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  • System can be the enterprise or a group of enterprises or a program or group of programs
  • We can use BA to solve a specific issue like: Standardize job descriptions Merge organizations Explore alternate service delivery ALIGN components -- alignment framework Business arch is s big thing not just
  • If you are going to do a good job at Buss ach. You need to consider policy Private sector best practice GREAT of ONLY IT
  • PSRM is a standard reference model for describing Public Sector Enterprises that can be found in the public domain Chartwell Stewarts of Municipal model
  • Don’t see markets, products, profit You do see programs, outcomes, target groups …
  • Rows 3+ in business plane: Job description, detail work procedure Rows 1 & 2 are implementation independent (both automation wise and business implementation wise) e.g. relationship between two buildings row 3 can be tunnel or bridge
  • Design alignment Architects are concerned that the design of each project fits within an overall target design for the enterprise – business processes, applications, information, technology Strategic alignment Planners are concerned that the target design of the enterprise reflects overall strategic directions and priorities Logistical alignment Delivery managers are concerned that changes are introduced in a manner that accommodates the organization’s capabilities and resources Project managers must address all three dimensions of alignment The new concept here is the idea of aligning the designs of many independent projects with an overall enterprise design – this is the contribution of enterprise architecture.
  • No good, until I consider the alternatives New flavour of the month Pretend adopt stage Better start serious resistance here BA is the way to integrate all the frameworks – TOP MODEL Org charts, financial model, process model, data model, asset mgmt model … Multi-project alignment is what BA achieves, after that usage and refinement
  • Check-in / check-out at each level check-in updates the high level with more authoritative artifacts (after review and acceptance) Can check for coverage. E.g. do projects 1,2,3 cover the whole program? Are there parts that represent automation opportunities, are some part address redundantly?
  • Re-invent service delivery to constituents and government employees – leverage new capabilities not previously unavailable Enable improves information sharing across government departments – adding synergy and improving the convenience Homeland Security in the US / Public Safety and Terrorism in Canada Maximize return on IT investments – remove needless complexity, amortize costs through re-use & add longevity Anticipate infrastructure requirements – because government can retool overnight Leverage critical and secure data – highly underutilized resource e.g. DND DISB RFP Promote mission-driven selection of new technologies – because you can’t afford to investigate and try everything Shrink solution delivery time – users want it yesterday
  • MRM/IS is a fully populated DB of best practices and samples for IT shops It takes an Business Architecture Look at the “Business of IS” ITIL is another area gaining popularity MRM/IS has much more coverage than ITIL, but ITIL is richer in the areas it covers
  • Zachman and Spewak underpin the US approach FYI - US CIO Council - Approved use of Zachman for columns 1,2,3 only !
  • New version of FAP2 new BTEP stronger BUSINESS architecture. TBS has present to ARB, presentations and consultation with individual depts are underway
  • Bottom-up: structured programming, then structured design, then structured analysis, then “architected solutions” (technically) and just now architected “business” Models were informal but more formal models and notations such as UML are taking hold

Transcript

  • 1. DPI – May 2003 Business Architecture: Aligning Business and IT Strategies Presenter: Mike Giovinazzo No part of this presentation may be reproduced or published without prior written permission
  • 2. Our Objectives Today
    • Business architecture and the Zachman framework
    • Why Business modeling in a public sector enterprise is different
    • How architecture becomes the foundation for business / IT alignment
    • The value of using Business Architecture and a Management Reference Model for government services, and
    • The most recent trends in business architecture across various levels of government in Canada and abroad
  • 3. Architecture is…
    • ANSI/IEEE Std 1471-2000: "the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution"
  • 4. Business to IT Architecture Architectural frameworks create structure and formal alignment of policy, work and systems design to meet the goals of an organization under constant change. Policy Design Business Design Automation Design Social Goals Clients Programs & Services Processes Workflow Organization Roles Locations Resources Events Domains Nodes Infrastructure Components Application Function Information Interfaces
  • 5. Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture Business Requirements Security Architecture Business Requirements Integration Requirements Integration Requirements Business & IM/IT Innovation Opportunities Business Architecture Technology Architecture Business & IM/IT Innovation Opportunities Application Architecture Business Vision Innovation Opportunities Information Architecture Alignment & Integration Requirements
  • 6. Zachman vs Business Architecture Business Architecture Technology Architecture Application Architecture Information Architecture Organization Architecture Time Cycle Architecture Rules Architecture
  • 7. Government is Different
    • Mandate
      • Retailer closes East Coast outlets
      • Canada Post no longer delivers to Nunavut
    • Jurisdiction
      • Commercial product competes with consumer model
      • RCMP decides to expand to provinces
    • Expectations
      • Door Crasher Special – 50% off to first 500 clients
      • E-File promo – first 500 users get 10% income tax rebate
    • Service Level
      • Lavish Service is desired and appreciated
      • Over Serving is deemed wasteful and extravagant
  • 8. PSRM & Zachman Zachman Framework Business Architecture Public Service Reference Model
  • 9. Public Service Reference Model Provider Organization Authority Accountability Roles Responsibility Governance Client Organizations Individual Clients Outputs Outcomes & Impacts Used in Deliver Accomplish Jurisdictions Programs Services Processes Resources
  • 10. Zachman Rows 1 & 2
  • 11. PSRM Elements in the Zachman Framework What How Where Who When Why Resources Semantic Model Services Jurisdictions Parties Roles Target Groups Row 2: Row 1: Schedules Cycles Locations Scenarios Workflows Business Network Model Service Process Models Areas Events Performance Metrics Other Models Service Integration and Alignment Model State Transition Models Program Service Alignment Models Programs Needs Goals Strategies
  • 12. Business Architecture is not just for IT alignment Common Business View Automation Plane Business Plane
  • 13. Three Dimensions of Alignment Change Initiatives Milestones Priorities Resources Implementation Dependencies Business Drivers Objectives Goals Strategies Justifications Options Linkages Design Standards Target Designs Current Designs Design Elements Planners care about Strategic Alignment Architects care about Design Alignment Opportunities Delivery Managers care about Logistical Alignment Joint Interests Capabilities Human Factors Readiness Values State Scope Status Planners Architecture pmo
  • 14. Business Architecture – (CMM) Capability Maturity Model
    • Business architecture and IT architecture capability
    • maturity may evolve at different rates
    • Methodology maturity is also evolving
    PSRM EWTA Zachman No Standard Framework Independent Project Frameworks Multi- Project Alignment Change Manage- ment Wide- Spread Multi- Program Re-Use
  • 15. Enterprise/Program/Project Governance Enterprise Program Project 1 Project 2 Project 3
  • 16. Architecture Helps
    • Re-invent service delivery to constituents and government employees
    • Enable improves information sharing across government departments
    • Maximize return on IT investments
    • Anticipate infrastructure requirements
    • Leverage critical and secure data
    • Promote mission-driven selection of new technologies
    • Shrink solution delivery time
    Source: Metadata Vice-President Scott Bittler May, 09,2003
  • 17. The Value
    • Business is constrained by IT inability to quickly adapt to its changing needs
    • IT a strategic partner with the business
    • IT made no contribution at all
    • IT as expensive overhead
    66% 30% 15% 10% Source: Fujitsu’s 2002 Information Technology Services Management Survey
  • 18. Food for thought
    • … focusing on alignment with business strategy is irrelevant if your "technology portfolio" is leaking oil, spitting gas and spewing smoke
    • … make sure you have your lower level architectural needs under control before you start worrying about being the lofty goals of alignment
        • Jeff Tash (aka ITscout) Flashmap Systems
  • 19. Management Reference Model for IS Also consider ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure Library, see: www.itil.co.uk Detailed Analysis and Design IT Services Performance Measurement Skills Requirements Review Service Delivery Strategies Customer Relations Strategies Organization Design Performance Mgmt Programs Detailed Process Design Performance Metrics Definition Continuous Improvement Prog. Job Definitions Training & Development Plans Client Satisfaction Analysis IT Services Mapping IT Services Assessment Roles & Accountabilities Mapping & Review MRM/IS IT Mandate Review IT Services Mapping Target IT Organization Definition Roles & Accountabilities Mapping & Design
  • 20. Architecture Trends
  • 21. Meta Group
      • By 2005, 70% of Global 2000 enterprises will move beyond a pure technology architecture focus to include enterprise business architecture (50%), enterprise information architecture (60%), and enterprise solution architecture (70%). Architecture teams that fail to move beyond a technical focus will come under increasing pressure to demonstrate business value.
            • META Trend (March 2003):
  • 22. In the USA
    • Legislated or mandated EA initiatives
    • Established Federal EA PMO
          • http://www.feapmo.gov/
    • Most still struggle with “how-to”
    • Other trends & signs
      • George Bush allocates $1 Billion to EA (Feb 2003)
      • Government EA conference – June
      • Business Reference Model
  • 23. Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA) of 1996
    • CCA has three strong focus areas: capital planning and investment control, enterprise architecture, and the resources to accomplish these processes. The target goals of the CCA include:
      • Establish an EA that includes its current and target states,
      • Establish a systematic Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC) process to manage the IT investments,
      • Use the EA and CPIC process to maintain the current architecture and to build the “to be” architecture,
      • Use costs, schedule and performance goals to monitor and mitigate risks, and
      • Continuously update and manage the EA and CPIC to improve success.
  • 24. FEAPMO - USA
    • “To facilitate efforts to transform the Federal Government to one that is citizen-centered, results-oriented, and market-based, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is developing the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA), a business-based framework for Government-wide improvement”
  • 25. FEAPMO - USA Performance Reference Model Business Reference Model Service Component Reference Model Data Reference Model Technical Reference Model Business Driven Approach Federal Reference Models
  • 26. Canadian Municipalities
    • Municipal Reference Model
      • Generic business model of municipal programs and services
      • Adopted by MISA (Municipal Information Systems Association)
      • Used by 27+ Canadian municipalities and at least 2 foreign municipalities
      • Proved to be extremely valuable during the many municipal amalgamations
  • 27. Canadian Provinces
    • Ontario – perceived leader
      • Using PSRM for past 8 years
      • Formal architecture and planning process and governance structure for the province
      • Have detailed architecture framework and standards for Ontario’s Enterprise Information Architecture
    • Alberta, N.B. & B.C. and perhaps others also embarking on similar initiatives
  • 28. Canadian Federal Govmt
    • Started with FAP (Federated Architecture Program)
      • Iteration One: Connectivity, Access to electronic information, Public assurances of confidentiality, improvement of government administration
    • BTEP (Business Transformation Enablement Program)
      • Next Iteration of FAP
      • Much stronger business focus
      • BTEP overviews being given to individual departments, ARB, …
  • 29. More Trends
    • Business Architecture (BA) still evolving
      • Bottom Up trend still evident
      • Methods and models being refined
      • Tools like artifact repositories are immature
    • Control & Interest is shifting
      • Today: CIO’s to promote BA as part of the overall Enterprise Architecture
      • Business is fast adopting BA and making it part of the strategic and business planning
  • 30. Some Resources
    • Business Architecture SIG
      • First meeting: target Fall 2003
    • Enterprise Architecture Open House
      • Ontario Public Sector – June 16-18
      • “ Business Transformation through Architecture”
    • www.eacommunity.com
    • www.zifa.com
  • 31. Thank You Questions ?