SCORM 2004 Enterprise ELearning Architecture
Oklahoma Department of Career & Technology Education
Table of Contents
The Integration Challenge ............................................................................................. 3
The Ultimate Goal ......................................................................................................... 5
SCORM Dreams vs. Reality .......................................................................................... 6
Bending the SCORM ..................................................................................................... 6
Breaking the SCORM .................................................................................................... 7
A Modified SCORM Infrastructure ................................................................................. 8
Appendix 1: Definitions .................................................................................................. 12
Appendix 2: Related Reading ........................................................................................ 15
Appendix 3: Related Software ....................................................................................... 16
Appendix 4: Architecture Overview Diagram ................................................................. 17
The Integration Challenge
Elearning cannot be successful in a vacuum. Elearning leverages existing technology to deliver
existing training that meets existing goals. Elearning does not force a retooling of existing IT
infrastructure or human resources development. It does; however, require that these systems exist.
Existing Training Development
Training developers that are successful with inperson training programs already possess the skills
necessary to deploy and manage elearning. The elearning medium should not force philosophical
changes on existing training development strategies. The primary goal is to extend existing training
frameworks to encompass elearning.
Reusing educational objectives consistently across the enterprise requires a standard format and
application model. IMS, the leading international elearning standards body, provides a specification
called the Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). The RDCEO
specification provides a readytogo model for defining objectives across the enterprise. Elearning
initiatives that implement the SCORM depend on a catalog of RDCEOs to complete the metadata
requirements for content.
However, these RDCEOs provide little additional value if they are not placed within a larger framework of
competencies and job descriptions that drive the organization. Defining objectives and nesting them
beneath a hierarchy of competencies unlocks the reusability of these items. Competencies that exist for
multiple jobs share a set of RDCEOs, SCOs, and assessment items. RDCEOs, and the context
provided by a competency framework for employees is beyond the SCORM. However, the SCORM will
not thrive without these additional frameworks.
Representing content consistently across the enterprise requires a specification for creating and moving
content in and out of disparate systems. The SCORM leverages the IMS standard for content packaging
to achieve this goal. A lesson authored to the SCORM may contain any type and number of files, but it
must be accompanied by a set of XML documents that identify it as a SCO. Systems that import or
export these content packages utilize this information to describe the content's purpose to the delivery
Carnegie Mellon's Learning Systems Architecture Lab (LSAL) has published numerous guides designed
to assist instructional designers with the creation of content that conforms to the SCORM. LSAL's
SCORM Content Developer's Guide is a must read for training developers that intend to implement the
SCORM. The Content Developer's Guide outlines a process for extending existing training development
practices to produce SCOs.
The SCORM enables training developers to benefit from content reuse. It follows that training
developers must be able to identify and capitalize on opportunities for reuse. Taking advantage of
these opportunities requires a knowledge management system that relates competencies, objectives,
and SCOs throughout the enterprise.
Representing assessment consistently across the enterprise requires a specification for creating and
delivering assessments. IMS has created the Question Test Interoperability specification to meet this
challenge. QTI formatted assessments are expressed in XML files and they can be moved in and out of
QTIaware applications throughout the enterprise.
It is important to realize that the SCORM does not address assessment. QTIformatted assessments
can be delivered through a SCORM compliant LMS as SCOs. However, the dominant method for
delivering online assessments involves a separate delivery system. Test delivery that occurs alongside
course delivery is accomplished through an LMSspecific feature set or a separate web service such as
Questionmark's Perception product.
The key to integration with other facets of the SCORM is chunking each assessment into an item bank
that resides with the SCO it supports. Within the knowledge management system, objectives
(RDCEOS), content (SCOs), and test items (QTI) should reside together. This facilitates the rapid
discovery and reuse of all training assets within the enterprise.
The QTI standard is not a formal part of the SCORM. Furthermore, QTI has its own rich
communication and presentation model. Including a QTI document within a SCORM
content package will do little good unless the receiving system supports the import and
delivery of QTI documents.
Existing Information Technology
Elearning projects must leverage existing IT resources to be successful. Elearning, as it relates to IT
infrastructure, has to do with delivery vehicles and integration. However, deploying a Learning
Management System to enable web delivery is the last task that your IT staff should complete in support
of an elearning initiative. The first task is the standardization of elearning business objects and
integration with existing IT systems.
Standard representations of elearning people, elearning results, and elearning content must be
approved. These elearning specific objects must then be integrated with their representations in the
existing enterprise architecture. This is best accomplished by extending people, results, and content
objects within existing business systems.
Representing people consistently throughout the enterprise is the goal of the Internet2 research
consortium's MACEDir working group. The MACEDir group has published a set of enterprise
authentication standards and tools that provide a roadmap for extending existing authentication systems
to represent people in an interoperable manner.
Representing results consistently throughout the enterprise requires a standard for data collection that
supersedes specific pedagogies. The CMI data model, developed by the Aviation Industry CBT
Committee, forms the basis of the SCORM data model. The SCORM data model standardizes how
LMS products track student data. Integration with existing training data systems requires services that
translate CMI data into a format acceptable to those training systems.
Representing content consistently throughout the enterprise requires a standard for packaging and
describing content. The SCORM Content Package is a standardized approach to managing content as
it moves in and out of systems throughout the enterprise. The SCORM allows for rich metadata to be
expressed via the IEEE LOM (Learning Object Metadata) and attached to objects within a content
package. Services that handle content within the enterprise can utilize this metadata to associate
content objects with educational objectives, organizational goals, courses, etc..
Standardization and integration of these elearning business objects is the first task of an existing IT
staff in support of an elearning initiative. Once this task has been completed, an IT staff can deploy
Learning Management Systems with confidence.
The Ultimate Goal
The ultimate goal is a comprehensive infrastructure for elearning. Achieving this goal requires both a
detailed implementation plan and a vision for the outcome. The desired outcome has to include the
formal definition and rigorous preservation of the link between educational objectives, content, and
assessment. Every standard implemented and every technology tool deployed must support and enable
this relationship. The stronger the link is between these objects, the stronger the elearning initiative
becomes. Technology infrastructures and team collaboration become focused as this link materializes.
ISDs design courseware in accordance with instructional goals, media developers focus their creative
energy, and psychometrists build frameworks that accurately measure outcomes.
Diagram 1 – Critical Link
SCORM Dreams vs. Reality
The SCORM provides specifications for packaging content, and a model for communication between
that content and the Learning Management System (LMS) that delivers it. The SCORM does not;
however, standardize every aspect of content design, development, and delivery. Instead, it strives to
codify the minimum set of features and processes necessary to ensure the reusability of content across
multiple delivery vehicles.
The dream of the SCORM is the creation of a large pool of learning objects that are welldefined, and
context neutral. Training developers address training needs by selecting and sequencing a collection of
objects from the pool. No reauthoring of the content is necessary for reuse, and a single learning object
may be delivered via multiple SCORM compliant LMS products. Course managers can create unlimited
course pathways based on the same content, and the learner tracking model remains consistent for all
SCORMbased objects. This facilitates uniform reporting models for all courses regardless of delivery
The reality of the SCORM is far more challenging. SCORMbased content objects use ECMAScript to
communicate with the LMS during delivery. Inconsistent support for ECMAScript across browsers can
prevent the accurate reporting of student scores, time within lessons, and a host of other valuable
progress indicators. Course developers leveraging learning objects originally created for other courses
struggle with the inconsistent visual styles of the objects. In addition, the heterogeneity of the media
present in the objects produces a daunting list of required software for the enduser (Flash, Java,
Training developers may be able to package a collection of learning objects, but they cannot control the
learner's pathway through the objects without a SCORM 2004 compliant LMS product. SCORM 1.2
(SCORM 2004's predecessor) enjoys the greatest industry traction, but it does not include support for
content sequencing. As a result, most organizations find themselves without the SCORM 2004 runtime
they need to leverage the sequencing capabilities of the SCORM. In addition, the vast majority of
SCORMready content available for purchase is formatted for SCORM 1.2.
Bending the SCORM
Reference not Replication
The SCORM Package Interchange Format (PIF), is a compressed folder of resources that can be
imported or exported out of a SCORM compliant software system. SCORM packages are typically used
to move copies of courses and lessons in and out of SCORM software systems. However, the fact that
these packages contain copies of the content is problematic. Creating 20 sections of the same course
will create 20 copies of the course content within the LMS. Subsequent changes to the “master” course
will necessitate changes to all 20 copies. The resulting content management nightmare clearly defeats
the intent of the SCORM.
The solution is to reference content, rather than replicate content, when constructing a SCORM
package. Referencing content involves embedding links in SCORM packages to content stored on a
central server. SCORM packages that reference content create courses that can be centrally managed.
However, some LMS products may not properly import a SCORM package that does not contain any
references to local files within the package. Rigorous testing should be performed on the organization's
candidate LMS products to determine what degree of content referencing their SCORM features will
Referenceonly SCORM packages should utilize some form of content resolution. Content resolution
assigns a unique identifier to every resource and stores its actual location in a database. SCORM
packages contain references to a resolution service with the unique identifier embedded. An example
URL might look something like this:
The content resolution service would lookup the actual location of the content, fetch it, and return it to the
browser. Content resolution allows repository managers to move or restructure the storage of content
over time without breaking existing content references. Complex content resolution services may also
select a secondary or tertiary content storage location in the event of a failure at the primary location.
The leading open implementation of this service is the Handle service created by the Corporation for
National Research Initiatives (CNRI).
Content as XML
The SCORM deliberately avoids specifying a format for content. However, any organization that intends
to invest in content development should set standards for its creation. XML is, by far, the most flexible
and futureproof format for elearning content. However, not all elearning content files can be stored as
XML. Video and audio files, for example, must be stored as binary files.
XML is suitable for storing textbased data, and a wealth of tools exist to manage content stored in this
format. Content stored in XML format can be transformed into context appropriate formats. This
transformation capability eliminates the visual inconsistencies inherent in SCORM content reuse. SCOs
created at different times for different purposes can be transformed into the same layout. This separates
content from presentation and gives course developers flexibility.
The key to taking advantage of XML as a content format is to provide content authors with XML
authoring, conversion, and management tools that lower the learning curve associated with this
technology. There are a number of outstanding content management and document management
systems that leverage XML as the raw storage format. These enterprise applications move
organizations away from simple file management to true knowledge management.
Breaking the SCORM
Breaking the SCORM involves disregarding or supplanting portions of the model with inhouse tools and
processes. Typically, this is done in an effort to compensate for a weakness in the model. One such
weakness is the SCORM's dependence on ECMAScript to facilitate communication between content and
the LMS. Solving this problem involves utilizing another communication vehicle such as Java, ActiveX,
or Flash. The goal of deviating from the SCORM in this way is to increase the reliability of data reporting
SCORM 1.2 requires that content call LMSInitialize() and LMSFinish() via ECMAScript code embedded
within the content. These functions launch and close each lesson respectively. Content developers that
embed applets or media within courseware can leverage additional communication protocols. Often,
these protocols are more reliable and featurerich than the SCORM's ECMAScript runtime. Of course,
the LMS must support these additional protocols.
SCOs created using this approach might deliver a quiz score to the LMS directly from within a Flash quiz
rather than through the SCORM ECMAScript runtime. The obligatory LMSInitialize() and LMSFinish()
calls could also be embedded within this SCO for true SCORM 1.2 conformance. However, a SCORM
LMS will not complain if they are missing. The LMS will simply not collect any data for that lesson via
the SCORM runtime. Most LMS products already support web services as a method for communication
between the LMS and other enterprise systems. Integrating a Java applet or Flash animation with
existing LMS web services is generally trivial.
Unfortunately, customizing content communication to leverage an LMSspecific web service contradicts
the goal of LMS vendor independence. This can be addressed with an inhouse web service designed
to integrate with embedded media and the protocols they offer. A custom web service could also provide
a SCORM 2004 sequencing engine to SCORM 1.2 LMS products. The custom web service would
facilitate per user conditional branching independent of the LMS delivering the content. Decoupling the
sequencing engine from the LMS product allows the sequencing engine to support multiple LMS
systems, and eventually evolve into a delivery vehicle for additional services such as chat, file transfer,
and help desk applications.
A Modified SCORM Infrastructure
The Architecture Overview Diagram (Appendix 4) illustrates the major components of an infrastructure
based on the SCORM modifications presented in this document.
➢ Staffing the Repository
The flow of documents in and out of the repository is managed by a group of repository
managers that set policy and enforce the structure of the information stored within the
repository. Repository managers create and disseminate metadata standards for repository
documents, and they convert electronic documents into XML files for import into the repository.
Repository managers also collaborate with IT support staff to define the organization's
transformation requirements for XML files.
IT staff manage the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to host the document
repository. Software developers create XSL documents that the repository uses to transform
XML files into any number of desired formats. Examples might include web page output for
inclusion in a portal, PDF output for printing, and alternate XML formats for inclusion in Java or
Flash based elearning engines.
➢ IT Infrastructure
The core of the infrastructure is a document repository that facilitates file storage and the
transformation of XML documents residing within the repository. Both binary and XMLformatted
files are stored in the repository and metadata is associated with any or all of these resources.
The document repository allows for full text indexing and searching of documents based on
either content or metadata. Catalogs and indexes of the repository's contents can be generated
and published via organizational portals. Most importantly, the repository allows for the
transformation of XML documents into multiple delivery formats. The repository separates the
creation and management of XML files from their transformation so that both technical and
content contributors can easily collaborate on repository documents.
Document repositories do not exist to serve elearning alone. To the repository, an
LMS is simply another consumer of repository resources. Portals, presentations,
and emails are examples of additional delivery vehicles for repository resources. In
the same way, a repository does not store elearning content exclusively.
Contracts, emails, and logo graphics are examples of general use content that a
document repository might store.
➢ Staffing Digitization
Organizational knowledge exists in many formats, and document digitization makes it possible to
import current resources into a new document repository. Classifying, digitizing, and archiving
organizational knowledge is the job of a trained digitization professional. These professionals
convert paperbased resources into repository documents via specialized highcapacity
➢ IT Resources
High capacity scanning equipment drastically reduces the cost and effort required to import
organizational knowledge into a document repository. A centralized document digitization
bureau requires multiple dedicated sheetfed scanning stations. A sample scanning station
(1) Workstation (1) Fujitsu fi4990C Scanner
3.0+ Ghz Processor
2+ GB RAM (1) HP Scanjet 8200
500+ GB SCSI RAID 5
19+ inch LCD
Windows XP Professional
OmniPage Office & Paperport
The brand and model of both the workstation and the flatbed scanner are flexible, but the Fujitsu
fi4990C sheetfed scanner is a bestofbreed product used by large libraries and digitization
centers around the world.
➢ Digitization Case Study
The Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education is located in the northcentral
Oklahoma town of Stillwater. The department provides leadership, resources, and assures
standards of excellence for a comprehensive statewide system of career and technology
education. That system offers programs and services in 29 technology center districts operating
on 56 campuses, 398 comprehensive school districts, 25 skill centers and three juvenile
facilities. CareerTech's webbased training offerings serve over 20,000 students each year, and
content developed for online delivery leverages industry standards and best practices.
CareerTech's digitization group processes thousands of pages of curriculum and documentation
every month using high capacity sheetfed Fujitsu scanners. Each scanner is capable of
digitizing 90 pages per minute at up to 400 dpi. Output formats include Group4 TIFF, PDF,
XML, and Microsoft Word. CareerTech's paper to XML conversion is a two step process:
1. TIFF images acquired from the scanner are converted to Microsoft Word format via
2. Microsoft Word Documents are converted to XML documents via Infrae's DocmaServer
product. The resulting XML documents conform to the Silva DTD and can be imported
directly into CareerTech's Silva document repository.
This process results in greater than 99% accuracy in OCR text conversion, but the OCR process
does not automatically convert and place images within the resulting Word or XML documents.
Inline images must be manually processed by extracting them from TIFFs with Adobe
Photoshop. This approach to bulk document digitization allows a single scanning station to
convert several hundred pages of curriculum to XML in a single day.
➢ Staffing Resolution
Content resolution maps global unique identifiers (GUIDs) to their actual URLs within the
repository. The relationship between these values will be maintained by content owners.
➢ IT Resources
Content resolution services are available as offtheshelf software systems. However, there may
be integration advantages to creating an inhouse solution. Given the simplicity of the service,
it is reasonable that a single developer could create a content resolution service in the
organization's preferred language in as little as one day's time. Once completed, the service
must be hosted on an Internet accessible server that can handle a large and consistent HTTP
➢ Learning Management System
The technical requirements for an LMS drop significantly if a customized Java or Flash runtime
is utilized to deliver content. Virtually any LMS product can deliver an enduser experience that
mirrors the SCORM 2004 runtime if reporting and sequencing are handled by a separate web
service that “wraps” the content. Diagram 2 – Flash Runtime illustrates how an embedded flash
runtime would function.
Diagram 2 – Flash Runtime
The Flash wrapper consists of an html file with an embedded swf file. The embedded swf loads
the contents of a small xml control file, which provides the swf with the information it needs to
load content and contact the Runtime application. The Flash wrapper then loads content XML
files via HTTP and communicates with the Runtime via SOAP or Flash's native “remoting”
protocol. The wrapper imposes sequencing rules and communicates tracking data by calling
remote functions within the Runtime. All tracking data is deposited in the tracking database.
Creating SCORM packages to leverage this delivery system requires the generation of an html
and xml file for each lesson within a course. A SCORM packager, such as Reload, can be
employed to package a SCORM course from these files. These packages are then imported
into an LMS product, and a copy of the manifest is imported into the Runtime application. This
dual upload creates the course within the LMS and registers data tracking for the course within
APPENDIX 1 : Definitions
1. WebBased Training (WBT): A type of training that is similar to computerbased training (CBT);
however, it is delivered over the Internet using a web browser. Webbased training frequently
includes interactive methods, such as bulletin boards, chat rooms, instant messaging,
videoconferencing, and discussion threads. WBT is usually a selfpaced learning medium,
however some systems allow for online testing and evaluation at specific times.
2. ComputerBased Training (CBT): Also called computerassisted instruction (CAI) is a type of
education in which the student learns by executing special training programs on a computer.
CBT is especially effective for training people to use computer applications because the CBT
program can be integrated with the applications so that students can practice using the
application as they learn.
3. Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM): is a collection of standards and
specifications for webbased elearning. It defines how client side content and a host system
called the Runtime Environment (commonly a function of a Learning Management System, or
LMS) may communicate with each other, as well as how content may be packaged into a
transferable ZIP file. SCORM 2004 introduces a complex idea called sequencing rules that
specify the order a learner may experience content objects in.
4. IEEE: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eyetriplee)
is an international nonprofit, professional organization for the advancement of technology
related to electricity. It has the most members of any technical professional organization in the
world, with more than 360,000 members in around 175 countries.
5. AICC: The Aviation (All Encompassing) Industry CBT (ComputerBased Training) Committee
(AICC) is an international association of technologybased training professionals. The AICC
develops guidelines for aviation industry in the development, delivery, and evaluation of CBT
and related training technologies.
6. IMS Global: (usually known as IMS) is a nonprofit standards organization concerned with
establishing interoperability for learning systems and learning content and the enterprise
integration of these capabilities. Their mission is to "support the adoption and use of learning
7. Objectives: A learning objective is a statement of what the learners will be expected to do once
they have completed a specified course of instruction. It prescribes the conditions, behavior
(action), and standard of task performance for the training setting. The objective is sometimes
referred to as performance or behavioral objectives. For example, knowledge is a state of mind
which cannot be directly measured. This requires an indirect method of evaluation, that of
observing behavior or performance.
8. Content: In the context of WBT, content consists of electronic text, images, video, etc.. These
media assets are integrated and presented to support learning objectives.
9. Assessment items: The components that make up an assessment. For example, the
questions that make up a test could be referred to as items. IRT (Item response theory)
emphasizes that discrete item responses are taken to be observable manifestations of a trait or
attribute, the existence of which is hypothesized and must be inferred from the manifest
responses. In other words, individual question responses can indicate specific competencies.
10. Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO): The Reusable
Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO) specification provides a means to
create common understandings of competencies that appear as part of a learning or career
plan, as learning prerequisites, or as learning outcomes.
11. Metadata: is defined as the attributes required to fully or adequately describe a Learning
Object. Relevant attributes of Learning Objects to be described include type of object, author,
owner, terms of distribution, and format. Where applicable, LOM may also include pedagogical
attributes, such as teaching or interaction style, grade level, mastery level, and prerequisites. It is
possible for any given "learning object" to have more than one set of LOM.
12. Competency: is the condition or state of being authorized, or being capable of doing
something. The vague nature of this definition leads to confusion with the term objective. In
practice, a student will complete many objectives before gaining competency.
13. SCO: The Sharable Content Object is the smallest chunk of instruction that the SCORM tracks.
It is roughly analogous to a lesson.
14. XML: The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3Crecommended generalpurpose
markup language for creating specialpurpose markup languages, capable of describing many
different kinds of data.
15. SCORM Runtime: An ECMAScript driven communication architecture and data model for
facilitating communication between content and an LMS during delivery.
16. LMS: A Learning management System (LMS) is a software system designed to facilitate
teachers in the management of educational courses for their students, especially by helping
teachers and learners with course administration. The system can often track the learners'
progress, which can be monitored by both teachers and learners. While often thought of as
primarily tools for distance education, they are most often used to supplement the facetoface
17. ECMAScript: is a scripting programming language, standardized by Ecma International in the
ECMA262 specification. The language is widely used on the web, and is often referred to as
18. Question Test Interoperability (QTI): The IMS Question & Test Interoperability (QTI)
specification describes a data model for the representation of question (assessmentItem) and
test (assessmentTest) data and their corresponding results reports.
19. CMI Data Model: Computer Managed Instruction data set and rules that govern AICC content
to LMS communication. This model has been integrated with the SCORM.
20. Internet2: Internet2 or UCAID (University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development) is a
nonprofit consortium which develops and deploys advanced network applications and
technologies, mostly for highspeed data transfer. "Internet2" is a registered trademark. It is led
by 207 universities  in the United States and partners from the networking (Cisco Systems),
publishing (Prous Science) and technology industries (such as Comcast, Intel, Sun
Microsystems). Some of the technologies it has developed include IPv6, IP multicasting and
quality of service.
21. MACEDir: Part of Internet2's Middleware initiative. Middleware, or "glue," is a layer of software
between the network and the applications. This software provides services such as
identification, authentication, authorization, directories, and security. The Internet2 Middleware
Initiative (I2MI) promotes standardization and interoperability and is working toward the
deployment of core middleware services at Internet2 universities.
22. IEEE LOM: The applicable Standard for LOM is "IEEE P1484.12". The full name of the Standard
is: "Standard for Information Technology — Education and Training Systems — Learning
Objects and Metadata". "IEEE" stands for "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers".
The yettobefinalized standard specifis the syntax and semantics of LOM, and focuses on the
minimal set of attributes, needed to allow Learning Objects to be managed, located, and
evaluated. The standards will accommodate the ability for locally extending the basic fields and
entity types, and the fields can have a status of obligatory (must be present) or optional (maybe
23. XSL: the eXtensible Stylesheet Language is a set of language technologies for defining XML
document transformation and presentation
24. Java: is an objectoriented programming language developed by James Gosling and
colleagues at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. The language, which was designed to be
platform independent, is a derivative of C++ with a simpler syntax, a more robust runtime
environment and simplified memory management.
25. J2EE: Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly known as Java 2 Platform,
Enterprise Edition or J2EE up to version 1.4), is a programming platform—part of the Java
platform—for developing and running distributed multitier architecture Java applications, based
largely on modular software components running on an application server. The Java EE platform
is defined by a specification. Java EE is also considered informally to be a standard because
providers must agree to certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as
Java EE compliant; albeit with no ISO or ECMA standard.
26. Flash: or simply Flash, refers to both the Macromedia Flash Player and to a multimedia
authoring program used to create content for it as well as games or movies created using the
program. The Flash Player, developed and distributed by Adobe Systems (formerly by
Macromedia), is a client application available in most web browsers. It features support for
vector and raster graphics, a scripting language called ActionScript and bidirectional streaming
of audio and video.
27. HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the method used to transfer or convey information
on the World Wide Web. The original purpose was to provide a way to publish and receive
APPENDIX 2 : Related Reading
➢ SCORM 2004 Content Developer's Guide
➢ SCORM 2004 2nd Edition Specification
➢ IMS Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective Information Model
➢ IMS Question and Test Interoperability Overview
➢ IMS Simple Sequencing Information and Behavior Model
➢ IMS Content Packaging Overview
➢ IEEE LOM Draft Standard