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Reference Models.ppt


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  • 1. Reference Models مدل های مرجع معماری
  • 2. Table of Content
    • What is a reference model? (10%)
    • Two reference model samples
      • OASIS SOA (10%)
      • OSI reference model (3%)
    • FEA reference model consisting of :
      • Performance RM (16%)
      • Business RM (13%)
      • Service RM (10%)
      • Technical RM (10%)
      • Data RM (10% )
    • Relating FEA reference models to each other (10%)
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 3. What is a reference model?
    • A reference model is an abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment.
    • Reference model consists of a minimal set of unifying concepts , principals and relationships within a particular problem domain, and is independent of specific standards, technologies, implementations, or other concrete details.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 4. An abstraction hierarchy Pegah Nejat Reference Models Reference Model Reference Architecture Concrete (actual) Architecture Alignment to specific requirements Conceptualization
  • 5. An example on this abstraction hierarchy : providing housing
    • Reference Model
      • Concepts : eating area, hygiene area, sleeping area
      • Relationships: physical separation between eating area and hygiene area
    • Reference Architecture
      • Bedroom , kitchen , WC , hallway
      • There may be several reference architectures for one reference models e.g. reference architecture for an apartment , hotel rooms , a space station , …
    • Concrete (actual) Architecture
      • Blueprints for a specific house: where to put windows , their size, …
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 6. OASIS SOA : a reference model for SOA architectures
    • Goal : to define the essence of service oriented architecture, and emerge with a vocabulary and a common understanding of SOA.
    • A basic definition of SOA :
      • Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 7. OASIS SOA Reference Model Main Concepts Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 8. OASIS SOA Reference Model Relationships Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 9. OSI Reference Model
    • a layered abstract description for communications and computer network protocol design.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 10. FEA reference models
    • The Federal Enterprise Architecture is an initiative of the Office of Management and Budget that aims to comply with the Clinger-Cohen Act and provide a common methodology for information technology (IT) acquisition in the United States federal government .
    • Goals:
      • ease sharing of information and resources across federal agencies
      • reduce costs
      • improve citizen services
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 11. Performance reference Model
    • a standardized framework to measure the performance of major IT investments and their contribution to program performance
    • Goals:
      • improve strategic and daily decision-making
      • Improve the alignment of inputs to outputs and outcomes
      • Identify performance improvement opportunities
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 12. PRM (cont ‘d)
    • Six Measurement Areas
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 13. PRM (cont ‘d)
    • Measurement Areas
    • Measurement Categories:
      • Collections within each measurement area describing the attribute or characteristic to be measured
    • Measurement Groupings:
      • Further refinement of categories into specific types of measurement indicators
    • Measurement Indicators:
      • The specific measures, e.g., number and/or percentage of customers satisfied
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 14. PRM (cont ‘d)
    • Mission and Business Results MA
      • Identifies the extent to which those purposes are being achieved.
    • Customer Results MA
      • captures how well an agency or specific process within an agency is serving its customers—and ultimately citizens.
    • Processes and Activities MA
      • captures key aspects of processes or activities required to be monitored and/or improved.
    • Technology MA
      • captures key elements of performance directly relating to the IT initiative
    • Human Capital MA : under construction!
    • Other Fixed Assets MA : under construction!
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 15. PRM (cont ‘d) – A piece of PRM table Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 16. Business Reference Model
    • Hierarchical construct
    • Describing day-to-day business operations of the Federal government
    • function-driven
    • independent of the agencies that perform them
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 17. BRM (cont ‘d) Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 18. BRM (cont ‘d)
    • Services for citizens:
      • high-level categories relating to the purpose of government
    • Mode of Delivery
      • the mechanisms the government uses to achieve its purpose
    • Support Delivery of Services
      • The support functions necessary to conduct government operations
    • Management of Government Resources
      • the resource management functions that support all areas of the government’s business
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 19. BRM (cont ‘d) – sample piece of the hierarchy Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 20. Service Reference Model
    • a business and performance-driven, functional framework that classifies Service Components with respect to how they support business and/or performance objectives.
    • The model aids in recommending service capabilities to support the reuse of business components and services across the federal government.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 21. SRM (cont ‘d)
    • Service Domain
      • provide a high-level view of the services and capabilities that support enterprise and organizational processes and applications
      • differentiated by their business-oriented capability
    • Service Type
      • further categorize and define the capabilities of each Domain
    • Component
      • provide the “building blocks’ to deliver the Component capability to the business
      • a self contained business process or service with predetermined functionality that may be exposed through a business or technology interface.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 22. SRM (cont ‘d)
    • Customer Preferences Grouping shown below as an example
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 23. Technical Reference Model
    • a component-driven, technical framework
    • used to categorize the standards, specifications, and technologies that support and enable the delivery of service components and capabilities.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 24. TRM (cont ‘d) Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 25. DRM
    • intended to promote the common identification, use, and appropriate sharing of data/information across the federal government through its standardization of data in the following three areas:
      • Data Context : define a standard approach for agencies to categorize their data , enable the business context of data to be well understood
        • Subject Area
        • Super Type
      • Data Sharing : define a standard message structure known as Information Exchange Package
      • Data description : define a standard approach to describing an agency ‘s data
        • Data Object
        • Data Property
        • Data Representation
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 26. An example
    • An organization within the federal government provides services which contribute to the health of citizens 
      • Business Area = Services for Citizens
      • LoB (Line of Business) = Health
    • Subject Area = Health
    • Super Type = immunization
    • Data Object = vaccine
    • Data Property = type , weight , etc
    • Data Representation = plain text
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 27. How DRM is used to enable collaboration
    • Organization A uses the DRM to categorize its data (using the BRM) into a business context.
    • Organization B identifies Organization A’s available data through its business context.
    • Organization A uses the DRM to publish the detailed structure of the actual data element (in support of the business context).
    • Organizations A and B determine if, in fact, the data produced by Organization A will meet the needs of Organization B.
    • Once Organizations A and B determine that the data can be re-used, the information exchange package is used to transmit the data.
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 28. A reference Model for FEA Reference Model! (relationships between XRMs)
    • The LoB represents organizations that have a common business or program interest.
    • Subject Area = LoB from BRM
    • Super Type = Sub-function of LoB from BRM
    • In PRM:
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models MA LoB LoB LoB sub-function sub-function Measurement Grouping Measurement Category Measurement Area
  • 29. A reference Model for FEA Reference Model! (relationships between XRMs)(cont)
    • TRM provides a framework for categorizing those technologies and standards that can be used to exchange and deliver service components (from SRM)
    • DRM provides for a specific type of SOA in which there is no action , only exchange of information. Considering OASIS SOA :
      • Information model is expressed using DRM
      • There exists no behavior model
    Pegah Nejat Reference Models
  • 30. A reference Model for FEA Reference Model! (relationships between XRMs)(cont) Pegah Nejat Reference Models PRM BRM DRM TRM SOA SRM