Systems of Systems Challenges and Strategies   Jo Ann Lane jolane at usc.edu March 2010
Overview <ul><li>SoS context and key challenges </li></ul><ul><li>SoSE strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental commit...
What is a “System of Systems”? <ul><li>Very large systems using a framework or architecture to integrate constituent syste...
SoS Taxonomy <ul><li>Virtual [Maier, 1998] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks a central management authority and a clear SoS purp...
SoSE Activities for  “Acknowledged” SoS <ul><li>Key challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing CSs on SoS needs and capabil...
SoSE Synchronization Challenges O&S PD EMD ● ●  ● Constituent System  n (pre-existing)               TD MSA New Syst...
SoSE Process Strategies: Incremental Commitment Model for SoS  Clear “battle rhythm” for SoS incremental upgrades, driven ...
SoSE Process Strategies:  Lean Enterprise Principles SoSE guided by LAI Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions Lean Enterprise ...
SoSE Process Strategies: Engineering Cost Estimation  System  Capability CS 1 SoSE  contribution effort SoSE effort Equiva...
SoSE Process Strategies:  Artifacts Artifacts can be characterized as key boundary objects between SoS and constituent sys...
SoSE Process Strategies:  Test and Evaluation <ul><li>Key strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SoS-level testing builds on CS-...
Future SoSE Research Plans <ul><li>Conduct deeper dives into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lean lens analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>DoD Director, Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stevens-USC Systems ...
Questions?
References <ul><li>Dahmann, J. and K. Baldwin. 2008. Understanding the current state of US defense systems of systems and ...
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Systems of Systems Challenges and Strategies

  1. 1. Systems of Systems Challenges and Strategies Jo Ann Lane jolane at usc.edu March 2010
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>SoS context and key challenges </li></ul><ul><li>SoSE strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental commitment and evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lean principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering cost estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering and management artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test and evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future plans </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a “System of Systems”? <ul><li>Very large systems using a framework or architecture to integrate constituent systems (CSs) </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits emergent behavior not otherwise achievable by CSs </li></ul><ul><li>SoS CSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independently developed and managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New or existing systems in various stages of development/evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include a significant number of COTS products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have their own purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can dynamically come and go from SoS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business: Enterprise-wide and cross-enterprise integrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military/Crisis Response: Dynamic communications infrastructure </li></ul></ul>Based on Mark Maier’s SoS definition [Maier, 1998] Net - Centric SoS Net-Centric Connectivity Laboratory System Imaging Management System Pharmacy System Patient Management System Telemetry System Health Care Network
  4. 4. SoS Taxonomy <ul><li>Virtual [Maier, 1998] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks a central management authority and a clear SoS purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative [Maier, 1998] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS engineering teams work together, but no overarching SoSE team to guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acknowledged [Dahmann, 2008] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have recognized objectives, a designated manager, and resources at the SoS level (SoSE team) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directed [Maier, 2008] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SoS centrally managed by a government, corporate, or Lead System Integrator (LSI) and built to fulfill specific purposes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SoSE Activities for “Acknowledged” SoS <ul><li>Key challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing CSs on SoS needs and capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating development of new capabilities across CSs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating SoS roadmap to guide CS activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing SoS capabilities in an asynchronous development environment </li></ul></ul>Translating capability objectives Translating capability objectives Translating capability objectives Addressing new requirements & options Addressing new requirements & options Addressing requirements & solution options Understanding systems & relationships (includes plans) Understanding systems & relationships (includes plans) Understanding systems & relationships External Environment Developing, evolving and maintaining SoS design/arch Developing, evolving and maintaining SoS design/arch Developing & evolving SoS architecture Assessing (actual) performance to capability objectives Assessing (actual) performance to capability objectives Assessing performance to capability objectives Orchestrating upgrades to SoS Orchestrating upgrades to SoS Orchestrating upgrades to SoS Monitoring & assessing changes Monitoring & assessing changes Monitoring & assessing changes SoSE (SoS SE Guidebook View Based on Interviews and Analysis of 18 DoD SoSs in Various Stages)
  6. 6. SoSE Synchronization Challenges O&S PD EMD ● ● ● Constituent System n (pre-existing)       TD MSA New System A Constituent System B (pre-existing)          MS A MS B MS C Increment m Increment n-1 SoS SE Level* Increment m+1 Increment n Increment n+1   
  7. 7. SoSE Process Strategies: Incremental Commitment Model for SoS Clear “battle rhythm” for SoS incremental upgrades, driven by prioritized backlog of needed capabilities…. Constituent systems use their own lifecycle upgrade processes to integrate SoS requirements into their own incremental upgrade….
  8. 8. SoSE Process Strategies: Lean Enterprise Principles SoSE guided by LAI Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions mapped to SoSE core elements…. Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions mapped to DoD SoSE case studies…. SoSE Core Element Lean Enterprise Grand Questions Stakeholder Considerations Holistic Enterprise View Q1: Understand Current Q2: Future Possibilities Q3: Strategies and Tactics for Future Q4: Change Process Translating Capability Objectives X X X Understanding Systems and Relationships X X X Assessing Performance to Capability Objectives X X X X Developing and Evolving an SoS Architecture X X X X Monitoring and Assessing Changes X X X X Addressing Requirements and Solution Options X X X X Orchestrating Upgrades to SoS X X X
  9. 9. SoSE Process Strategies: Engineering Cost Estimation System Capability CS 1 SoSE contribution effort SoSE effort Equivalent set of “ sea-level” requirements Conversion to COSYSMO size units Calculations based on SoS characteristics/size and capability implementation approach using COSYSMO algorithm CS n SoSE contribution effort • • • SoSE Effort Applies reuse factors, different cost factors for each engineering organization at each system level, and diseconomy of scale for SoS and CS-level requirements implemented in the same upgrade cycle….
  10. 10. SoSE Process Strategies: Artifacts Artifacts can be characterized as key boundary objects between SoS and constituent system levels…
  11. 11. SoSE Process Strategies: Test and Evaluation <ul><li>Key strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SoS-level testing builds on CS-level testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of test ranges and operational testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence-based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SoS capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of SoS performance over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback process for fielded SoS </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Future SoSE Research Plans <ul><li>Conduct deeper dives into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lean lens analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test and evaluation analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SoSE artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SoS architecture evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SoSE cost model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate additional cost factors into COSYSMO to capture additional SoS characteristics and non-traditional SE effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate impacts of insufficient SE at SoS level on rework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break out SoSE effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SoS-level testing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Acknowledgements <ul><li>DoD Director, Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stevens-USC Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC) support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SoS case study work that has provided considerable engineering insights into SoSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LAI for their research into lean enterprise concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ricardo Valerdi’s pioneering work in the development of the COSYSMO cost model upon which the SoSE cost model is based </li></ul>
  14. 14. Questions?
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Dahmann, J. and K. Baldwin. 2008. Understanding the current state of US defense systems of systems and the implications for systems engineering. Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Conference , April 7-10, in Montreal, Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Defense. 2008. Systems e ngineering guide for system of systems, version 1.0. </li></ul><ul><li>Maier, M. 1998. Architecting principles for systems-of-systems. Systems Engineering 1, no. 4: 267-284. </li></ul><ul><li>Valerdi, R. 2005. Constructive systems engineering cost model . PhD. Dissertation, University of Southern California. </li></ul><ul><li>Valerdi, R. and M. Wheaton. 2005. ANSI/EIA 632 as a standardized WBS for COSYSMO, AIAA-2005-7373, Proceedings of the AIAA 5th Aviation, Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference , Arlington, Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang, G., R. Valerdi, A. Ankrum, C. Millar, and G. Roedler. 2008. COSYSMO reuse extension, Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Symposium of INCOSE , The Netherlands. </li></ul>
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