3 (where), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • Before every pitch all fielder rehearse where they will throw the ball if they receive a ground ball or a fly ball; column 3 (where), row 4 (technology model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 3, Where (continued)
    • Where home plate is placed in the stadium effects the area behind the plate, the design of protective netting, the orientation to the sun, the distance to the fences and therefore safety and playing performance; column 3 (where), row 3 (system model).
    • Stadiums can be designed for baseball only or they may be shared by baseball, football and other events; column 3 (where), row 2 (business model).
    • Baseball is played in stadiums and broadcast on television. The teams are organized into leagues and divisions according to geography; column 3 (where), row 1 (scope).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 4, Who (people)
    • The people modeled in column 4 are major league baseball players; column 4 (who), row 6 (real system).
    • Physiological state of individual players determines whether and how well they play or if they are on the disabled list; column 4 (who), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • The count is the model for how the batter is doing during an at-bat; column 4 (who), row 4 (technology model).
    • Defining and locating the sweet spot of the bat is a human-machine interface: the teams help individuals understand this issue ; column 4 (who), row 4 (technology model).
    • Individual player performances are published daily in the box scores in the sports sections of newspapers. Player average performances are published weekly; column 4 (who), row 4 (technology model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 4, Who (continued)
    • Individual player statistics, Markov models and manager decisions (such as batting order) are used to simulate games and seasons: this is called fantasy baseball (Burkiet, Harold and Palacios, 1997; www.stats.com). Scouts make observations and evaluations of players’ performances and report this information back to their organizations; column 4 (who), row 3 (system model).
    • The General Manager (GM) creates the 25-man roster and trades players to improve it. It must contain a balance of players at each position, including short relievers, long relievers, etc .; column 4 (who), row 3 (system model).
    • Billy Beane, General Manager of the Oakland Athletics, evaluates the worth of players with innovative high-level metrics and he has the most successful low-salary team in the major leagues (Lewis, 2003). The GM must consider player positions, salaries, performance, etc. ; column 4 (who), row 3 (system model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 4, Who (continued)
    • George Steinbrenner, owner of the New York Yankees, evaluates the worth of his players with traditional metrics and he has the most successful high-salary team in the major leagues. The team owner must consider the team salary cap and return on investment ; column 4 (who), row 2 (business model).
    • Before the 2001 season, the owners of the Texas Rangers created a ten year $252 million contract for Alex Rodriguez (Cohen and Wallace, 2003); column 4 (who), row 2 (business model).
    • The Commissioner of Baseball coordinates the teams; the Major League Baseball Players Association and players’ agents orchestrate the activities of the players. The Commissioner must consider drug testing, salary caps, retirement plans, profit sharing and the reserve clause ; column 4 (who), row 1 (scope).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 5, When (time)
    • The fundamental unit of time in a baseball game is one pitch; column 5 (when), row 6 (real system).
    • The batter’s mental model for the pitch is based on the last one or two pitches or perhaps on the last 20 seconds (Bahill and Baldwin, 2004: Gray, 2003); column 5 (when), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • A successful tactic of pitchers is “work fast and change speed on every pitch” (Bahill and Baldwin, 2004); column 5 (when), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • The pitcher pitches the ball. The batter swings and hits the ball. He runs toward first base, etc. Our activity diagrams show one pitch and subsequent activities; column 5 (when), row 5 (detailed representation).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 5, When (continued)
    • Pitch count -- pitchers are often removed after, say, 120 pitches; column 5 (when), row 4 (technology model).
    • Pitching rotations, e.g. “Spahn and Sain and pray for rain;” column 5 (when), row 3 (system model)
    • Television networks determine the starting times of many games; column 5 (when), row 3 (system model).
    • Season schedules for all of the teams are complex because of the many constraints; column 5 (when), row 2 (business model)
    • Decisions must be made about interleague play, playoff structure, expansion teams, etc.; column 5 (when), row 1 (scope).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 6, Why (motivation)
    • Column 6 concerns why baseball people think the way they do and make the decisions they do; column 6 (why), row 6 (real system).
    • Why does the pitcher decide to throw a fastball, a slider, a curveball or a changeup? column 6 (why), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • Critical flicker fusion frequency explains why baseball players think there is a difference between the two-seam and the four-seam fastballs although Physics shows no difference (Bahill and Baldwin, 2004); column 6 (why), row 5 (detailed representation).
    • Batters have many heuristics. Among them is, with a 3-0 count expect a fastball because the pitcher will have the greatest confidence in throwing it for a strike (Williams and Underwood, 1982: Bahill and Baldwin, 2004); column 6 (why), row 4 (technical model).
    • The manager motivates his players by knowing when blame and when not to (Baldwin, 2001); column 6 (why), row 4 (technical model).
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • 06/08/10 The four seam fastball © 2009 Bahill
  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Four seam orientation 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • 06/08/10 The two seam fastball © 2009 Bahill
  • Two seam orientation 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • The effect is greater in real life
    • The four-seam fastball will present 80 seams per second.
    • There will be no flicker.
    • The batter will have fewer clues about the spin.
    • Hence he will predict less accurately, and may perceive more rising fastballs.
    • The two-seam fastball might flicker between 20 and 40 Hz.
    • If the batter could perceive this flicker,
    • then he could tune his mental model and predict more accurately.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 6, Why (continued)
    • Why does a manager decide to pitch to a famous slugger or intentionally walk him? In making this decision the manager considers the score, runners on base, batting average, slugging average, etc. (BRJ 2004); column 6 (why), row 4 (technical model).
    • General Managers trade players in order to have a winning season within their constraints. They are motivated by their drive for success; column 6 (why), row 3 (system model).
    • What motivates major league baseball players? Money, prestige, pride; column 6 (motivation), row 2 (business model)
    • What motivates baseball team owners? Power, ego, money; column 6 (motivation), row 2 (business model)
    • Easton Sports and Hillerich & Bradsby give wooden bats to major league players for free. Why? To build brand image so that they can sell more of their regular sports equipment; column 6 (motivation), row 2 (business model)
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Column 6, Why (continued)
    • The purpose of baseball is entertainment with two major subdivisions: television and baseball stadiums; column 6 (why), row 1 (scope).
    • Gould (2003) explains the intellectual complexity that causes sagacious Americans to be fascinated with baseball; column 6 (why), row 1 (scope).
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  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Lessons learned 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Increasing detail 1
    • In going from top to bottom more and more detail is introduced.
    • The number and size of the models in each cell increases from top to bottom, perhaps 3 times per row. Thus a row 5 cell could contain 100 times the mass (money, effort, pages of documentation, lines of code, number of diagrams, etc.) of a row 1 cell.
    • Our tables do not show this mushrooming.
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  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Other slivers
    • Instead of focusing on the bat, the lower rows of column 1 could have included other equipment, such as the ball, gloves, bases, masks, and the scoreboard.
    • They could have included*
      • system state
      • training equipment
      • actions of the pitcher
      • teamwork
      • finances
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  • Hierarchy
    • A Zachman framework is hierarchical: each cell can contain a framework of its own. We could make a framework for
      • Baseball
      • the major leagues
      • the Arizona Diamondbacks
      • Brandon Webb, etc.
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  • Granularity, row 6, real system
    • What: the baseball bat
    • How: one pitch and responses
    • Where: the baseball field
    • Who: major league baseball players
    • Time: the pitch interval*
    • Why: motivation for decisions
    • Are these six things at equivalent levels of detail?
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  • Granularity, row 1, scope *
    • What: Equipment rules
    • How: Rules of baseball, in particular the strike zone
    • Where: Baseball is played in stadiums and broadcast on television
    • Who: Commissioner of Baseball coordinates the teams; Major League Baseball Players Association and players’ agents orchestrate players’ activities
    • When: Chronology; decisions about interleague play, playoff structure, world series dates
    • Why: The purpose of baseball is entertainment
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  • To help with granularity
    • you should consider time scales as well as perspectives and roles, e. g.
    • row 1 -- a few years
    • row 2 -- seasonal events
    • row 3 -- one game
    • row 4 -- one at-bat
    • row 5 -- one swing
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  • Modeling generalities
    • All components in a model should be at the same level.
    • Models should only exchange inputs and outputs with other models of the same level, or maybe one level higher or lower.
    • Level means level of detail or level of abstraction.
      • This is not synonymous with Zachman’s rows.
    • Reference: A. T. Bahill, R. Botta and E. Smith, “What Are Levels?” Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), July 10-15, 2005, Rochester, NY
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  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Levels 1
    • Consider the Batter object in the activity diagram of the previous slide
    • We could model the state of his mind with the following attributes and states
      • Experience: rookie, veteran, imminent free agent
      • Salary: considered too low, considered too high, commensurate with earned respect
      • Physiology: age, health, on disabled list
      • Competition: other players at his position
    • Would this be easy to understand?
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  • Levels 2
    • Again consider the Batter object in that activity diagram
    • We could model the state of his mind with the following attributes and states
      • Balls, strikes, outs
      • Speed of last pitch
      • Runners on base
      • Last signal from coach
    • Is this easier to understand?
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  • For the batter in the activity diagram
    • Here is a class diagram at the appropriate level
    06/08/10 Here is a class diagram at the wrong level © 2009 Bahill
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  • Interoperability
    • Company models should interact with each other.
    • ISO AP233 is an application protocol that is creating an information model to capture the semantics needed for the interchange of information between tools.
    • Interoperability standards will help with reuse.
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  • The right tool
    • There is no correct modeling technique for any particular cell. For each cell, you should use which ever modeling tool is most appropriate, e. g.,
      • physical analogs, analytic equations, state machines, functional flow block diagrams, block diagrams of linear systems theory, transfer functions, state space models, differential or difference equations, object-oriented models, UML diagrams, SysML, Monte Carlo, statistical distributions, animations, mathematical programming, Markov processes, time-series models, financial models, Pert charts, Gantt charts, computer programs, use cases, mental models, tradeoff studies ...
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Top-down or bottom-up?
    • We discussed the models from bottom to top.
      • That is the way they were derived: in basic research, new models build on previous research.
    • In designing systems, better results will usually be obtained with a top-down approach.
    • Architects and Systems Engineers start at the top and work down.
    • Discipline engineers usually start at the bottom and work up.
    • Software engineers often start in the middle with use cases, objects and class diagrams.
    • This means that different people might be working at different levels.
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  • Column order
    • A newspaper article should start with who, what, when, where, why and sometimes how, usually in that order.
    • A Zachman framework has a different purpose and therefore a different column order.
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  • Which cells are most important?
    • To increase the performance of baseball players, the lower-left cells are the most important and the upper-right cells are least important.
      • UML diagrams are also most useful in the lower-left corner.
    • A CEO would be most interested in the top rows and in particular the upper-right corner*
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  • On which rows should you focus?
    • Rows 1 and 2 are the domain of the President, CEO, board of directors and rule making organizations.
    • Rows 3 and 4 are owned by managers.
    • Row 5 tasks are performed by the worker bees.
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  • Four collections of papers 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Classify this talk *
    • Given that we are studying Modeling and Simulation in the Enterprise, in which row and column should this talk be placed?
    • Who would pay for developing a framework such as this?
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  • Purpose?
    • What is the purpose of a framework?
      • Understand an organization or a system
    • What is the purpose of models?
      • Understand or improve an existing system or organization
      • Create a new design or system
      • Control a system
      • Suggest new experiments
      • Guide data collection activities
      • Allocate resources
      • Identify cost drivers
      • Increase return on investment
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  • To understand simulation in a particular company
    • The company could create a database and answer these questions for each model and simulation they have created.
      • Purpose? Owner? Architecture? Inputs? Outputs? Functions? Interfaces? Interacts with? Cost? Business case? Level? Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Standard (e.g. UML, RUP, CORBA)? Zachman row? Zachman column?
    • Reduce the number of classes using affinity analysis.
    • Abstract this into a metamodel that shows how that company does modeling and simulation.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Zachman and DoDAF
    • The Zachman framework is very useful for understanding existing enterprises.
    • DoDAF is intended to help document new systems of complex systems.
      • It is not requirements based.
      • It is based on operational capabilities, so it might be related to use cases.
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  • DoDAF’s four views
    • Operational View (OV), a description of the tasks, activities, operational elements and information exchanges required to accomplish DoD missions.
    • Systems and Services View (SV), a description of systems and interconnections supporting DoD functions.
    • Technical Standards View (TV), rules governing arrangement, interaction and interdependence of system parts or elements, whose purpose is to ensure that a conformant system satisfies a specified set of requirements.
    • All View (AV), information pertinent to the entire architecture. AV products set the scope and context of the architecture.
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  • All View (AV) products
    • All View (AV) products provide overarching descriptions of the entire architecture and define the scope and context of the architecture. The AV products are
    • AV-1 Overview and Summary Information*
    • AV-2 Integrated Dictionary
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  • Operational View (OV) products
    • OV-1 High Level Operational Concept Graphic
    • OV-2 Operational Node Connectivity Description
    • OV-3 Operational Information Exchange Matrix
    • OV-4 Organizational Relationships Chart
    • OV-5 Operational Activity Model
    • OV-6a Operational Rules Model
    • OV-6b Operational State Transition Description
    • OV-6c Operational Event-Trace Description
    • OV-7 Logical Data Model
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  • Product descriptions Table 2-1: List of Products, DoDAF version 1.5 Applicable View, Product , Product Name, General Description All View AV-1 Overview and Summary Information Scope, purpose, intended users, environment depicted, analytical findings All View AV-2 Integrated Dictionary Architecture data repository with definitions of all terms used in all products Operational OV-1 High-Level Operational Concept Graphic High-level graphical/textual description of operational concept Operational OV-2 Operational Node Connectivity Description Operational nodes, connectivity, and information exchange need lines between nodes Operational OV-3 Operational Information Exchange Matrix Information exchanged between nodes and the relevant attributes of that exchange Operational OV-4 Organizational Relationships Chart Organizational, role, or other relationships among organizations Operational OV-5 Operational Activity Model Capabilities, operational activities, relationships among activities, inputs, and outputs; overlays can show cost, performing nodes, or other pertinent information Operational OV-6a Operational Rules Model One of three products used to describe operational activity — identifies business rules that constrain operation Operational OV-6b Operational State Transition Description One of three products used to describe operational activity — identifies business process responses to events Operational OV-6c Operational Event-Trace Description One of three products used to describe operational activity — traces actions in a scenario or sequence of events Operational OV-7 Logical Data Model Documentation of the system data requirements and structural business process rules of the Operational View Systems and Services SV-1 Systems Interface Description Identification of systems nodes, systems, system items, services, and service items and their interconnections, within and between nodes Systems and Services SV-2 Systems Communications Description Systems nodes, systems, system items, services, and service items and their related communications laydowns Systems and Services SV-3 Systems-Systems Matrix , Services-Systems Matrix , Services-Services Matrix Relationships among systems and services in a given architecture; can be designed to show relationships of interest, e.g., system-type interfaces, planned vs. existing interfaces, etc. Systems and Services SV-4a Systems Functionality Description Functions performed by systems and the system data flows among system functions Systems and Services SV-4b Services Functionality Description Functions performed by services and the service data flow among service functions Systems and Services SV-5a Operational Activity to Systems Function Traceability Matrix Mapping of system functions back to operational activities Systems and Services SV-5b Operational Activity to Systems Traceability Matrix Mapping of systems back to capabilities or operational activities Systems and Services SV-5c Operational Activity to Services Traceability Matrix Mapping of services back to operational activities Systems and Services SV-6 Systems Data Exchange Matrix , Services Data Exchange Matrix Provides details of system or service data elements being exchanged between systems or services and the attributes of that exchange Systems and Services SV-7 Systems Performance Parameters Matrix , Services Performance Parameters Matrix Performance characteristics of Systems and Services View elements for the appropriate time frame(s) Systems and Services SV-8 Systems Evolution Description , Services Evolution Description Planned incremental steps toward migrating a suite of systems or services to a more efficient suite, or toward evolving a current system to a future implementation Systems and Services SV-9 Systems Technology Forecast , Services Technology Forecast Emerging technologies and software/hardware products that are expected to be available in a given set of time frames and that will affect future development of the architecture Systems and Services SV-10a Systems Rules Model , Services Rules Model One of three products used to describe system and service functionality — identifies constraints that are imposed on systems/services functionality due to some aspect of systems design or implementation Systems and Services SV-10b Systems State Transition Description , Services State Transition Description One of three products used to describe system and service functionality—identifies responses of a system/service to events Systems and Services SV-10c Systems Event-Trace Description , Services Event-Trace Description One of three products used to describe system or service functionality — identifies system/service-specific refinements of critical sequences of events described in the Operational View Systems and Services SV-11 Physical Schema Physical implementation of the Logical Data Model entities, e.g., message formats, file structures, physical schema Technical Standards TV-1 Technical Standards Profile Listing of standards that apply to Systems and Services View elements in a given architecture Technical Standards TV-2 Technical Standards Forecast Description of emerging standards and potential impact on current Systems and Services View elements, within a set of time frames 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Systems & Services View products
    • SV-1 System Interface Description
    • SV-2 Systems Communications Description
    • SV-3 Systems-Systems Matrix
    • SV-4 Systems Functionality Description
    • SV-5 Operational Activity to Systems Functionality Traceability Matrix*
    • SV-6 Systems Data Exchange Matrix
    • SV-7 Systems Performance Parameters Matrix
    • SV-8 Systems Evolution Description
    • SV-9 Systems Technology Forecast
    • SV-10a Systems Rules Model
    • SV-10b Systems State Transition Description
    • SV-10c Systems Event-Trace Description
    • SV-11 Physical Schema
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  • Technical Standards View (TV)
    • The TV products define technical standards, implementation conventions, business rules and criteria that govern the architecture. The TV products are
    • TV-1 Technical Standards Profile
    • TV-2 Technical Standards Forecast
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  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill AV-1 OV-1 OV-5 OV-2 AV-2 OV-4 SV-4 SV-1 SV-2 TV-1 DoD Framework Products Documents Legend Models SV-8 SV-9 TV-2 Forecast SV-10c SV-10b OV-6c OV-6b Scenario OV-7 SV-11 Data OV-6a SV-10a Rules OV-3 SV-5 SV-6 SV-3 SV-7 Matrices
  • Compared to our design process, DoDAF is missing
    • Document 2: Customer Requirements
    • Document 3: Derived Requirements
    • Document 4: System Test and Validation
    • Document 5: Concept Exploration
    • Tradeoff Matrix and Sensitivity Analysis
    • Schedule and Budget
    • Technical Analysis
    • Risk Management
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Compared to DoDAF, our design process is missing
    • Operational OV-6a Operational Rules Model
    • Operational OV-6b Operational State Transition Description
    • Operational OV-6c Operational Event-Trace Description
    • Technical Standards TV-1 Technical Standards Profile
    • Technical Standards TV-2 Technical Standards Forecast
    • Wymore includes technical standards in the Technology Requirement.
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Purpose 1
    • DoDAF: ensue that architectural descriptions can be compared and related across organizational boundaries
      • In a net-centric warfighting environment, there is a great need for integration and interoperability in order to achieve warfighting capabilities.
      • Describe the operation of interrelated systems 
    • Zachman: provide a basic structure that supports organization, integration, development, and management of a set of architectural representations
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  • Purpose 2
    • Neither DoDAF nor Zachman are design processes.
    • They can help document existing designs.
    • DoDAF is intended for unprecedented large systems of complex systems.
    • Zachman is intended for enterprises.
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  • Strengths
    • DoDAF:
      • organized
      • descriptive
      • extensive product relationships
      • identifies duplicate functions
      • accepted DoD standard
    • Zachman
      • organized
      • intuitive
      • breath of coverage
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  • Drawbacks
    • DoDAF
      • Cumbersome
      • Inflexible
      • Ponderous and hard to learn
    • Zachman
      • Elementary
      • Does not prescribe
        • design tradeoffs
        • design rationale
        • documentation of architecture decisions
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Zachman summary 1
    • To understand an enterprise, you should have a model in every cell of a Zachman framework
    • For each cell, use which ever modeling tool is most appropriate
    • Because a framework is hierarchical, cells in the lower rows will have many models
    • Cells in the top rows should trace to the organization’s vision and mission statements
    • Cells in a row should be at similar levels of detail (granularity)
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  • Zachman summary 2
    • Filling in a Zachman framework will help convince your customer that you understand the system to be designed and built.
    • Frameworks help promote integration of models.
    • Frameworks help show the flow of money.
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  • 06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • Seminar materials
    • A ball
    • Perhaps the two-seam and four-seam video
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill
  • How to print (in old MS Office)
    • To print this file, do this one time.
    • Pick the View menu
    • Chose Color/grayscale
    • Grayscale
    • Settings
    • Light grayscale
    • Close grayscale view
    06/08/10 © 2009 Bahill