Symbiosis of Enterprise Architecture and ICT Architecture  J.C. Wortmann¹, D.K. Hammer², J.B.M. Goossenaerts¹,  A.T.M. Aer...
Overview <ul><li>Four architectural domains </li></ul><ul><li>Six phases in enterprise architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Six...
Four Architectural Domains <ul><li>enterprise architecture, </li></ul><ul><li>model architecture,  </li></ul><ul><li>softw...
Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>Enterprises (recursively),  </li></ul><ul><li>their contracts, </li></ul><ul><li>their str...
Model Architecture <ul><li>Object models: </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Models </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow Models </li></ul><u...
Software Architecture <ul><li>Logical view (end-user functionality) </li></ul><ul><li>Components view (development) </li><...
ICT platform Architecture <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li...
Six Phases <ul><li>the functional hierarchy  </li></ul><ul><li>the functional hierarchy with function oriented automation ...
1. Functional hierarchy - no automation <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>functional hierarchy -- mach...
Point 1: <ul><li>Model architecture (hierarchy, processes) enables: </li></ul><ul><li>predictability,  </li></ul><ul><li>c...
2. Functional hierarchy: silo automation  <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture (same) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical communicat...
Point 2: <ul><li>Silo-based automation enables </li></ul><ul><li>speed and </li></ul><ul><li>reliability  </li></ul><ul><l...
3.  F-hierarchy: shared DB on mainframe <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture : logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>matrix organizat...
Point 3: <ul><li>Conceptual database and 3 schema architecture bridge gap between enterprise and ICT-domain </li></ul><ul>...
4. process-oriented enterprise  <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Units: value-adding process...
Point 4: <ul><li>Client-server enables internal integration </li></ul><ul><li>in a more flexible way than ad-hoc integrati...
5.  SC process oriented enterprise  <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-enterprise business proces...
Point 5: <ul><li>Enterprise application integration technology enables supply chain integration </li></ul><ul><li>Enterpri...
6. A gile process-oriented enterprise: the supply chain is the enterprise <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><u...
Point 6: <ul><li>ICT developments enable enterprises to make progress in directions where they would like to go: collabora...
Domain architecture - overview
Point 7: <ul><li>Modularity occurs within a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is defined within a domain </li></ul><ul>...
Conclusion <ul><li>Enterprise architectures and ICT architectures move forward in symbiosis </li></ul><ul><li>It takes fou...
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  1. 1. Symbiosis of Enterprise Architecture and ICT Architecture J.C. Wortmann¹, D.K. Hammer², J.B.M. Goossenaerts¹, A.T.M. Aerts²
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Four architectural domains </li></ul><ul><li>Six phases in enterprise architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Six times the same point: </li></ul><ul><li>It takes two to tango </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Architectures Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion : it takes four to tango </li></ul><ul><li>All in 10 minutes !! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Four Architectural Domains <ul><li>enterprise architecture, </li></ul><ul><li>model architecture, </li></ul><ul><li>software architecture and </li></ul><ul><li>ICT-platform architecture. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Enterprise Architecture <ul><li>Enterprises (recursively), </li></ul><ul><li>their contracts, </li></ul><ul><li>their structure, </li></ul><ul><li>their processes </li></ul><ul><li>their positions </li></ul><ul><li>their controls </li></ul><ul><li>their exchange (G, S, H, I, M, E) with others </li></ul>
  5. 5. Model Architecture <ul><li>Object models: </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Models </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow Models </li></ul><ul><li>Products Models </li></ul><ul><li>Document Models </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction Models </li></ul><ul><li>Users and Applications, </li></ul><ul><li>etcetera </li></ul>
  6. 6. Software Architecture <ul><li>Logical view (end-user functionality) </li></ul><ul><li>Components view (development) </li></ul><ul><li>Process view (run-time behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical view (installation) </li></ul><ul><li>Usage cases and scenarios </li></ul>
  7. 7. ICT platform Architecture <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul>
  8. 8. Six Phases <ul><li>the functional hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>the functional hierarchy with function oriented automation </li></ul><ul><li>the functional hierarchy with shared data base on mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>the process oriented enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>t he supply chain oriented enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>the web-enabled agile enterprise </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Functional hierarchy - no automation <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>functional hierarchy -- machine bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on resources within functional silos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Architecture -- hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>business processes carried by document flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>object models implemented in files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>humans perform calculations and access files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Platform Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paper, pencil, abacus, telegraph, telephone,mail </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Point 1: <ul><li>Model architecture (hierarchy, processes) enables: </li></ul><ul><li>predictability, </li></ul><ul><li>correctness, </li></ul><ul><li>repeatability, and </li></ul><ul><li>accountability. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. Functional hierarchy: silo automation <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture (same) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical communication well organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal communication slow and error-prone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Architecture (same) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>object models passive but explicit in functional datastructures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monolithic applications per functional area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Platform Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mainframe with terminals </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Point 2: <ul><li>Silo-based automation enables </li></ul><ul><li>speed and </li></ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul><ul><li>of all data-related activities </li></ul><ul><li>and calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>.. Automation enables improvement </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3. F-hierarchy: shared DB on mainframe <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture : logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>matrix organization to co-ordinate flows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single conceptual data model for whole enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit integration by “process diagrams” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>separation between data layer and application layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Platform Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mainframes with minicomputers as “satelites” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Point 3: <ul><li>Conceptual database and 3 schema architecture bridge gap between enterprise and ICT-domain </li></ul><ul><li>Automation problem of functional hierarchy is solved! </li></ul><ul><li>ICT-solution is cast in concrete while business requires change: business process re-engineering </li></ul>
  15. 15. 4. process-oriented enterprise <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Units: value-adding processes become leading principle rather than functional units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow plays the dominant role in modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object-orientation emerges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best-of-breed standard integration rather than ad hoc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separation of UI, business logic and data access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Platform Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 tier client-server; LAN; open platforms </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Point 4: <ul><li>Client-server enables internal integration </li></ul><ul><li>in a more flexible way than ad-hoc integration </li></ul><ul><li>ideal tool for BPR </li></ul><ul><li>But .. Enterprise needs are already moving towards external integration over the supply chain </li></ul>
  17. 17. 5. SC process oriented enterprise <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-enterprise business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>re-definition of roles in the supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>federated models of heterogeneous origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semantic mapping and explicit SC modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asynchronous message-based integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mapping and transaction services; rich UI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Platform Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN; 3-tier CS; Distributed data and processing </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Point 5: <ul><li>Enterprise application integration technology enables supply chain integration </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprises leverage these technologies to move forward towards more responsiveness and agility </li></ul>
  19. 19. 6. A gile process-oriented enterprise: the supply chain is the enterprise <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>differentiation; scope; globalization; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task-based UI; self-descriptive data; scope and roles; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>executable models; distant users; differentiated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thin client; mobile agents; alert and launch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT Platform Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ubiquituous asynchronous, heterogeneous computing </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Point 6: <ul><li>ICT developments enable enterprises to make progress in directions where they would like to go: collaborativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprises leverage ICT developments as soon as they occur -- when there is a market opportunity: e-business </li></ul>
  21. 21. Domain architecture - overview
  22. 22. Point 7: <ul><li>Modularity occurs within a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is defined within a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Integration covers several domains </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthrough occurs in several domains </li></ul><ul><li>Architecting requires several domains </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>Enterprise architectures and ICT architectures move forward in symbiosis </li></ul><ul><li>It takes four to tango </li></ul>

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