Business: Enterprise-wide and cross-enterprise integrations
Based on Mark Maier’s SoS definition [Maier, 1998] Net - Centric SoS Net-Centric Connectivity Laboratory System Imaging Management System Pharmacy System Patient Management System Telemetry System Health Care Network
Works to understand new capability and alternatives for providing it
Understanding Systems and Their Relationships
Collects and maintains information about current state of the SoS and its CSs
Assessing Performance to Capability Objectives
Evaluation of current performance and how performance meets current and future needs
Developing/Evolving SoS Architecture
Evaluation of existing SoS architecture and identification of alternatives to mitigate limitations and improve performance
Monitoring and Assessing Changes
Monitoring of CS non-SoS changes
Addressing Requirements and Solution Options
Evaluation/prioritization of SoS reqs
Evaluation of solution options and selection of option
Oversight activity to monitor progress of the CS SoS capability upgrades and mitigate obstacles
Current System Acquisition Methods Easy to misinterpret as one-size-fits-all
Spiral Model 2
High level guidance assumes that acquirers have extensive acquisition experience... Without experience, too easy to misinterpret and auger in with disastrous results... 1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-Model 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_model
Aircraft pilot coming off a cargo plane is assigned to manage/ oversee the acquisition of a new aircraft subsystem
Excellent understanding of aircraft personnel needs
No experience with system/software development
Conditioned to plan the flight and fly the plan
Tends to interpret V-model diagram sequentially
Tends to interpret spiral diagram as one-size-fits-all
Excessive complexity and confusion
Missed budgets and schedules
Rapid Change Creates a Late Cone of Uncertainty – Need incremental vs. one-shot development Uncertainties in competition, technology, organizations, mission priorities
SoSE Synchronization Challenges O&S PD EMD ● ● ● Constituent System n (pre-existing) TD MSA New System A Constituent System B (pre-existing) MS A MS B MS C Increment m Increment n-1 SoS SE Level* Increment m+1 Increment n Increment n+1
SoSE Process Strategies: Incremental Commitment Model for SoS Clear “battle rhythm” for SoS incremental upgrades, driven by prioritized backlog of needed capabilities…. Constituent systems use their own lifecycle upgrade processes to integrate SoS requirements into their own incremental upgrade….
SoSE Incremental Approach to Capability Synchronization O&S PD EMD ● ● ● Constituent System n (pre-existing) TD MSA New System A Constituent System B (pre-existing) MS A MS B MS C Increment m Increment n-1 SoS SE Level* Increment m+1 Increment n Increment n+1 Key to rapid development of SoS capabilities: Short constituent system increments…
Right thing at the right place, at the right time, and in the right quantity
Effective relationships (people and organizations) with the value stream
Continuously improve processes and products
Focus on quality from the beginning
Objectives of Lean Enterprise Principles* * E. Murman, et al., Lean Enterprise Value: Insights from MIT’s Lean Aerospace Initiative. New York , NY: Palgrave, 2002
SoSE Process Strategies: Incorporation of Lean Enterprise Principles SoSE guided by LAI Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions mapped to SoSE core elements…. Lean Enterprise 4 Grand Questions mapped to DoD SoSE case studies…. SoSE Core Element Lean Enterprise Grand Questions Stakeholder Considerations Holistic Enterprise View Q1: Understand Current Q2: Future Possibilities Q3: Strategies and Tactics for Future Q4: Change Process Translating Capability Objectives X X X Understanding Systems and Relationships X X X Assessing Performance to Capability Objectives X X X X Developing and Evolving an SoS Architecture X X X X Monitoring and Assessing Changes X X X X Addressing Requirements and Solution Options X X X X Orchestrating Upgrades to SoS X X X
SoSE Process Strategies: Engineering Cost Estimation System Capability CS 1 SoSE contribution effort SoSE effort Equivalent set of “ sea-level” requirements Conversion to COSYSMO size units Calculations based on SoS characteristics/size and capability implementation approach using COSYSMO algorithm CS n SoSE contribution effort • • • SoSE Effort Applies reuse factors, different cost factors for each engineering organization at each system level, and diseconomy of scale for SoS and CS-level requirements implemented in the same upgrade cycle….
SoSE Process Strategies: Artifacts Focus is on “value-adding” data and information… Many artifacts can also be characterized as key boundary objects between SoS and constituent system levels…
Dahmann, J. and K. Baldwin. 2008. Understanding the current state of US defense systems of systems and the implications for systems engineering. Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Conference , April 7-10, in Montreal, Canada.
Dahmann, J., G. Rebovich, J. Lane, and R. Lowry. 2010. System engineering artifacts for SoS. Proceedings of the IEEE Systems Conference , 5-8 April, in San Diego, CA.
Dahmann, J., J. Lane, G. Rebovich, and R. Lowry. 2010. System of systems test and evaluation challenges. Proceedings of the IEEE System of Systems Engineering Co nference, 22-24 June, in Loughborough, UK.
Department of Defense. 2008. Systems e ngineering guide for system of systems, version 1.0.
Lane, J. and R. Valerdi. 2010. How to Accelerate Understanding and Optimization of System of Systems Engineering through Lean Enterprise Principles, IEEE Systems Conference.
Lane, J. and T. Bohn. 2010. Using SySML to evolve systems of systems. USC CSSE Technical Report USC-CSSE-2010-506.
Maier, M. 1998. Architecting principles for systems-of-systems. Systems Engineering 1, no. 4: 267-284.
Valerdi, R. 2005. Constructive systems engineering cost model . PhD. Dissertation, University of Southern California.
Valerdi, R. and M. Wheaton. 2005. ANSI/EIA 632 as a standardized WBS for COSYSMO, AIAA-2005-7373, Proceedings of the AIAA 5th Aviation, Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference , Arlington, Virginia.
Wang, G., R. Valerdi, A. Ankrum, C. Millar, and G. Roedler. 2008. COSYSMO reuse extension, Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Symposium of INCOSE , The Netherlands.
Most of these papers can be found at: http://csse.usc.edu/csse/TECHRPTS/