System can be the enterprise or a group of enterprises or a program or group of programs
We can use BA to solve a specific issue like: Standardize job descriptions Merge organizations Explore alternate service delivery ALIGN components -- alignment framework Business arch is s big thing not just
If you are going to do a good job at Buss ach. You need to consider policy Private sector best practice GREAT of ONLY IT
PSRM is a standard reference model for describing Public Sector Enterprises that can be found in the public domain Chartwell Stewarts of Municipal model
Don’t see markets, products, profit You do see programs, outcomes, target groups …
Rows 3+ in business plane: Job description, detail work procedure Rows 1 & 2 are implementation independent (both automation wise and business implementation wise) e.g. relationship between two buildings row 3 can be tunnel or bridge
Design alignment Architects are concerned that the design of each project fits within an overall target design for the enterprise – business processes, applications, information, technology Strategic alignment Planners are concerned that the target design of the enterprise reflects overall strategic directions and priorities Logistical alignment Delivery managers are concerned that changes are introduced in a manner that accommodates the organization’s capabilities and resources Project managers must address all three dimensions of alignment The new concept here is the idea of aligning the designs of many independent projects with an overall enterprise design – this is the contribution of enterprise architecture.
No good, until I consider the alternatives New flavour of the month Pretend adopt stage Better start serious resistance here BA is the way to integrate all the frameworks – TOP MODEL Org charts, financial model, process model, data model, asset mgmt model … Multi-project alignment is what BA achieves, after that usage and refinement
Check-in / check-out at each level check-in updates the high level with more authoritative artifacts (after review and acceptance) Can check for coverage. E.g. do projects 1,2,3 cover the whole program? Are there parts that represent automation opportunities, are some part address redundantly?
Re-invent service delivery to constituents and government employees – leverage new capabilities not previously unavailable Enable improves information sharing across government departments – adding synergy and improving the convenience Homeland Security in the US / Public Safety and Terrorism in Canada Maximize return on IT investments – remove needless complexity, amortize costs through re-use & add longevity Anticipate infrastructure requirements – because government can retool overnight Leverage critical and secure data – highly underutilized resource e.g. DND DISB RFP Promote mission-driven selection of new technologies – because you can’t afford to investigate and try everything Shrink solution delivery time – users want it yesterday
MRM/IS is a fully populated DB of best practices and samples for IT shops It takes an Business Architecture Look at the “Business of IS” ITIL is another area gaining popularity MRM/IS has much more coverage than ITIL, but ITIL is richer in the areas it covers
Zachman and Spewak underpin the US approach FYI - US CIO Council - Approved use of Zachman for columns 1,2,3 only !
New version of FAP2 new BTEP stronger BUSINESS architecture. TBS has present to ARB, presentations and consultation with individual depts are underway
Bottom-up: structured programming, then structured design, then structured analysis, then “architected solutions” (technically) and just now architected “business” Models were informal but more formal models and notations such as UML are taking hold
DPI – May 2003 Business Architecture: Aligning Business and IT Strategies Presenter: Mike Giovinazzo No part of this presentation may be reproduced or published without prior written permission
ANSI/IEEE Std 1471-2000: "the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution"
Business to IT Architecture Architectural frameworks create structure and formal alignment of policy, work and systems design to meet the goals of an organization under constant change. Policy Design Business Design Automation Design Social Goals Clients Programs & Services Processes Workflow Organization Roles Locations Resources Events Domains Nodes Infrastructure Components Application Function Information Interfaces
Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture Business Requirements Security Architecture Business Requirements Integration Requirements Integration Requirements Business & IM/IT Innovation Opportunities Business Architecture Technology Architecture Business & IM/IT Innovation Opportunities Application Architecture Business Vision Innovation Opportunities Information Architecture Alignment & Integration Requirements
Zachman vs Business Architecture Business Architecture Technology Architecture Application Architecture Information Architecture Organization Architecture Time Cycle Architecture Rules Architecture
PSRM Elements in the Zachman Framework What How Where Who When Why Resources Semantic Model Services Jurisdictions Parties Roles Target Groups Row 2: Row 1: Schedules Cycles Locations Scenarios Workflows Business Network Model Service Process Models Areas Events Performance Metrics Other Models Service Integration and Alignment Model State Transition Models Program Service Alignment Models Programs Needs Goals Strategies
Business Architecture is not just for IT alignment Common Business View Automation Plane Business Plane
Three Dimensions of Alignment Change Initiatives Milestones Priorities Resources Implementation Dependencies Business Drivers Objectives Goals Strategies Justifications Options Linkages Design Standards Target Designs Current Designs Design Elements Planners care about Strategic Alignment Architects care about Design Alignment Opportunities Delivery Managers care about Logistical Alignment Joint Interests Capabilities Human Factors Readiness Values State Scope Status Planners Architecture pmo
Business Architecture – (CMM) Capability Maturity Model
Business architecture and IT architecture capability
maturity may evolve at different rates
Methodology maturity is also evolving
PSRM EWTA Zachman No Standard Framework Independent Project Frameworks Multi- Project Alignment Change Manage- ment Wide- Spread Multi- Program Re-Use
By 2005, 70% of Global 2000 enterprises will move beyond a pure technology architecture focus to include enterprise business architecture (50%), enterprise information architecture (60%), and enterprise solution architecture (70%). Architecture teams that fail to move beyond a technical focus will come under increasing pressure to demonstrate business value.
“To facilitate efforts to transform the Federal Government to one that is citizen-centered, results-oriented, and market-based, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is developing the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA), a business-based framework for Government-wide improvement”
FEAPMO - USA Performance Reference Model Business Reference Model Service Component Reference Model Data Reference Model Technical Reference Model Business Driven Approach Federal Reference Models