The demonstrating is holding a baseball above my head and dropping in onto a table at waist height.
Everyone in this room knows that these are the essential modeling and simulation tasks. Everyone in this room does each of these tasks for every one of their models. The importance of the slide is merely that it list the tasks all in one place, this might help people to not forget a task. Notice that validation is not an afterthought to be done after the model is finished. Describe the system to be modeled and its scope Determine the purpose of the model – and how it will be used Determine the level of the model – this includes the scale, e.g. p a plastic model of a P-51 Mustang might be ¼ inch per foot Gather experimental data describing system behavior Investigate alternative models Select a tool or language for the simulation Make the model– this includes describing inputs, functions and outputs Validate the model* Show that the model behaves like the real system Emulate something not used in the model’s design Perform a sensitivity analysis Show interactions with other models Integrate with models for other systems Analyze the performance of the model Re-evaluate and improve the model Suggest new experiments on the real system State the assumptions, definitions and evaluation criteria
Models of behavior describe how the system responds to external excitation, that is how the system functions transform the inputs into outputs. Models of structure describe the components and their interactions. Models of physical properties describe units, values and tolerances for properties such as weight, speed of response, power required, etc. These might be captured in requirements. Models for analysis are used calculate properties of the whole system from the properties of its parts using equations of science and engineering. For example, the time for a car to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph can be calculated from the mass of the car, the power of the drive train, the aerodynamic drag coefficient, and the friction of the tires on the pavement.
So, why do we create models?
Why do we use frameworks?
In this set of slides we talk mostly about the perspectives not the roles. The roles could be Planner, Owner, Architect, Designer, Builder, or CEO, President, Director, Chief Systems Engineer, Program Manager, Systems Engineering Team Lead, Systems Analyst, Requirements Engineer, Use Case Engineer, User Interface Designer, Architect, Component Engineer, Test Engineer, System Integrator, Integration Tester, System Tester, Assembler, Technician, Machinist, For the Baseball example in this paper, the owner of the scope models in row 1 will be a Planner, like the Commissioner of Baseball. The owner of the business models in row 2 will be an Owner of a baseball team. The owner of the system models in row 3 will be a General Manager of a baseball team. The owner of the technology models in row 4 will be a Team Manager. And finally, the owner of the detailed models in row 5 will be an individual Baseball Player.
Author, educator and historian. Dean of Faculties and Provost at Columbia University in the 1950s and 60s.
Cm is the center of mass CoP is the center of percussion, which is one of the facets of the sweet spot
The dark blue line is the model for the human. Put that into the equations of Physics, specifically conservation of momentum and coefficient of restitution, and you get the pink line, the predicted batted-ball speed.
There are many models for the batting facility blueprints, schedules, tradeoff studies on pitching machines, pitcher-batter interaction protocols.
About 1998 the NCAA outlawed Titanium bats. Easton sued.
For example, base-line to base-line in tennis is 60 feet, pitching rubber to the plate is 60.5 feet and the ball comes at 100 mph (I expect regulations to slow down present day male pros). Women's softball is 45 feet and pitchers throw at 60 mph. Little leaguers are at 46 feet and they throw at 55 mph. For all of these sports the ball is in the air about a half second. In this cell we push or challenge or test the boundaries of our system. I expanded it out to ball and stick games and then retreated back to baseball.
The original game of fantasy baseball was the Rotisserie League created in 1980.
Actually, the movement of the ball depends only on the ball’s velocity and spin, both of which are vectors with a magnitude and direction. The movement of the ball also depends on things that are not properties of the ball such as gravity, humidity, air density and lift and drag due to movement through the air.
The shown trajectories are for a 90 and a 95 mph fastball
In 2007 A-Rod signed a ten-year $305 million contract with the New York Yankees.
In our laboratory, balls are mounted on drills and are rotated at 1200 rpm, 20 revolutions per second.
The state is composed of total runs scored by the visiting team, total runs scored by the home team, inning, whether it is the top or the bottom of the inning, last person who batted for the visiting team, last person who batted for the home team, outs in this half of the present inning, balls on present batter, strikes on present batter, whether or not there is a runner on first base, whether or not there is a runner on second base, whether or not there is a runner on third base, and a list of players who have been removed from the game. These are the things that would be needed to restart a rain-delayed game. Actions of the pitcher that are pertinent include the grip, the delivery (overhand, three-quarters, side arm), wrist snap Teamwork includes signals (catcher-pitcher, manager-coach-batter), hit and run, bunt, stealing bases, double plays Finances include return on investment, contracts, television revenue Other things include batters’ physiology, minor leagues, TV time outs, weather, altitude,
Examples of bad granularity would be a time scale based on (1) the orbital duration for a 3d electron of an atom in the cork center or (2) the earths orbital duration.
In each case I am pushing on the boundary of my system. In each case I enlarge it a bit and then shrink back to Baseball. An example of bad granularity would be using a team manager or the president of the United States for who.
Model 1.3.1 is allowed to communicate with model 1.2. But it is not a standard interface. Therefore a custom interface must be carefully designed, implemented and managed. I work for Rick Botta. I have communicated with Gerard Quintanar, Gene Rotterman and Dave Staley, but when I did so I was careful to make sure that Rick knew what I was doing. I never communicated with the VPs, Kathleen or Michael Sturm.
Which cells are important depends on your viewpoint and role There is an implication here that the columns should not be reordered.
Depends on who you are and what you are interested in.
This table combines all four sources 2004 Sports Engineering Conf. Hung & Pallis (2004), 2005 Sports Engineering Conf., 2004 Information Systems Journal, Note that there are no papers about row 6!
Bahill thinks that it is row 3 (System Model), column 1 (What) and column 2 (How). Who would pay for developing a framework such as this? Bahill thinks it would be the President or CEO, a vice president would not have the budget or authority to do it.
AV-1 would contain the ConOps and OV-1 would contain the OCD. AV-1 shows how our system will interact with other DoD systems.
The documentation shows examples of UML, IDEF0, Net-centric and CADM tools for implementing each product.
SV-5 is supposed to show the mappings between the activities of OV-5 and the functions of SV-4.