Semantic-based Architectures Eric Okin Assistant Deputy Director  Policy and Architecture; DFAS - DTB Mike Lubash XML Team...
Architecture: Objective <ul><li>Develop Knowledge Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better communication </li></ul></ul></...
What Language Do We Use? Perhaps a better question is… Is there a common instrument or language to capture associated meta...
What Language Do We Use?  UML? <ul><li>UML is primarily a…  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>system design language </li>...
What Language Do We Use? Declarative Language Requirement:  Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Too...
ADML <ul><li>The Open Group </li></ul><ul><li>World-Wide Web Consortium  (W3C) </li></ul><ul><li>Object Management Group (...
What Language Do We Use?  Bad News No single tool exists for both modeling the enterprise and documenting the applications...
What Language Do We Use?  More Bad News Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Tools Test Tools Manage...
So Then What? Vocabularies Content We have many ways to express our architecture Changing Vocabularies and Content is  gua...
The Ever Changing Enterprise Ontology – Full Business Semantics Navigation Systems Services  Some of our artifacts are mor...
Foundational Layers: Ontology – Full Business Semantics Navigation Systems Services  Need to build upon these stable layer...
Semantics:  Key to Meeting our    Architectural Objectives Ontology – Full Business Semantics This layer then becomes our ...
What Experience Tells Us… Ontology – Full Business Semantics We need to provide the mechanism to provide many views, many ...
Semantic-based Architecture:  Properties Ontology – Full Business Semantics <ul><li>Context-driven </li></ul><ul><li>All c...
Logic is Explicitly Declared:  To Physical Ontology – Full Business Semantics Message Content Logical Declarative Layer Co...
Logic is Explicitly Declared:  Between Layers Ontology – Full Business Semantics Navigation Systems Logical Declarative La...
Can You Give an Example?
Enterprise Information Services Layer  Business Applications and Functions Assurance Access Gateway  Workflow Exchange Bac...
Enterprise Information Services Layer  Business Applications and Functions Assurance Access Gateway   Workflow Exchange Ba...
Enterprise Information Services Layer  SHIFT SHIFT Hub n’ Spoke I nformation  S ervices  L ayer Centralized data processin...
Enterprise Information Services Layer  Mapping using EISL, ‘Help from Above’ to Registry for semantic interpretations  <ul...
Summary <ul><li>Architecture is critical to a successful enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>There is not one way, but many ways ...
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Semantic-based Architectures Eric Okin

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Semantic-based Architectures Eric Okin

  1. 1. Semantic-based Architectures Eric Okin Assistant Deputy Director Policy and Architecture; DFAS - DTB Mike Lubash XML Team Leader DoD Finance and Accounting Namespace Manager
  2. 2. Architecture: Objective <ul><li>Develop Knowledge Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans and applications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment & consensus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate conflicting initiatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improve efficiency and cohesion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize current performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leverage technology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>automate business processes and activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Position the Enterprise for Change </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper deliverables to capture the enterprise ‘blueprint’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the impact of change (analysis/gaps) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traceability from business requirements to implementation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What Language Do We Use? Perhaps a better question is… Is there a common instrument or language to capture associated metadata to achieve our architectural objectives?
  4. 4. What Language Do We Use? UML? <ul><li>UML is primarily a… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>system design language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>graphical language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Tools Test Tools Management Tools But, we are looking for declarative method for describing our enterprise
  5. 5. What Language Do We Use? Declarative Language Requirement: Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Tools Test Tools Management Tools A declarative language that addresses the entire spectrum of our enterprise
  6. 6. ADML <ul><li>The Open Group </li></ul><ul><li>World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C) </li></ul><ul><li>Object Management Group (OMG) </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-electronics and Computer technology Consortium (MCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Carnegie Mellon University ( CMU) </li></ul>US Army has publicly stated (at the first Open Group Architecture Tools Symposium, Washington, October 1999) a need for ADML to allow sharing of architecture information between different vendors' tools. Architecture Description Markup Language Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Tools Test Tools Management Tools
  7. 7. What Language Do We Use? Bad News No single tool exists for both modeling the enterprise and documenting the applications that implement the business solution. <ul><ul><li>TOG - provided a forum to standardize ADML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W3C - developed the specifications for XML and XSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OMG - developed the specifications for XMI and MOF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MCC - developed the specification for ADML reliant on XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMU - developed the ACME model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DoD - ???? </li></ul></ul>Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Tools Test Tools Management Tools <ul><ul><li>Vocabularies - </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What Language Do We Use? More Bad News Business Tools Architecture Tools Design Tools Development Tools Test Tools Management Tools Oracle's Dynamic Services Framework Different Resolutions
  9. 9. So Then What? Vocabularies Content We have many ways to express our architecture Changing Vocabularies and Content is guaranteed 1 2 3 Lets review what we do know…
  10. 10. The Ever Changing Enterprise Ontology – Full Business Semantics Navigation Systems Services Some of our artifacts are more stable than others Enabling Technologies Interfaces Vocabularies Content
  11. 11. Foundational Layers: Ontology – Full Business Semantics Navigation Systems Services Need to build upon these stable layers Enabling Technologies Interfaces Vocabularies Content
  12. 12. Semantics: Key to Meeting our Architectural Objectives Ontology – Full Business Semantics This layer then becomes our driver, our most critical layer, and thus our foundation which to architect – We need to be able to communicate and manage this layer well, if not, above layers become unstable This layer is also our costliest to change!
  13. 13. What Experience Tells Us… Ontology – Full Business Semantics We need to provide the mechanism to provide many views, many sizes depending on context, so… <ul><li>One-size architectures don’t work </li></ul><ul><li>One-size processes don’t work </li></ul><ul><li>One-size data model doesn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>One-size transaction ‘standards’ don’t work </li></ul>
  14. 14. Semantic-based Architecture: Properties Ontology – Full Business Semantics <ul><li>Context-driven </li></ul><ul><li>All critical business artifacts are defined in an ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Allows semantic alignment in an ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Layers are tailored to business use, and not ‘fixed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Logic from conceptual to physical entities is defined </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are documented exposed, and not implied </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology resides and managed in registry/repository </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology constructs requires classifications & relations </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology and metadata artifacts are viewed as a critical enterprise asset and thus well managed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Logic is Explicitly Declared: To Physical Ontology – Full Business Semantics Message Content Logical Declarative Layer Conceptual Physical Context
  16. 16. Logic is Explicitly Declared: Between Layers Ontology – Full Business Semantics Navigation Systems Logical Declarative Layer Layer 1 Layer 2 Context With the information collection and building process, layers provide input into others, e.g. Web portals
  17. 17. Can You Give an Example?
  18. 18. Enterprise Information Services Layer Business Applications and Functions Assurance Access Gateway Workflow Exchange Back-End Enterprise Information Services Layer - EISL Front-End DCR Collaboration Apps Web Browser Email Client Telephone Wireless Finance Account HR Project Mgmt Procure User Interface - Presentation 2 Common Exchange SOAP-based Envelope HTTP 1 Common Services Oracle9i WSF Web Services Framework DCW Registry DCD
  19. 19. Enterprise Information Services Layer Business Applications and Functions Assurance Access Gateway Workflow Exchange Back-End Enterprise Information Services Layer - EISL Front-End DCR Collaboration Apps Web Browser Email Client Telephone Wireless Finance Account HR Project Mgmt Procure User Interface - Presentation 2 Common Exchange SOAP-based Envelope HTTP 1 Common Services Oracle9i WSF Web Services Framework DCW Registry DCD Ontology Semantics Navigation Systems Services Interfaces XML Enabling Technology
  20. 20. Enterprise Information Services Layer SHIFT SHIFT Hub n’ Spoke I nformation S ervices L ayer Centralized data processing only Virtual Pt.-to-Pt. Broker-based Metadata Strategy Reuse: High Central End-to-End Tracking: Yes, Central Integration at Broker Lookup Info: Must publish to Broker Mapping: Two or more Bandwidth Required: Highest Computing: Central; Big Iron Impact of Changes: High Pt.-to-Pt. Real-time: No Technology Solution Central & Distributed data processing Common Pt.-to-Pt. Mechanism Enterprise Metadata Strategy Reuse: Much Opportunity End-to-End Tracking: Services Integration at Point of Use Lookup Info: Kept at Domain Mapping: Once Bandwidth Required: Lowest Computing: Distributed Load Impact of Changes: Low Pt.-to-Pt. Real-time: Yes Business Solution Ad Hoc Distributed data processing Simple Pt.-to-Pt. No Metadata Strategy Reuse: Little Opportunity End-to-End Tracking: Low Integration at Point of Use Lookup Info: Kept at Domain Mapping: Only Once Bandwidth Required: Lowest Computing: Distributed Load Impact of Changes: Low Pt.-to-Pt. Real-time: Yes Immediate Solution
  21. 21. Enterprise Information Services Layer Mapping using EISL, ‘Help from Above’ to Registry for semantic interpretations <ul><li>Uses same registry to align concepts; architectures, layers, processes, messages, etc. from: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conceptual to conceptual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conceptual to physical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical to physical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>Architecture is critical to a successful enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>There is not one way, but many ways of capturing, describing, discussing facets of an enterprise architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture spans horizontally across an entity's life cycle and vertically through many resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic alignment is crucial for communication, and achieved via a business’ ontology stored in a registry </li></ul><ul><li>EISL is an example architecture du jour, tomorrow change will effect some, if not many of the components </li></ul><ul><li>To be successful, metadata artifacts need to be seen as a critical business asset </li></ul><ul><li>Only context-based mechanisms will develop the required knowledge capital and position the enterprise for change </li></ul>
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