Need a change… How do you know which one, when, and how?
Analyze and articulate impact of change to business or technology.
Measure impact of moving from a current to targeted practice.
Freely available Sloan School of Management’s “Matrix of Change” tool. ( http:// ccs . mit . edu / MoC ).
Example: Establish GUI Team
Step 4: Enterprise Architecture Framework
Need direction and guidance?
Many frameworks to choose from. Comparison at: http://www.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8-doc/arch/p4/others/others. htm
Adopted the Zachman Framework ( http://www. zifa .com )
What is it?
A language that helps people think about complex concepts and communicate in non-technical terminology.
Zachman Framework Intro Question View Planner Owner Designer Builder As built What How Where Who When Why Data Function Network/ People/ Time/ Motive Node Work Cycle Rule design Business logistics Logical data model Semantic model System design Business locations Human interface Timing definition Business plan Important things Business functions People and groups Events and cycles Goals and strategy Process model Work Flow model Master schedule Application arch Distributed system Processing structure Business rule model Physical data model Tech arch GUI arch Control structure Data definition Code Network arch Security arch Rule repository
Zachman Framework: Columns
Columns = questions (taken from “Software Productivity Consortium”)
Who : Represents the people relationships within the enterprise. The design of the enterprise organization has to do with the allocation of work and the structure of authority and responsibility. The vertical dimension represents delegation of authority, and the horizontal represents the assignment of responsibility.
When : Represents time, or the event relationships. This is useful for designing the master schedule, the processing architecture, control architecture, and timing devices.
Why : Describes the motivations of the enterprise. This reveals the enterprise goals and objectives, business plan, knowledge architecture and design.
What : Describes the entities involved in each perspective of the enterprise. Examples include business objects, relational tables, or field definitions.
How : Shows the functions within each perspective. Examples include business processes, software application function, computer hardware function, and language control loop.
Where : Shows locations and interconnections within the enterprise. This includes major business geographical locations, separate sections within a logistics network, allocation of system nodes, or even memory addresses within the system.
Zachman Framework: Rows
Rows = Unique perspectives (taken from “Software Productivity Consortium”)
Scope : Corresponds to an executive summary for a planner who wants an estimate of the size, cost, and functionality of the system.
Business model : Shows all the business entities and processes and how they interact.
System model : Used by a systems analyst who must determine the data elements and software functions that represent the business model.
Technology model : Considers the constraints of tools, technology, and materials.
Components : Represent individual, independent modules that can be allocated to contractors for implementation.
Working system : Depicts the operational system as it functions.
Step 5: Model and Repository Management Tool
How do I model and collect information for the EA?
Zachman Framework - powerful thinking tool
lacks technology for putting it into practice.
Storing redundant lists of “stuff” in Word, Excel, Visio was difficult.
Application lists, security information, critical business cycles
Stanford’s Protégé Knowledgebase and Ontology Tool
Auto generates forms for collecting information based on ontology and class definitions.
Generates HTML output
Open source at http :// protege . stanford . edu /