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  • 1. Marketfocus Report Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts: The Dynamic Enterprise Reference Architecture In most organizations today, technology infrastructures have become highly complex and difficult to manage, with significant overlap of systems and applications, further complicated by the fact that these systems are not well integrated. There is a clear need for a standard Enterprise Reference Architecture as an architectural framework to help organizations make better decisions and enable them to leverage existing technology investments. TIBCO Software, a leading provider of software for real-time business, commissioned Doculabs to develop this white paper as a guide to the considerations involved in building an architecture that will last through the years. In this document, we advocate an approach based on the service-oriented architecture (SOA) model as a framework and guidepost toward the building of a solid architecture that will meet an organization’s needs – both current and future. We also report on how other future looking companies, HP and Intel, view building an architecture that will last. 120 South LaSalle Street Suite 2300 Chicago, IL 60603 (312) 433-7793 www.doculabs.com 2003 Doculabs, 120 South LaSalle Street, Suite 2300, Chicago, IL 60603, (312) 433-7793, E-mail Doculabs at: info@doculabs.com. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. Doculabs is a registered trademark. All other vendor and product names are assumed to be trade info@doculabs.com and service marks of their respective companies.
  • 2. 2 Doculabs Marketfocus Report What’s Inside… 3 Executive Summary Highlights the business benefits of a service-oriented architecture, which leverages standards to provide even more flexibility while minimizing the costs associated with development and management. 4 Introduction Defines a service-oriented architecture and its components and characteristics, and discusses the role of new approaches to an enterprise reference architecture. 10 Conceptual Enterprise Reference Architecture Explores the conceptual layers within a sound enterprise reference architecture – layers that work together to provide a cohesive platform on which to build applications that address business requirements effectively. 14 Ensuring Success through Good Architecture Highlights best practices and approaches to ensure that the enterprise reference architecture truly helps realize the business benefits outlined above. Generic customer examples are included to highlight the key ways in which organizations should think about implementing in a phased approach the concepts presented in the enterprise reference architecture. 17 Sharing the Vision Highlights how TIBCO, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, and other leading technology providers are providing solutions that are critical to delivering on a service- oriented enterprise reference architecture. 24 The Final Word Provides Doculabs’ perspective on the value of a service-oriented enterprise reference architecture, and of the approach taken by customers and providers such as TIBCO. 25 Appendices Appendix A: “Technical Implementation of an Enterprise Reference Architecture,” and Appendix B: “The Technology Layers of an Enterprise Reference Architecture,” provide technical detail on how an enterprise reference architecture would be implemented. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 3. 3 Doculabs Marketfocus Report standards, a lack of supporting Executive Summary technologies, and an inability to Organizations are struggling in their facilitate closed-loop enterprise efforts to adapt to quickly changing lifecycles. By taking these issues into business conditions, while also account, today’s service-oriented maintaining an acceptable balance sheet. enterprise reference architectures can The volatile nature of business is forcing provide organizations with a clear organizations to become more flexible, framework for their environments and while at the same time mandating that best practices. they keep their cost structures low to meet investor demand. The modern reference architecture is service-oriented, event-driven, and Technology has long been used to aligned with lifecycle support processes. improve organizational efficiency and to In addition, the modern reference provide better ways to solve common architecture can support assembly and business problems. For example, integration, and encompasses the need technology can be used to improve to leverage existing applications and processes in areas such as order-to-cash infrastructure. Ultimately, a sound in the manufacturing or retail sectors, enterprise reference architecture mortgage processing in the financial provides a number of benefits: services sector, and straight-through processing in banks and brokerages. • The ability to adapt to changes in business conditions more rapidly If organizations are to become both than has been possible in the past, more agile and more effective at and allow business users to be leveraging their existing technology closely involved with (and in some investments, they must develop or cases, even own) changes in adopt a guiding framework for their business processes technology environments. By following • The ability to reduce the amount of an enterprise reference architecture, an time spent developing custom code organization ensures that it follows such and complex applications, using a framework and can make better business processes to assemble decisions that will optimize its applications rather than requiring technology investment decisions to the use of declarative programming achieve its business goals. • Significant cost savings over time, as Enterprise reference architectures have more of an organization’s existing existed for years, but their effectiveness investments in technology and has sometimes been limited for a systems are leveraged rather than number of reasons, including a lack of replaced Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 4. 4 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • Aligned with lifecycle support Introduction processes – Organizations are This section introduces the concept of an constantly designing, deploying, enterprise reference architecture, its managing, and re-evaluating their architectural constructs and applications. Until now, the process characteristics, and historic failures with of making decisions on design, enterprise reference architectures that development, and optimization has new approaches can address. not been based on empirical evidence and real data about Enterprise Reference application usage patterns and business model behavior. Going Architecture Constructs forward, architectures must account An enterprise reference architecture for the collection, dissemination, and provides a framework or set of use of this information to help guidelines and practices for a organizations make better decisions. technology environment. To understand the benefits and key characteristics of • Able to support assembly and the modern enterprise reference integration – Once applications are architecture, it is important to segmented into smaller functional understand each of the individual units, the ability to assemble these architectural constructs that comprise it. components into applications is Architecturally, the modern enterprise critical. In the past, writing code was reference architecture is: the only way to achieve the goal. Today, process management • Service-oriented – Allows technology achieves the same goals applications to be broken into while reducing reliance on costly services that can be accessed by code development. other applications and systems to • Able to leverage existing create powerful composite applications and infrastructure – As applications based on the organizations look for different functionality available in ways to minimize unnecessary applications across the enterprise. technology spend, they are looking • Event-driven – Provides a for ways to re-use existing fundamental mechanism to capture technology. For most organizations, key changes in business needs and existing infrastructure, systems, and technical implementation. These applications are home to the core changes can then be used to effect data and functions that drive the instantaneous changes to business business forward day to day. These processes and the underlying systems must be leveraged to systems that support them. provide maximum benefit. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 5. 5 Doculabs Marketfocus Report As with any enterprise architecture, Service-Oriented Architecture service-oriented architectures require A service-oriented architecture is careful planning and a holistic approach defined as an architectural strategy that that takes into account the effect of the seeks to segment and isolate critical architectural approach across all layers application and data functionality and of the architecture. Layers are access into small, operationally architectural constructs that are used as independent pieces that can be executed a mechanism to provide isolation remotely and in a highly distributed between a set of components. They manner. The end goal of a service- provide the ability to change underlying oriented architecture is to provide easy components without affecting how and secure access to enterprise other resources use them. technology and process resources, maximizing re-use and minimizing cost, while improving the performance and Characteristics of Service- reliability of these systems. Oriented Architectures A good service-oriented reference Benefits of a Service-Oriented Architecture architecture should embody each of the Short-Term • Enhances reliability architectural constructs described • Reduces hardware acquisition costs above. That is, they should be event- • Leverages existing development skills driven, aligned with lifecycle support • Accelerates movement to standards-based server processes, able to support assembly and and application consolidation integration, and able to leverage existing • Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies applications and infrastructure. This Long-Term section provides details on how this is • Provides the ability to build composite applications accomplished. • Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs • Provides truly real-time decision-making Event Services applications Event-driven architectures allow • Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer services and applications to react to and partners stimuli from systems, applications, and Business Value people, both across and outside of the • Ability to more quickly meet customer demands enterprise. Unlike traditional • Lower costs associated with the acquisition and architectures, event-driven architectures maintenance of technology • Management of business functionality closer to the provide a mechanism for systems to business units take action when pre-determined or • Leverages existing investments in technology unplanned events arise. An example of • Reduces reliance on expensive custom development an event is the failure of a business Table 1 – Benefits of a Service-Oriented process to reach completion within a Architecture specified timeframe, such as the Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 6. 6 Doculabs Marketfocus Report execution of an order. Another example Transactional systems, such as ERP and is the failure of a processing thread in an procurement applications, tend to be application container running on a inherently event-driven and can work specific server. These events can be very well within an event-driven extremely business focused, or they may architecture. Unfortunately, other be very technical in nature. The simple systems, such as legacy mainframe fact that these events can be captured applications, usually were not designed makes it possible to take corrective to be event-driven. Fortunately, there action or escalate response are ways to make these systems event- appropriately. driven so that they can help an organization drive toward a more At a fundamental level, an event-driven dynamic enterprise. architecture is more dynamic than non- event-driven architectures. The simple Lifecycle Support ability to change a business process or Most organizations have come to realize react to a problem as it is happening that the technology they use to solve provides a tremendous advantage to business problems is constantly organizations, relative to competitors changing and needs to be updated using traditional architectures, where frequently to keep up with changing reaction to such changes can take days business demands. These companies are or weeks. in a constant cyclical process of designing and redesigning applications, Benefits of an Event-Driven Architecture developing, redeveloping, and Short-Term optimizing these applications, and • Allows for pro-active problem solving deploying and managing these • Better addresses customer needs without resorting applications. Many decisions that are to one-off customization by helping drive dynamic processes made are based not on empirical data, Long-Term but rather on perceived requirements. In • Improves customer loyalty and satisfaction today’s business environment, it is • More visibility into business health through near critical to take this guesswork out of the real-time organizational dashboards equation. Today, decisions must be Business Value made first and foremost on empirical • Provides the best products and/or services to evidence. customers and partners • Competitive advantage over slower-moving competitors An architecture based on the • Greater visibility into enterprise status and issues fundamental concept that the enterprise Table 2 – Benefits of an Event-Driven lifecycle represents a closed loop of Architecture feedback is most likely to help organizations succeed. Today’s systems are capable of capturing vast amounts of Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 7. 7 Doculabs Marketfocus Report information on their usage patterns and with the changing needs of the business. performance against set measures. With Business processes are developed and this data, organizations can quickly are driven by the functionality and data provide a mechanism to use this that is exposed through the services information to optimize business available throughout a services-oriented processes and remove bottlenecks from enterprise. the technical infrastructure within their environments. One of the key benefits of adopting an architecture that takes advantage of In the end, organizations that are able to application assembly and integration is better leverage the information their that it leverages the different skills that applications can report, will be more exist in most organizations more effective at optimizing their effectively than most other infrastructures. Optimization will result architectures. Business users are finally in increased efficiency and ultimately in enabled to provide value through the the ability to spend money to increase definition of business processes and investment in customer-facing activities. business rules, while technologists can drive the access to key information and Assembly and Integration systems through services. Even Until recently, the only way to build administrative staff can more effectively custom applications was to write code manage the composite applications that using declarative programming. are developed. Although writing application code has become significantly easier and more Leverage for Existing Applications productive, it is still time consuming and Infrastructure and fraught with the possibility of bugs Many of the technology investments and slow time to benefit. The other that organizations have made over the major problem with declarative past several decades have fallen into development is that it may take a long two major categories: technology time to make even minor changes in infrastructure and application systems. code and it will always involve time on Technology infrastructure refers to the the part of developers. Business users hardware and network infrastructures can do little to help in an environment put in place to support the application whose architecture is driven by systems that run within them. declarative programming. Application systems include legacy applications, enterprise resource Today, the ability to rely on a service- planning systems, customer service oriented architecture that is driven by systems, databases, and other processes allows organizations to start technology used to drive business. assembling applications that can change Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 8. 8 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Any architecture that is worth • Limited ability of off-the-shelf considering should strive to leverage the technology to achieve the goals large investment that has already been they proposed. In many instances, made in application systems. Ideally, no supporting technology existed to these systems can be used seamlessly address many key business throughout the organization and can problems. In the past, few enterprise participate in complex business architectures had any notion of processes without significant re- back-end application integration, or investment in development. The if they did, it was a feat left to a architecture should provide a clear hoard of developers to achieve. The approach for integration and access to cost of building one-off integrations these systems. among systems and applications was prohibitively high and reserved for only critical applications. Addressing Historic Limitations of Enterprise Reference • No focus on the closed-loop Architectures enterprise lifecycle. Organizations The idea of enterprise reference are constantly going through a architectures is not new; these multi-step lifecycle when using frameworks have existed in many forms technology to achieve business over the years, but have failed for many goals. For an enterprise reference different reasons, including: architecture to be effective, it should embrace a lifecycle process that • A lack of technology standards. includes the following steps: Standards provide a way for 1. Evaluating the applicability of organizations to isolate themselves technology in solving or helping from changes in technology, solve a given business problem ultimately making their investments 2. Designing the solution at both last longer and allowing them to the business process level and avoid being locked into a particular the technology architecture level vendor over an extended period of 3. Implementing the solution time. Without standards, an 4. Testing and modeling the enterprise reference architecture solution and its behavior does not maximize its ability to 5. Deploying the solution ensure long-term viability of 6. Maintaining the solution technology investments. 7. Reviewing feedback about the solution and technical characteristics of the solution 8. Starting the cycle again to optimize the solution Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 9. 9 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Problems with Why are these problems? By taking these issues into account, Past Enterprise today’s enterprise reference Architectures architectures should provide Lack of Organizations were locked organizations with a clear framework standards into choosing solutions that may not fit with the for their environments and best constantly changing nature practices. Such an architecture will of their business. provide a number of benefits, including: Supporting Off-the-shelf technology technology did did not exist for many of • The ability to adapt to changes in not exist the key problems that business conditions more rapidly plagued organizations. Some examples include than possible in the past. Business integration technology and users should be able to be closely process management involved with – in some cases, even engines. own – such changes in business Lack of support Solutions must constantly processes. for a closed-loop evolve to meet changing enterprise business needs; in the past, lifecycle there was no way to • The ability to reduce the amount of achieve such changes, time spent developing custom code except through guesswork and complex applications using based on the information business processes to assemble available. Today, data should be captured that applications rather than declarative allows business owners programming. and technologists understand key usage • Significant cost savings over time, as patterns and their effects on a solution so that the more of an organization’s existing solution can be optimized investments in technology and on an ongoing basis, based systems are leveraged rather than on empirical data and replaced. evidence. Table 3 – Problems with Prior Enterprise Architectures Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 10. 10 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • The data services layer, which Conceptual Enterprise provides a set of services that allow Reference Architecture organizations to extract and re-use data from the enterprise application Although each architectural and data systems in the characteristic or construct is important organization. The data services layer on its own, none of them can deliver the isolates the organization from benefits that are possible when all of changes in the underlying data them are brought together in a single systems and applications, as well as architecture. providing a unified approach for accessing the data and functionality A services-oriented architecture can be of those systems. depicted as providing a number of individual service layers. Together, these layers provide an unprecedented • The application services layer, level of flexibility in application design, which is designed to provide the while minimizing cost and providing functional components and more pertinent applications and technologies that are used to ensure business value to customers. The major high levels of application scalability, layers are as follows: performance, and reliability. Application components are managed in this layer to ensure that • The enterprise application and data they are secure and available to systems layer, which consists of an other parts of the architecture when organization’s existing technology needed. investments. The rest of the architecture relies on this layer for the critical application functionality • The business services layer is where and data that are used to drive technology meets business. In this business processes throughout the layer, applications are composed organization. Moreover, much of the from a combination of business investment and capital expenditures processes, business rules, human in technology have been made in workflow, and the services exposed this layer. Thus, it is extremely by the application services layer. important that these investments be The combination of these leveraged fully in the rest of the technologies allows organizations to architecture. quickly and effectively model and optimize their business processes to best suit customer and business needs. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 11. 11 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • The presentation and interface • The enterprise lifecycle services services layer, which provides users layer, which provides a mechanism and external systems a way to to effectively: communicate and interact with • Design and model business business processes and business processes and system applications. This layer is the interaction primary mechanism to enable • Assemble and develop human workflow and is also used to applications from existing issue alerts and to gather events components from external systems. • Deploy and maintain applications in a production • The event services layer, which environment, even if the gathers event data across the components are distributed enterprise and also across all of the layers of the architecture. The events • Analyze and optimize processes are then used to drive dynamic and application infrastructure, business processes and dynamic based on data gathered by the changes in the underlying layers to event services layer provide better performance, reliability, and scalability. The event The following figure illustrates a services layer also creates a closed business view of the layers of the feedback loop with each layer of the enterprise reference architecture. architecture allowing developers and business users to optimize their part of the architecture using empirical data to drive key decisions. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 12. 12 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Presentation / Interface Services Web Portal Mobile Devices Standard Formats Design / Business Services Modeling Enterprise Lifecycle Services Assembly / Business Process Human Development Workflow Event Services Business Rules Deployment / Maintenance Application Services Application Analysis / Message Bus Containers Optimization Metadata Standard Repository Interfaces Data Services Legacy Data Modeling Application Service Adapters Abstraction Enterprise Application and Data Systems Instrumentation Other Data Sources ERP Content Management Mainframe / Legacy Apps CRM/SFA Other Systems Figure 1 - Business View of the Enterprise Reference Architecture Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 13. 13 Doculabs Marketfocus Report The following table illustrates some of the common technologies found in the major architectural layers and lists some vendors that provide those technologies. Layer Technologies Sample Providers Enterprise • Enterprise resource planning • SAP, Oracle Applications, and Application and • Content management PeopleSoft Data Systems • Mainframe and legacy • Documentum, Interwoven, and applications Vignette • Customer relationship • Fraud detection systems, management and call center telecommunications systems provisioning applications, etc. • Kana and Siebel Data Services • Application and data systems • Actional, iWay, TIBCO, and adapters WebMethods • Data model and persistence • BEA, Rational, Sybase, engines Teradata, and TIBCO • Legacy functionality extraction • Microsoft, Oracle, Teradata, and TIBCO Application • Messaging • IBM, Sonic, and TIBCO Services • Application containers • BEA, Borland, IBM, Microsoft, • Standard interfaces and Oracle • Metadata repositories • Java standards, .NET standards, web services, etc. • IBM, Oracle, Teradata, TIBCO, and custom repositories Business Services • Business process • Fuego, Fujitsu, IBM, Microsoft, • Business rules and TIBCO • Human workflow • Ilog, Pegasystems, and TIBCO • Fujitsu, IBM, Staffware, and TIBCO Presentation / • Web portal • IBM, Microsoft, Novell, Oracle, Interface Services • Mobile devices Plumtree, Sybase, TIBCO, and • Standard formats Vignette • WAP, WML, Java, etc. • EDIFACT, ebXML, other XML, etc. Table 4 – Conceptual Architecture Layers Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 14. 14 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Successful organizations have identified Ensuring Success through and prioritized specific business Good Architecture problems that have clear benefits for the organization. These benefits may As mentioned previously, adopting a include projects that are accretive in the service-oriented enterprise reference short-term, projects that improve architecture is the first step in making internal organizational communications better technology decisions that lead to and morale, projects that improve a more efficient and nimble relationships with partners, or that organization. However, there are many provide a number of other valuable decisions to be made on the road to outcomes. building a more flexible organization around a service-oriented reference By taking a step-by-step approach to architecture. The situation is further implementing a services-oriented complicated by the fact that different approach to solving a specific business organizations have different business problem, an organization is able to priorities, different risk-tolerance levels, better manage the selection, and different budget levels allocated to development, implementation, and leverage technology to solve their management of different technologies. business problems. As more and more projects are completed and meet with success, the There is a clear approach and result is greater buy-in from methodology that can help individual organizational management, organizations determine how best to representing both the technology and proceed. In building toward a service- business groups within the company. oriented enterprise reference architecture, it has been proven that A successful project involves getting organizations that have taken a commitment from a variety of pragmatic approach share a number of constituencies throughout an key characteristics. These organizations organization. The first hurdle is getting tend to: a common understanding of the • Solve small problems first business process or application that is • Involve both technologists and being prioritized. Many organizations business users never get past this stage in the • Make key investments in technology implementation; they have difficulty when necessary clearly defining the process interactions • Achieve buy-in from the highest at a process level. Some of the causes of levels within the organization this confusion are a lack of involvement • Leverage existing investments from the people who intimately before investing in new technology understand the process, or lack of Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 15. 15 Doculabs Marketfocus Report involvement from the people who will one of the key requirements to make the need to build and maintain the business change viable as a long-term solution. application that implements the The organization was hoping to business process. It is important to have implement an event-based process both constituencies involved to ensure management infrastructure that could success and ownership from start to react to external stimuli such as power finish. level fluctuations, power outages, and other critical events that could occur in In some cases, it becomes apparent that different parts of the organization or a project cannot proceed without even in the systems of the company’s significant investment in a new power system alliance. technology. For many organizations, this technology investment may be a A service-oriented architecture was strong event-driven process appealing because it provided a way to management and integration engine; for create a system that was based on others, it may be investment in a robust, standards and one in which the scalable, and reliable hardware and application could change quickly with network infrastructure. These changing business needs, without expenditures are often costly, and requiring a great deal of manual require support from top levels of recoding of applications. Ideally, the management. Organizations must be system would allow the utility company prepared to perform a thorough to modify business process flows, and analysis to determine the benefit of such the underlying services would investments over the long term. automatically service the changes. Investments in core technology that can be leveraged over and over again are One of the critical realizations in this often justified and pay back dividends project was the fact that a service- that multiply many times over the oriented approach does not require re- amount that was spent early on. developing applications from the ground up to make them services. For example, consider a large utility Rather, monolithic applications, such as company that had to replace an aging the mainframe-based outage power outage management system in an management system, could be queried effort to meet regulations related to and accessed to appear as though it meeting service level agreements. The were providing a variety of services that organization was faced with the could be accessed by other applications daunting task of replacing the mainly within the organization, such as the mainframe-based application with a outage management executive more manageable service-oriented dashboard that was built using web architecture. Process automation was application technology. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 16. 16 Doculabs Marketfocus Report To ensure the success of this project, both the line-of-business and information technology group were involved in defining and outlining the problem to be solved. Executive sponsorship was almost guaranteed (not something that an organization can always count on), in this case because of the legal ramification of failure to comply with the regulation. A large investment in an event-driven business process management solution was deemed necessary early in the project. Because the technology was leveraged in subsequent projects throughout the organization, the utility company realized a return on its investment within just one year. The organization met the requirements for compliance and has enjoyed success in deployment and in the ongoing maintenance of the application. The company has been able to reroute and automate processes effectively, lowering its processing costs and reducing costly errors. Going forward, the utility company would like to be able to more effectively analyze its business process and get real-time feedback on the performance of its processes. The information will be invaluable when reconfiguring and optimizing the existing process flows. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 17. 17 Doculabs Marketfocus Report assembled as needed by leveraging Sharing the Vision existing investments in development. A number of leading technology providers now offer solutions that Composite applications by themselves deliver on a service-oriented enterprise provide a flexible way to develop and reference architecture. This section looks deploy applications across an enterprise, at how TIBCO, Hewlett-Packard, and but they generally lack the ability to Intel share the vision: providing take action based on business situations technology that allows for the building that may arise within an organization. of an architecture that lasts. TIBCO believes that the next logical evolution to the composite application is the incorporation of event-processing TIBCO technology and business rules. As As a provider of technology, TIBCO has mentioned previously, event-processing offered highly scalable, reliable, and technology allows systems and high-performance solutions for mission- applications to take action automatically critical applications for nearly two to better meet requirements that may decades (originally as Teknekron). arise spontaneously. Event-driven services and composite applications can Today, TIBCO continues to innovate quickly be reconfigured based on the and provide a suite of solutions to needs of an organization – almost businesses focused on solving business instantly. For more complex changes, problems. Its ActiveEnteprise suite TIBCO believes that externalizing provides integration, process business rules from business processes management, workflow, portal, and puts the power of change back into the related technologies. hands of those who best understand the business. Armed with a system that Looking forward, TIBCO has embraced supports business rules on top of a the idea of a dynamic architecture that process management engine, business allows business to create a closed loop analysts can change processes and between business, technology, business business flows without making problems, business solutions, and fundamental changes to the underlying customers, partners, and staff. processes and application code. TIBCO believes that the combination of The final piece of the puzzle is the a service-oriented architecture with ability to monitor and optimize the business process management will business. Tools to help organizations allow organizations to effectively build analyze the process flows they have composite applications that can be created and how they are being used Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 18. 18 Doculabs Marketfocus Report will prove invaluable as systems evolve • Transformation to a business process and become more automated. environment with a direct communication loop with the IT The combination of an event-driven environment service-oriented architecture, HP believes that achieving an adaptive externalized business rules, and process enterprise calls for an evolution from analytics and optimization should today’s environment of silo’d provide a solid platform on which to technology that is complex, over- build a lasting architecture. provisioned, and inflexible, to one in which IT assets can be better utilized to Hewlett-Packard achieve an improved ROI for the HP’s strategy and vision is the Adaptive corporation. The specific approach of Enterprise – recognizing that the ability any individual organization will be to manage change is the key imperative different based on its industry, business for businesses today, to accommodate strategy, model, competitive and and respond to near-term marketplace regulatory environment, and IT challenges and to sustain competitive environment. HP feels that three basic advantage over the long term. stages are required in the journey to become an adaptive enterprise: HP has developed an enterprise • Stage 1: Stable – an organization reference architecture that identifies the must have a stable, available, and components and interrelationships secure environment in place as its needed for an adaptive enterprise: the foundation Darwin Reference Architecture. The Darwin Reference Architecture is based • Stage 2: Efficient – where the on four fundamental key organization is now optimizing the transformations that are needed for an integration and management of the enterprise to evolve to become an environment adaptive enterprise. These include: • Stage 3: Agile – where the organization has achieved business • Transformation to a service-oriented and IT alignment in a dynamic and architecture (especially within synchronized way, for seamless application environments) response to changing business • Transition to automation in the requirements infrastructure (supported by management and control) HP believes that by taking this approach • Transformation to business-focused companies can make adaptive management and control improvements along this continuum in the way that makes most sense for their individual context and situation. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 19. 19 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Application architecture plays an these principles are applied to the instrumental role in enabling a critical Application Services Layer, they company’s flexibility. HP experienced have these characteristics: this first hand in its merger with Compaq. With the merger of HP and • Simplification: simplify the Compaq – the biggest technology connections between applications merger in history – the respective IT and allow components to be re-used organizations faced a major challenge in • Standardization: use industry determining how to merge their systems standards such as J2EE, .NET, and to support the unified company’s SOAP to ensure the maximum system requirements. The new company flexibility throughout the would need to link 1,200 networked development cycle and platform sites; 215,000 desktops; 49,000 network independence devices; more than 7,000 applications; 26 million e-mails a week; and 30 million • Modularity: use and re-use modular business-to-business messages monthly. applications to support rapid The desired result was a company in change, along with easier diagnosis which customers and partners would and resolution of problems; swap interact with HP as one company; components with low risk of impact products and solutions would go to to business services integration market through integrated, global • Integration: improved application supply chains; the workforces would and data integration leads to operate as a single company; IT cost and improved response to business complexity would be reduced; and the change business performance would improve. The widespread understanding and HP Services developed and is emphasis on an Adaptive Enterprise expanding its portfolio of offerings empowered the two organizations to around Adaptive Application combine their systems in record speed, Architecture services. Specific services surprising pundits and critics. HP offers its customers include: HP has identified a common set of • Impact and ROI Calculation – general design principles that drive focused on identifying and adaptive improvements for companies measuring key metrics; developing at any stage of the Adaptive Enterprise business case for investments journey, and that underlie all of the • Integration Competency Center – Darwin reference architecture provides expertise and services to transformations. These design principles improve the speed of integration; include simplification, standardization, ensures sound architectural modularity, and integration. When foundation for integrations Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 20. 20 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • Design and Implementation – pure Intel provides a large variety of the and simple integration and infrastructure components that are development services with J2EE and required in a service-oriented .NET expertise architecture. Intel’s network technology allows organizations to effectively • Solution Lifecycle Management – provide high bandwidth connectivity in includes both software factory both wired and wireless applications. management and operations This allows organizations to provide management, which improves re- better application and service use of services and operational connectivity to its users. Productivity efficiency and customer satisfaction are just two of the benefits gained from efficient and HP is helping customers reach their reliable connectivity. Adaptive Enterprise goals by working closely with strategic partners and For mobile platform requirements, Intel industry leaders, such as TIBCO provides solutions such as Intel® Software. Centrino™ mobile technology to enable extended battery life, improved mobile Intel Corporation performance on thinner and lighter Intel has been responsible for form factors, and integrated Wireless developing some of the most widely Local Area Network (WLAN), validated deployed semiconductor technology in with third party security solutions to the world. From central processors, to provide safer connectivity. Intel has also network technology, to the integrated been working to promote deployment circuits that make these components and build awareness of public WLAN work with each other, Intel has long services. been an innovator and leader in providing innovative technology and To address the larger business needs of solutions to customers. organizations, Intel also provides consulting services that help As a Provider of Technology organizations: As a technology provider, Intel has been • Optimize data centers a leader in creating solutions that have • Consolidate their technology enhanced the network and hardware investments infrastructures and related architectures for organizations worldwide. Intel • Optimize e-commerce solutions central processing units have gained • Help with migration planning worldwide acceptance for desktop PC, • Educate organizations on the use of workstations, servers, and mobile and web services embedded applications. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 21. 21 Doculabs Marketfocus Report In the final analysis, Intel provides a Intel believes that in the current market, compelling, leadership-driven approach where budgets are smaller and to technology that has provided value organizations are more risk averse, it is for organizations worldwide. Intel imperative to build a good architecture appears to continuing this leadership to deliver higher value with less. with innovation and services to help organizations move toward more open, To accomplish its goals, Intel has placed service-based architectures. strong focus on key enabling technologies in the middleware and As a User of Technology application tier of the architecture that As a user of technology, Intel should was defined earlier. Intel believes in also be considered among the top using good off-the-shelf technology organizations in the world today. For where it is appropriate, as is evidenced the past year Intel has placed a heavy by its strong portfolio of middleware focus on designing an architecture that technology solutions. The middleware will be used to help drive key tier enables the organization to provide technology acquisition, consolidation, critical business applications that can be and development decisions. used by users worldwide. The key to its entire technology strategy is using a Intel has divided its vision of a service- multi-tier services oriented architecture oriented architecture into four distinct to make key decisions related to the use layers: of technology throughout the organization. • Business – Processes and services that are shaped into dynamic In many organizations, business process applications that positively affect management technology has proven to business value provide a high return on investment when properly implemented, and Intel • Application – Fundamental services is no exception. Intel feels that the that are required to ensure biggest challenge with implementing connectivity, reliability, good business processes is defining the performance, and scalability processes and breaking the problem to • Data – Systems, applications, and be solved into small, more manageable data sources that house the pieces. In general, experience shows that information assets within an organizations that can accomplish this organization difficult task are over 80 percent more • Technology Infrastructure – The likely to have successful projects than fundamental hardware, software, those that bite off too much at one time. and network infrastructure that Intel agrees and has put processes in enable business applications place to ensure that the definition of Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 22. 22 Doculabs Marketfocus Report processes is not a secondary thought, Security must be addressed at a number but a driver in the services oriented of levels. First, one must secure the core architecture it envisions. network and hardware layers so that information is maintained within the Intel believes that, in many instances, control of an organization and the too much focus is placed on creating a designated extended enterprise. Data homogeneous data infrastructure layer. encryption must then be implemented Many organizations are quickly to ensure that internal entities cannot paralyzed by the daunting task of access the information unless they are cataloging, consolidating, and authorized to do so. Finally, integrating their data systems and authentication and authorization are related applications. Intel proposes a required to determine what systems more pragmatic approach, driven by people are allowed access, and what prioritized business initiatives. Each they are allowed to do once access is business priority should be decomposed granted. to determine what data systems are affected and the level of integration As services are deployed across an required to make the business organization, management and application work. Once these distribution of those services becomes requirements are identified, they should critical. The first step is to ensure that be reviewed to ensure they fit into the the service is registered so that it can be overall architectural vision of the re-used frequently. Once the service is organization. deployed and running, management is required to ensure it is running properly Intel believes that some of the key and that security is maintained. challenges of service oriented architectures include: Once these problems are addressed, it becomes possible to build a dynamic • Security – How does an infrastructure that supports intelligent organization secure the components composite applications. Intel believes of a distributed services-based that applications will be built architecture? dynamically and used to solve key • Management – How can individual business problem as they arise. Proper components be managed across the modularizing of application enterprise in a geographically and components is the key to allowing these logically distributed environment? services to be reconfigured dynamically to provide new and unique applications • Distribution – How do components without even writing a line of code. in a services-oriented architecture get distributed most effectively throughout an enterprise? Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 23. 23 Doculabs Marketfocus Report One of the most interesting forward- looking ideas Intel is exploring is distributed computing resource utilization and management. This technology is sometimes referred to as virtualization, and is a key component in architectures that will feature grid computing. The idea behind virtualization is to enable organizations to harness the underutilized computing resources that exist throughout an organization. With advances in distributed computing technology, increases in network bandwidth, better bandwidth utilization, and more effective management of these resources, it is becoming possible to optimize the investments in computer hardware. As with many other successful organizations, Intel is taking a portfolio- based approach to implementing technology. It is using a service-oriented enterprise reference architecture, similar to the one presented in this document, to help make more consistent and more successful decisions related to technology issues. The company has shown clear leadership in many areas over the years, and its usage and commitment to services-oriented architectures bodes well for organizations still considering moving in that direction. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 24. 24 Doculabs Marketfocus Report For an organization, the end goal should The Final Word be the ability to understand how it As organizations explore the need to conducts business at a process level and minimize unnecessary technology to be able to optimize those processes. spend, they will undoubtedly begin The goal of optimization should be to looking into the vast benefits of using a minimize costs and unnecessary service-oriented architecture. This white investments, while maximizing value to paper should make it apparent that customers, partners, and the there is much more to a service-oriented organization itself. If an organization architecture than standards such as web can start to look at a business problem services. An adaptable and cohesive holistically – from the business level all service-oriented architecture should be the way down to the technical designed to be a dynamic part of an implementation – it can become more organization’s infrastructure. agile and better able to serve customer requirements, while always leveraging Technology is only one component of a its investments in people, processes, and lasting architecture. Executive-level technology. buy-in, as well as support from business users and business units, is absolutely critical to ensure success. Organizations will certainly choose their own pace when it comes to implementing components of a service- oriented architecture, but it is important to start with manageable projects. Organizations will also have a good selection of providers, such as the providers featured in this document, to partner with to help move them toward a dynamic, service-oriented infrastructure. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 25. 25 Doculabs Marketfocus Report implementation, a more detailed Appendices technical view is required that shows The following appendices provide more the technology layers that are involved technical detail on how an enterprise in the architecture. Layers are reference architecture would be architectural constructs that are used as implemented. a mechanism to provide isolation between a set of components. They They provide a detailed technical provide the ability to change underlying architectural view that builds on the components without affecting how business-level model presented in the other resources use them. As stated main document. This technical design previously, these layers include: addresses the issues related to the individual components and services • The enterprise data and application required to achieve the goals of the layer, which consists of the existing dynamic enterprise reference technology investments made by the architecture. organization. The rest of the architecture relies on this layer for the critical application functionality Appendix A: Technical and data that is used to drive Implementation of an business processes throughout the Enterprise Reference organization. At a technical level, Architecture this layer includes all network and A service-oriented architecture is hardware infrastructure that defined as an architectural strategy that supports the business applications seeks to componentize critical and data systems within the functionality into small, operationally organization. From a network independent pieces that can be executed perspective, everything from remotely and in a highly distributed network protocols to physical manner. routing and switching equipment will need to be addressed. Key As with any enterprise architecture, concerns in the network layer service-oriented architectures require include reliability, load handling, careful planning and a holistic approach and connection latency. Hardware in that takes into account the effect of the this layer includes the server architectural approach across all layers infrastructure and the detailed of the architecture. implementation of this server hardware. Hardware services that Previously, this paper presented a affect the behavior of the business view of the enterprise reference infrastructure, such as self-healing architecture. When it comes to Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 26. 26 Doculabs Marketfocus Report and failover features, should be • The business services layer is where considered within the architecture. technology meets business. In this layer, applications are composed • The data services layer, which from a combination of business provides a set of services that allow processes, business rules, human organizations to extract and re-use workflow, and the services exposed data from the enterprise application by the application services layer. At and data systems in the a technical level, this layer is where organization. The data services layer applications are composed from isolates the organization from services and data that are exposed changes in the underlying data throughout the enterprise through systems and applications, as well as the application and data services providing a unified approach for layers. accessing the data and functionality of those systems. At a technical • The presentation and interface level, this layer is the foundation for services layer, which provides users access to functionality and data that and external systems a way to exists within and potentially outside communicate and interact with of the organization. This layer business processes and business provides the information needed to applications. At a technical level, drive process automation and this layer is where information ultimately a dynamic enterprise. leaves and enters enterprise systems. Standards are a key driver for what • The application services layer, happens within this layer. which is designed to provide the • The event services layer, which functional components and gathers event data across the technologies that are used to ensure enterprise and also across all of the high levels of application scalability, layers of the architecture. The events performance, and reliability. are then used to drive dynamic Application components are business processes and dynamic managed in this layer to ensure that changes in the underlying layers to they are secure and available to provide better performance, other parts of the architecture when reliability, and scalability. At a needed. At a technical level, this technical level, the event services layer contains the software server layer provides a standardized components, such as application mechanism to publish and subscribe server technology and messaging to critical events that drive dynamic buses to run application effectively applications. in an enterprise environment. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 27. 27 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • The enterprise lifecycle services layer, which provides a mechanism to effectively design, model, assemble, develop, deploy, maintain, analyze, and optimize business processes and related system and applications. These layers work together and interact to provide a mechanism to quickly adapt to changing conditions within the enterprise. For example, a hardware failure may result in an alert to an administrator, while simultaneously launching a deployment of new services to existing healthy servers in order to maintain a minimum quality of service level. Understanding the roles that each of these layers play is critical to an organization’s ability to maximize its current and future technology investments. It is also critical to finding ways to reduce costs through simplification and redundancy reduction. The following subsections address the components and the design of each of these layers in more detail. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 28. 28 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Presentation/ Applications / Data Systems Presentation Manager Interface Services Portlet Aggregation Data Access Interface Programmatic Interface Modeling Design / Thick Client Event Process Access Interface Instrumentation Thin Client Presentation Interface Management Mobile Device Process Business Monitoring Business Services Business Intelligence / Reporting Development Sequencing Assembly / Real-time Analysis Workflow Process Automation Rules Engines Event Business / Instrumentation Translation Engine Automated Business Response Universal Abstraction Layer Integration Interaction Services Infrastructure Application Services Transformation Globalization ./ Language Services Management / Enterprise Lifecycle Services Translation Page Navigation Manager Instrumentation Messaging Data View Manager Personalization Engine Content / Directory Services Data / Interface Transcoding Event Services Directory (User / Content / Resources / Metadata) Application Services Repository Deployment Persistence Security (User / Content / Resources / Metadata) Services Services Development Load Scheduling Support Balancing Resource Grid Computing Resource Mgr Management Caching Failover Data Services Adapters Web Legacy Services Legacy Data Data Modeling RDBMS Custom API Abstraction Deployment / Maintenance Component Correlation Event Grid Computing Resources Enterprise Application and Data Systems Servers Storage Application Servers / Clusters Edge Servers Workstations Optical DASD RAID SAN NAS / Tape Optimization Processing Real-Time Analysis / Peripherals Event Network Devices Printers IVR/ Scanners Telephony Routers Firewalls Switches Mobility Services Hubs Load Balancer System Monitor Figure 2 – Service-Oriented Enterprise Reference Architecture (Source: Doculabs) Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 29. 29 Doculabs Marketfocus Report The critical objective for hardware and Appendix B: The Technology network components in a services- Layers of an Enterprise oriented architecture is to provide a Reference Architecture consistent architecture to allow for This section provides additional portability and the ability to distribute technical details on the layers of an components in a flexible, manageable enterprise reference architecture. manner. Enterprise Application and Data In order to take advantage of SOAs, Layer companies must organize their As shown in the preceding figure, the underlying systems platform for core components in this network and scalability and agility. Architectures hardware focused layer include: must provide high performance and rapid scalability, and must also be able • Servers – In an SOA or grid to change to accommodate emerging computing model, servers are seen requirements. The keys to an agile as shared processing resources. infrastructure investment for Internet Types of machines an organization services deployment are to prepare a is likely to have in this layer include transaction/user scaling model, develop the application servers (either a comprehensive architecture, deploy on standalone or clustered), edge a flexible infrastructure, and monitor servers, and potentially performance, while being prepared to workstations. adapt to changing loads and emerging requirements. • Storage – Storage can take on many forms, from redundant array of Networks enable services by integrating independent disk (RAID) arrays, to legacy and new applications through traditional direct access storage application servers, and this device (DASD) and Network infrastructure must be optimized for Attached Storage, as well as storage agility and scalability. Generally, area networks (SANs) and customers will demand a services-based optical/tape output. infrastructure approach that features an • Network Devices – These are n-tier architecture, heterogeneous legacy traditional components such as integration, multiplatform Java routers and switches, as well as load technology, and a multi-level security balancers and system monitors. model. • Peripherals – Enterprise peripherals such as scanners and printers can also be treated as shared components in the SOA stack. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 30. 30 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Many organizations that are seeking to manner. This is achieved by design of move to SOAs are migrating from static, an architecture built on a common complex architectures to a necessarily services infrastructure and deployment flexible model. In the late 1990s, of this architecture on a consistent, building high-performance Internet universally deployed physical services meant splitting things up, and architecture. This approach is very decomposing functions at both the similar to the “fabric” concept that service and task layer. Typical underlies grid computing models. These architectures take a “silo” or partitioned models are extremely applicable to the approach: dividing each separate SOA concepts, in that they share the service onto separate hardware and same goal: that of a ubiquitous each layer of that service – the web processor and storage pool that can server or the database server, for support any service. Already, industry instance – onto separate hardware, leaders in the traditional application because these systems are divided into server arena are taking notice of grid discrete components that can be readily computing as a complementary scaled. In addition, availability is often extension to web services and service- provided through dedicated, box-level oriented architectures. failover for each component. Two of the critical requirements to The drawback of this design is limited support this vision at the hardware and flexibility. Although this silo network level are symmetric multi- architecture can provide high processing and self-repairing performance, its limitations emerge capabilities. when the need to provide a new service requires creation of a new and separate Clustering and Partitioning silo. In addition, the excess resources Organizations are looking for ways to included for availability are isolated in provide highly available and reliable the subcomponents and cannot be infrastructures without making readily repurposed. Applications are extremely large investments in built one at a time, with little hardware and software. Clustering and opportunity for re-use or integration, let application partitioning are methods alone interoperability with other that are used to provide reliable and organizational divisions or with external available infrastructures at relatively partners. low cost. Clustering allows a group of servers to appear as a single unit. By contrast, what is required for SOA is Benefits include simplified an architecture that can scale rapidly management, improved fault tolerance, and can add new services or rebalance and better scalability. A larger number existing services in a highly flexible of less expensive systems can replace a Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 31. 31 Doculabs Marketfocus Report smaller number of monolithic systems Eventually, technology assets such as and provide comparable or superior routers and load balancers will become performance and reliability. more “aware” of their roles related to business applications. As network and To further improve availability and hardware providers build more scalability, application components can intelligent equipment, it will become be deployed across a group of servers possible to diagnose and profile and accessed seamlessly across a applications against the hardware to network. This arrangement can further optimize performance and significantly improve performance as quality of service levels. more component instances can be started during peak times across a larger Data Services Layer number of systems. During non-peak This layer turns data systems and volumes, the system processing power existing business application into useful can be used for other applications or information to be consumed by users tasks. and systems in the application services and business services layers. The data This capability is important in SOAs services layer simplifies and speeds because of the need to distribute and access to information and also to execute services irrespective of location. provide the data that helps orchestrate processes across applications and even Self-Repairing Capability across organizations. Without data Self-repairing networks include services making sound business dynamic routing and recovery decisions would be impossible. algorithms that allow distributed networks to detect faults in the node Key components of this layer include: connections and to find alternate routes, or to re-establish links without operator • Adapters to data and applications intervention. This capability relates to • Data modeling the multiprocessing capability discussed • Legacy service abstraction above in that the distributed loads managed through multi-processing can be better served with an adaptive infrastructure. A complement to this is network-based load balancing, which can be leveraged in a self-repairing environment to distribute processing loads dynamically. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 32. 32 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Adapters • Legacy connections – Specialized To combat the need for organizations to adapters are available that allow build and re-build connections to well- access to common legacy defined systems and applications, applications. adapters – a breed of off-the-shelf software technology – emerged to ease • Custom Application Programming this particular customer pain. Adapters interfaces (APIs) – The majority of are generally self-contained components adapters for legacy systems and that provide a mechanism to connect to applications take advantage of specific types of data and systems. existing APIs and related Adapters can be as simple as file access programmer interfaces exposed by adapters that allow the reading of a text the legacy or specialized application. file from storage media, or as complex One example is SAP BAPI, a as a rules-driven data access component programming interface exposed by that connects to an enterprise resource the SAP ERP system to allow planning (ERP) system using one or developers to access or extend the more protocols. functionality of the core product. The core benefit to using a pre-built • Component technology-based adapter from a reputable solution adapters – Many modern provider is that there is usually an applications and systems provide understanding that the solution interfaces to data and functionality, provider will ensure rapid updates as using commonly accepted standards data systems and applications are for application component updated, freeing an organization from technology. The most prevalent the messy task of building costly one-off today are Enterprise Java Beans integrations with their systems. The (part of the Java 2 Enterprise Edition types of adapters available on the specification by Sun/JavaSoft) and market today include the following: Component Object Model (part of Microsoft’s .NET application • Relational database adapters – framework). Some organizations still These adapters typically are use CORBA technology, but the available ubiquitously and are number of users is dwindling. inexpensive or free. They take advantage of one or more common • Web services – Rather than a radical relational database access new technology, web services technologies, including native provide a way to simplify access to drivers, JDBC drivers, or ODBC data and applications by leveraging drivers, to name a few. existing technology. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 33. 33 Doculabs Marketfocus Report Data Modeling services, providing applications and Effective use of the data in an services for use across the enterprise organization’s systems is contingent would be impossible. upon a clear understanding of the interrelationships between the data Many components and services come elements. Data modeling tools are used together to form application and for a number of purposes, including the business services, including: creation of metadata that describes the relationship of data. A solid data model • Abstraction layers allows for quick and easy access to • Event services information across the enterprise in a • Grid computing and application well-defined and common way. resource managers • Application services Legacy Service Abstraction • Content / directory services One of the biggest hurdles organizations • Integration and process face is making their generally management services monolithic legacy applications useful in • Infrastructure management and business processes and new business instrumentation applications. The ability to break a larger legacy application into functional Abstraction Layers services is a daunting task that can be The usefulness of middleware services accomplished via programming, or by is limited in a service-oriented leveraging technology such as architecture if those services are not application adapters to introspect and easily accessible by all parts of the extract only those services required to architecture. As technologies evolve, it get to the functionality and data is critical to shield applications from the required by a process or application. volatile nature of key technology components by using abstraction layers. Application and Business Services Examples of these components include Layer data access adapters, workflow engines, These two layers provide the critical security services, and content infrastructure and process automation repositories. Abstraction layers are technology to keep business simply standardized interfaces that are applications running efficiently and used to communicate with underlying reliably within an organization. These sub-systems and components. These layers also provide the fundamental abstraction layers do not change utility services such as messaging that are significantly over time, from the leveraged in all other layers of the perspective of the consumer of service. enterprise reference architecture. Without application and business Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 34. 34 Doculabs Marketfocus Report A good example of an abstraction layer and in a highly distributed manner. is a Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) Until recently, many organizations have or Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) struggled with understanding how to database driver. Developers can access a take advantage of their vast computing variety of generally proprietary resources that sit idle 80 percent of the database technologies using the same time, and peak with usage (with server- metaphor and access mechanisms. In crashing results) at other times. Grid the ideal case, swapping out one computing promises to provide a vendor’s database for another would mechanism to harness that idle not require any changes to code that computing power to serve applications calls the standardized JDBC or ODBC that need additional computing layer. resources, irrespective of their physical location. Properly creating abstraction layers for each componentized service allows for Service-oriented architecture becomes flexibility in the future. Individual much more attractive once grid components can be swapped out at will computing technology begins to be and replaced by standalone or adopted. Well-developed service- customized components at any time. oriented applications should maintain Properly designing abstraction layers high performance, scalability, and also allows an organization to leverage reliability at all times, while also having its existing resources and skills more favorable management and deployment effective by focusing them on smaller costs. parts of a large problem, making it easier to manage and increasing the To take effective advantage of grid likelihood of success. computing, the middleware tier must have a management system that can The goal of using abstraction layers is to introspect and make decisions about the define coarse-grained services and proper deployment of service business functions that are derived from components across a computing grid. existing legacy systems and For example, during peak loads the applications, that are frequently manager may determine that quality-of- monolithic and not very service service levels are dropping below oriented. minimum levels, and may initiate a deployment of key web service components onto idle server resources. Grid Computing and Application Once the peak period has passed, the Resource Managers components can be uninstalled Service-oriented architectures tend to automatically. componentize functionality into small pieces that can be executed remotely Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 35. 35 Doculabs Marketfocus Report The primary benefit of a grid-based stores and systems at a very granular service-oriented architecture is a level. dramatic reduction in the cost of server hardware (i.e. an organization can buy Today, a number of different standards more, but less expensive, servers that surround the storage of information in can easily be replaced at a low cost). repositories, as well as standards focused on the cataloging, look-up, and retrieval of this information. For user Application Services authentication and access control Until recently, application services were information, it is common to use a Local something that developers were Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) responsible for creating whenever they directly. Web content may be accessible built a new application. Application through a proprietary web content server technology introduced the idea of management API or through standards a server-side framework that provided such as WebDAV. key services to any application built within the container. The evolution of A service-oriented architecture will application server technology has been require a unified or federated repository quick, and adoption has been rapid. that houses information about both structured and unstructured data in a Basic services such as security and single repository. This will allow caching technology should be addressed organizations to compose applications by a good service-oriented architecture, more easily and truly benefit from re- and these services should be exposed use across the organization. for use across the middleware tier. A metadata repository will become Content/Directory Services critical in a lasting service-oriented Organizations have large amounts of architecture. Among other things, the structured and unstructured data in repository would: their systems. The most effective application can seamlessly access both • Hold data required to understand structured and unstructured data. the interrelationships between data Today, accessing this data is a daunting and systems within an organization task and in many cases is possible only • Provide a place to look up and if the application developers also have request services ownership of the data they are • Maintain a business process library accessing. In a service-oriented that could be queried or updated as architecture, it will be critical to provide needed tools to locate key information in data Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 36. 36 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • Hold business rules that could be • Process engine – The process engine reviewed or modified by authorized can take a defined process flow and users manage the automated flow of information through the defined The metadata repository may consist of process. one or more physical repositories, but it • Workflow – Workflow provides a would work to provide a unified view mechanism to enable human onto the process, application, and data interaction when necessary (e.g. resources within an organization. exception processing, manual approvals) Integration and Process Management • Rules engine – Processes by Services themselves simply move One of the core functions of the information from step to step. Rules middleware layer is to provide access to engines allow decisions to be made information that may exist in legacy and based on predefined rules that act modern systems and applications and to on data. These rules work use it to affect process automation and independently from processes; this enhance the value of applications. allows higher-level users (business users) to make dynamic changes to The integration problem is complex in the infrastructure quickly, most organizations, since there are efficiently, and safely. literally thousands of existing legacy systems and applications, and an almost Infrastructure Management and limitless number of custom applications, Instrumentation in the world today. In the past it was common for applications to build “one- As computing infrastructures become off” connections to any systems they more complex and potentially more needed access to. Although this geographically dispersed, management technique worked, it was costly to of applications, components, and develop and even more costly to services becomes a very complex task. maintain, as changes in the underlying Unless the proper management and applications forced changes in the instrumentation interfaces are put in custom data access code. place early on, an organization is likely to face high management costs and Once the data is available, it is critical to potentially application failure. have services to be able to use the data to drive automated processes to reduce Instrumentation in the middleware tier the reliance on human interaction. The must collate data from the network and following key technologies are required hardware layer and relate the data to to make such automation a reality: services and processes that are running Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 37. 37 Doculabs Marketfocus Report on the middleware tier. The aggregate This also holds true when presenting data should be invaluable in information designed to be consumed understanding the problematic areas in by other systems and applications. an application and provide some insight Oftentimes these applications lie outside into how to fix the problem and manage of the enterprise, so providing the overall solution more effectively. consistent, well-formed data is important in maintaining relationships Management of services must also be a with the owners of those systems. seamless and painless process for administrators. The management There are two key factors involved with interfaces should provide rules-based the presentation layer: applications and alerting and provide a mechanism to data systems, and people. take simple action when problems arise, such as hardware failure or slow Applications and Data Systems application response time. Standards are the foundation for exchanging information between two or more systems. Everything from the Presentation and Interface Services Layer network protocol used, to security mechanisms, to the data formats used, Many businesses gain competitive determine how well systems advantage through the effective use of communicate with each other. Data applications and data systems. More validation and reliable and secure efficient integration between these transport of data are of key importance systems and the ease of use of these in this architectural layer. systems boost their value to business and improve the productivity of the People knowledge workers that use them. The Information workers are most likely to business services, application services, react to the presentation and interface and data services layers are where these services layer, their primary mechanism application and data systems reside in for interacting with processes and the dynamic enterprise reference applications. The problem for an architecture. organization is compounded by factors such as user experience levels, user However, more than any other layer, the location, user browsing device or presentation and interface services layer software, and pre-conceived can entice users into adoption or push expectations. them away once and for all. It is critical to a good architecture to provide strong services related to the presentation of content and applications to the ultimate end users. Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 38. 38 Doculabs Marketfocus Report • Event correlation – the ability to take Event Services events from a variety of systems and A complete service-oriented architecture processes and relate them to each requires event management services. An other intelligently; this allows for event-driven architecture allows seemingly unrelated events to be services and applications to react to correlated to effect change in the stimuli from systems, applications, and environment to other people, both across and outside of the enterprise. • Event sequencing – the ability to take events that may arrive out-of- Unlike traditional architectures, event- sequence and intelligently driven architectures provide a reassemble them mechanism for systems to take action • Event aggregation – the ability to when stimulated by pre-determined or group events together to analyze and ad hoc events. An example of an event make decisions based on the sum of may include the failure of a business events process, such as the execution of an order, or could be as technical as a Together these services allow failure processing thread in a Java organizations to achieve a dynamic virtual machine running on a server. enterprise that changes to meet customer and business demands. These events are published, and systems and applications that are interested in receiving events can subscribe to get these events as they happen. A service- oriented architecture that leverages events provides the dual benefit of being dynamic and quick to react to changes in the extended enterprise. A number of services are required to provide a full-featured, event-driven architecture. The key services include: • Real-time event processing – the ability to process events as they arrive rather than on a scheduled or manual basis; this ability allows the organization to react immediately to changes in the environment Planning and Building an Architecture that Lasts ©2003
  • 39. About TIBCO TIBCO Software Inc. (NASDAQ:TIBX) is the largest independent business integration software company in the world, demonstrated by market share and analyst reports. In addition, TIBCO is a leading enabler of real-time business, helping companies become more cost-effective, more agile and more efficient. TIBCO has delivered the value of real-time business, what TIBCO calls The Power of Now®, to over 2,000 customers around the world and in a wide variety of industries. For more information on TIBCO's proven business integration, business optimization, and enterprise backbone solutions, TIBCO can be reached at 650-846- 1000 or on the Web at www.tibco.com. About Doculabs Doculabs, Inc., is a technology consulting firm backed by research and extensive client experience. Our services lower the business risk of technology decisions through client-specific recommendations, objective analysis, and in-depth research. Founded in 1993, Chicago-based Doculabs provides consulting services that are based on our fundamental belief that in order to protect a client’s long-term interest, technology advisors should not be implementers. Doculabs helps clients deliver on their business objectives through customized services that address technology initiatives related to business challenges in areas such as strategy development, technology acquisition, and go-to-market initiatives. Doculabs’ consulting services are completely objective because the firm does not sell software or integration services. For over 10 years, our research methodology has provided customers facing mission-critical challenges with the information and advice they need to make confident and well informed decisions. Hundreds of leading organizations within the Fortune 1000 – from financial services companies to major technology software providers – have turned to Doculabs for assistance with their technology strategies. For more information about Doculabs, visit the web site at www.doculabs.com or call (312) 433-7793. 120 South LaSalle Street, Suite 2300 Chicago, IL 60603 (312) 433-7793 www.doculabs.com E-mail Doculabs at: info@doculabs.com