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  • 1. EA Management Guide Outline Collection (Last Updated on 12/10/2005) List of Outlines and Definitions The Practical Guide to Enterprise Architecture...................................................................2 Enterprise Architecture Planning: Developing a Blueprint for Data, Applications, and Technology..........................................................................................................................3 Building Enterprise Information Architecture: Reengineering Information Systems.........3 Lightweight Enterprise Architectures..................................................................................3 Enterprise Business Architecture: The Formal Link Between Strategy And Results.........3 Sung Kun Kim:....................................................................................................................3 Our definition about EA ..................................................................................................3 EA-based IRM (Information Resource Management) Guide.........................................4 William Sweet......................................................................................................................7 Outline..............................................................................................................................7 Russell Boyd........................................................................................................................8 Enterprise Architecture Management Guide (EAMG)....................................................8 What is Enterprise Architecture. ....................................................................................8 What is EA Management.................................................................................................8 Enterprise Architecture Management Elements..............................................................8 John Wu...............................................................................................................................9 What is EA ? ...................................................................................................................9 Outline............................................................................................................................10 Hong S Kim.......................................................................................................................11 1. What is Enterprise Architecture ?..............................................................................11 2. What is Enterprise Architecture management ?.........................................................12 3. The outline you recommend and the information about its source............................12 Ben Bovée..........................................................................................................................13 Enterprise Architecture Book of Knowledge.................................................................13 Haiping Luo.......................................................................................................................14 Part I: Definitions...........................................................................................................14 Part II: EA Management Guide’s Outline.....................................................................15 Mitre...................................................................................................................................17 Guide to the (Evolving) Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge..........................17 What is EA.....................................................................................................................19 EA Knowledge Areas....................................................................................................20 Scott Bernard.....................................................................................................................20 What is EA.....................................................................................................................20 An Introduction To Enterprise Architecture..................................................................20 FEAC Institute: Federal Enterprise Architecture Certification Program...........................20 FEAC DODAF course.......................................................................................................23 Klaus D. Niemann..............................................................................................................24 What is enterprise architecture.......................................................................................24 What is enterprise architecture management.................................................................25
  • 2. Outline............................................................................................................................25 ===== The Practical Guide to Enterprise Architecture by James McGovern, Scott W. Ambler, Michael E. Stevens, James Linn, Elias K. Jo, Vikas Sharan http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0131412752/103-5916873-1622253?v=glance&n=283155& %5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance • Comprehensive explanation of enterprise architecture concepts and methods • Extend the Rational Unified Process to include Enterprise Architecture • Unified view of the various architectural disciplines to create strategic blueprints • Perspectives on Enterprise Development and Technology Indispensable technical, process, and business insight from leading enterprise architects Many organizations today face the challenge of designing, building, and maintaining large-scale distributed enterprise systems that are able to adapt to changing business needs. Many repeat the mistakes of others, resulting in cost overruns, blown deadlines, and lost opportunity. Today's business climate places additional burden on IT to deliver. Ever-adapting business drivers can diverge from the capabilities of the enterprise IT systems today, especially if the systems are complex, fragile, and intolerant of change. Enterprise architecture can help future- proof IT investments made today. A Practical Guide to Enterprise Architecture helps readers create adaptive architecture strategies for successfully implementing enterprise architectures. This classic handbook goes beyond theory and presents strategies that are based on experiences within organizations across multiple industry verticals. Behind each opinion, technique, and principle is a wealth of knowledge provided by some of the best-known industry thought leaders today. This book's authors have architected industrial-strength software and infrastructure for many of the world's leading firms-in financial services, telecommunications, media, and e-business. They present practical guidance, candid assessments of existing practice, and detailed examples from their own experience. Coverage includes: • Strategies for enterprise architecture-which ones work and why • Proven "product line" practices for streamlining the design of enterprise software • Understanding how to translate key business drivers into enterprise architecture output • Agile architectural and modeling techniques-presented by their creator, Scott Ambler • Architecting presentation tiers, user experience, and usability methods to create a reusable base of core assets • Overcoming the challenges of transitioning to agile methods • Identifying architecture enabling human resource practices Whether you're a working architect or plan to become one, A Practical Guide to Enterprise Architecture will be your timely, trusted advisor-today and for years to come.
  • 3. ==== Enterprise Architecture Planning: Developing a Blueprint for Data, Applications, and Technology by Steven H. Spewak table of contents http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0471599859/ref=sib_rdr_toc/103-5916873-162 2253?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S006&j=0#reader-page ===== Building Enterprise Information Architecture: Reengineering Information Systems by Melissa Cook table of contents http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0134402561/ref=sib_rdr_toc/103-5916873-162 2253?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S002&j=0#reader-page ==== Lightweight Enterprise Architectures by Fenix Theuerkorn Table of Contents http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/084932114X/ref=sib_rdr_toc/103-5916873-162 2253?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S009&j=0#reader-page ==== Enterprise Business Architecture: The Formal Link Between Strategy And Results by Ralph Whittle http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0849327881/ref=sib_dp_bod_toc/103-5916873- 1622253?%5Fencoding=UTF8&p=S00B#reader-link ==== Sung Kun Kim: Our definition about EA is "the explicit description and documentation of the current and desired relationships among business and management process and information technology". However, we don't use the term 'EA management'. Instead, we use the term 'EA-based IRM' which is defined as 'the process of managing information resources through defining and utilizing the relationship among business and management process and information technology in an effort to accomplish agency missions'.
  • 4. We think that the EA-based IRM consists of the following stages: 1) IRM Planning 2) Organizing 3) Architecture Construction 4) Utilization of Architecture 5) Maintenance of Architecture 6) Evaluation of IRM Efforts. EA-based IRM (Information Resource Management) Guide Objectives : This Guide was written by Korea’s Ministry of Government Administration & Home Affairs(MOGAHA http://www.mogaha.go.kr/), Korea’s e-Government leading ministry, and was distributed to all government ministries and agencies in an effort to promote an introduction of EA approach in their IT Management practices. Language: Korean Date: 2005, August Project Leader: Sung Kim(Professor of Chung-Ang University & Advisor of Presidential Advisory Committee of Korea e-Government) Key Terms: Information Resource Management: the process of managing information resources to accomplish agency missions. Ministry: a government department. Government-wide: throughout all ministries. Contents: Part I : A Synopsis of EA-based IRM Guide Chapter 1: An Introduction of EA-based IRM Guide 1.1 Objectives of EA-based IRM Guide 1.1.1 IT Management Problems and Their Causes 1.1.2 Why we need EA-based IRM Guide? 1.2 Organization of EA-based IRM Guide 1.3 Where and How we can use EA-based IRM Guide? Part II : An Understanding of IRM and EA Chapter 2: Introduction to IRM 2.1 IT Management Problems faced by public sectors and New Approaches to Them 2.1.1 Characteristics of Public Sector’s IT Projects 2.1.2 Sources and Causes of Public Sector’s IT Management Problems 2.1.3 United States Effort to Overcome These Problems
  • 5. 2.2 Concept and Characteristics of Information Resource Management(IRM) 2.2.1 Concept of IRM 2.2.2 Characteristics of IRM Chapter 3: Introduction to Enterprise Architecture 3.1 What EA is and How it relates to IRM? 3.1.1 Definition of Enterprise Architecture 3.1.2 The Relationship of EA with IRM 3.2 Evolution of EA 3.2.1 How EA has evolved in US? 3.2.2 How EA has evolved in Korea? 3.3 Contents and Representation of Architecture Information 3.3.1 Architecture Framework 3.3.2 Architecture-related Reference Model 3.3.3 How Architecture Information can be represented? 3.4 An Understanding of Architecture Construction Process 3.4.1 EAP 3.4.2 PGFEA 3.4.3 TOGAF 3.4.4 DODAF 3.5 EA Management Tools 3.5.1 What EA Management Tools are? 3.5.2 Functions of EA Management Tools 3.5.3 Classification of EA Management Tools 3.5.4 Benefits of EA Management Tools 3.5.5 Evaluation & Selection Criteria of EA Management Tools 3.5.6 Roles & Responsibilities with respect to Usage of EA Management Tools 3.5.7 An Understanding of EA Management System Chapter 4: An Analysis of IRM Practices by Korea Public Sector 4.1 IRM Practices 4.1.1 How we view IRM Practices? 4.1.2 Types of IT Management Decision-Making 4.2 Problems of IRM Practices 4.2.1 Problems in Planning & Organizing Stage 4.2.2 Problems in Acquisition & Construction Stage 4.2.3 Problems in Operating & Supporting Stage 4.2.4 Problems in Evaluation & Monitoring Stage Part III : Guide to EA-Based IRM (ministry-level) Chapter 5: General Guide to EA-Based IRM 5.1 Overview of EA-based IRM 5.1.1 Definition of EA-based IRM 5.1.2 Why EA is needed for effective IRM? 5.2 EA-Based IRM Process 5.2.1 IRM Planning
  • 6. 5.2.2 Organizing 5.2.3 Architecture Construction 5.2.4 Utilization of Architecture 5.2.5 Maintenance of Architecture 5.2.6 Evaluation of IRM Efforts 5.3 Principles of EA-based IRM 5.4 Organizational Structures for effective EA-based IRM 5.4.1 Roles & Responsibilities needed in EA-based IRM 5.4.2 Organization Chart of EA-based IRM Chapter 6: Guide of EA Construction 6.1 Overview of EA Construction Guide 6.1.1 Objectives of EA Construction Guide 6.1.2 Contents & Organization of EA Construction Guide 6.2 Architecture Information 6.2.1 Business Architecture Information 6.2.2 Data Architecture Information 6.2.3 Application Architecture Information 6.2.4 Technical Architecture Information 6.2.5 Investment Architecture Information Chapter 7: Guide of EA Utilization 7.1 Overview of EA Utilization Guide 7.1.1 Objectives of EA Utilization Guide 7.1.2 Organizational Structures for EA Utilization 7.1.3 EA Utilization Process 7.2 Architecture Utilization in Planning & Organizing Stage 7.2.1 Information Strategy Planning 7.2.2 IT Budgeting 7.2.3 Identification & Proposing of New IT Projects 7.2.4 Determination of Future IT Directions 7.3 Architecture Utilization in Acquisition & Construction Stage 7.3.1 Determination of Acquisition Approaches 7.3.2 Management of System Development Project 7.3.3 Acquisition & Maintenance of Applications 7.3.4 Acquisition & Maintenance of Infrastructures 7.4 Architecture Utilization in Operating & Supporting Stage 7.4.1 IT Asset Management 7.4.2 Information Systems Operation 7.4.3 IT Security 7.4.4 Joint Usage of IT Resources 7.5 Architecture Utilization in Evaluation & Monitoring Stage 7.5.1 Performance Evaluation 7.5.2 Evaluation of Internal Control Part IV : Future Direction for Government-wide EA-based IRM
  • 7. Chapter 8: Government-wide EA-based IRM 8.1 Sources & Causes of Government-wide EA-based IRM Practices 8.2 Needs & Objectives of Government-wide EA-based IRM 8.3 Future Works & Strategies for Government-wide EA-based IRM 8.3.1 Future Works for Government-wide EA-based IRM 8.3.2 Future Strategies for Government-wide EA-based IRM ==== William Sweet Outline i. What is enterprise architecture ii. What is enterprise architecture management iii. Enterprise Architecture Management B. EA Program Management B.1 Identify Executive Sponsorship B.2 Align with IT Governance Practices B.2a) portfolio managemnet B.3 Identify Program Manager B.4 Identify Program Management staff B.5 Implement Risk Management B.6 Implement Change Management B.7 Implement Communications Management B.8 Implement Architectural Review Board B.9 Plan the EA LifeCycle C. EA LifeCycle Management C.1 Choose an Architectural Framework (the framework is an existing template and process) C.2 Develop the AS-IS Architectural Blueprint (the blueprint is the completed framework templates) C.3 Develop the TO-BE Architectural Blueprint (align business mission with technology platform) C.4 Develop the Architectural Transition Plan (transition from as-is to to-be) C.5 Develop the Enterprise Architecture Standards (standards to be enforced and enforcement process) C.6 Periodic Refresh of Architecture Blueprints and Standards iv. Glossary of definitions and acronyms (if any) =====
  • 8. Russell Boyd Enterprise Architecture Management Guide (EAMG) Draft Outline by Russell Boyd, November 30, 2005 What is Enterprise Architecture. Enterprise Architecture is a strategic information asset base, which defines the mission, the information necessary to perform the mission, and the transitional processes for implementing new technologies in response to the changing mission needs. An enterprise architecture includes a baseline architecture, target architecture, and a sequencing plan. (A Practical Guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture, CIO Council, version 1.0, February 2001) What is EA Management. Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) addresses at a holistic way the elements of strategy, frameworks, the overall EA process, methods and techniques, standards and tools to enable the coordination and delivery of the various elements that makeup the Enterprise Architecture within the organization to maximize business benefits. Enterprise Architecture Management Elements EA Assessment EA Strategy and Planning EA Project Management and Process EA Development EA Maintenance EA Governance Organization and Staff EA in Investment Management CPIC Portfolio Management EA Performance Measurement & Communication 1. Glossary Elements in this context are all elements that enclose the areas of People, Processes, Business and Technology. Examples are: strategies, business drivers, principles, stakeholders, budgets, domains, functions, processes, services, and communication. =====
  • 9. John Wu What is EA ? EA was initiated to overcome the challenge automation island and stove pipe systems. It pursue the commonality from different system to share resources and provide interoperability. It is a different paradigm from application development, business process reengineering and strategic planning. Application development is a paradigm to develop application systems to automate business processes and manage information. BPR is the effort by taking advantage of technology evolution to optimize business processes, it pursue the uniqueness to win the competitive edge. Strategic planning establishes the vision and direction by the decision makers. The following figure illustrate the relation between EA , Application development , BPR and strategic planning. EA address the commonality to share resources, BPR pursue uniqueness to win the competitive edge, Application system support the strategic planning by leveraging on the common resource to enable agile application development to automate the optimized business processes. Application Strategic Planning is development automate responsible for enterprise business processes to transformation with vision support enterprise and direction. strategy Strategic Planning BPR look for uniqueness to win Application competitive edge , it Development Enterprise subject localization EA looks for BPR and also encourage commonality to Architecture stove pipe systems. resolve stove pipe systems and enable agile application development, Enterprise Architecture is initiated in the information age, it means to develop automation with enterprise consideration rather then by each individual system. Taking the term of Enterprise Architecture out of the context from information age, it has been interpreted as “Architecting the Enterprise”. Under this concept, EA has become the umbrella term for strategic planning, business process reengineering, application development and automation design. EA has become a concept rather than a discipline. “Architecture the Enterprise” has been a concept before information age from the early days when Emperor Nero attempted to transform the city of Rome, and in the 20th century , the socialism country architect the planned economy , in the late 20th century,
  • 10. the effort of enterprise engineering. All of this concept has come and go similar to Rubik Cube . EA is here to stay. It is not the best interest of EA to become the next wave of “ “Architecting the enterprise”. EA is an emerging paradigm in the evolution of information age rather than a redundant paradigm of strategic planning, application development and business process reengineering. Outline 1 Why EA ? 1.1 Comprehend the big picture 1.2 Tracking Current environment 1.3 Establish target architecture 1.4 Plan for transition 1.5 Support Investment management 1.6 Support Project management 1.7 Support Procurement management 1.8 Support SDLC management 1.9 Support Security management 1.10 Support Portfolio management 2. What is EA 2.1 The EA paradigm 2.2 The EA context 2.3 The EA myth 3. Governance and Compliance Processes Management 3.1 Governance structure 3.2 Stakeholders 3.3 EA standards change management 3.4 SDLC processes 3.5 CPIC process. 3.6 Procurement processes 3.7 Security certification processes 2.8 The governance framework 4.0 Business Architecture 4.1 Architecture overview 4.2 Mission 4.2 Functions 4.3 Information 4.4 Organizations 4.5 Locations 4.8 Mission Workload 5. Current environment 5..1 Application system inventory 5.2 Infrastructure system inventory
  • 11. 6. Target Architecture 6.1 Reference models for engineering of reuse 6.1.1 BRM 6.1.2 PRM 6.1.3 SRM 6.1.4 DRM 6.1. 5 TRM 6.2 Solution Architectures for engineering of sharing 6.2.1 Application Architecture 6.2.2 Data Architecture 6.2.3 Technology Architecture 6.3 Target architecture framework 6.4 Transition Plan 7 Portfolio management 7.1 Report cards 7.2 Earn value management 7 .3 Maturity 8. Communication 8.1 Architecture drawings 8.2. EA portal 8.3. EA liaison ===== Hong S Kim 1. What is Enterprise Architecture ? My definition of EA: Enterprise's essential framework to make a better decision for future activities of the enterprise. My comments to the EA: EA itself does not appropriately provide concept that the EA community currently try to do their EA job in the organization, which means EA relates with the Information Technology area. Therefore I recommend EIA(Enterprise Information Architecture) as a formal term instead of the EA. My definition of EIA: Enterprise's essential framework to effectively invest and manage IT(Information Technology) resources for meeting the goal of the enterprise.
  • 12. 2. What is Enterprise Architecture management ? My definition of Enterprise Architecture management: Building and maintaining essential Enterprise Architecture system to effectively invest and manage the IT (Information Technology) area for meeting the goal of the enterprise. 3. The outline you recommend and the information about its source. My recommendation: I think that EA(Enterprise Architecture) should be a overall and basic framework of the Enterprise to see it's status at a glance including IT(Information Technology) area. Therefore to me, EA seems to have broader concept than Enterprise Architects community have thought during the times. I would like to take the information area out of the Enterprise Architecture, that is Enterprise Information Architecture(EIA). Then we could clearly see the differences Between the EIA (Enterprise Information Architecture-IT related area) and the EA (Enterprise Architecture-total). In this sense, probably Enterprise Architecture should provide overall management and evaluation function to the enterprise and EIA(Enterprise Information Architecture) do the similar function to the Information Technology area of the enterprise. Now we can focus on Enterprise Architecture management(Enterprise Information Architecture management, hereafter EIA). To manage the EIA, first we define the lifecycle of the EIA from plan, development and operation to obsolete. Then we define the management guideline according to the lifecycle stages. For example, the EIA of early stage may not be good enough in quality aspect in a enterprise. The management point should be finding out the EIA solution, an awareness with culture change of introducing EIA, education and training. At the development stage, it could be a pilot project for the EIA solution, evaluation of the pilot project, adjusting the problems known through pilot project and review, refining the EIA solution to the practice level and deploying the new EIA solution and improving continuously At the operation stage, it could be a maintaining, expanding the proven EIA solution within an enterprise and maximizing the effectiveness. At the obsolete stage, the management point should be when removing the old EIA. This may be happening depending upon the merge of the systems or companies.
  • 13. This may be a just example of managing the EIA. However, I think it would be better to focus on managing the EIA through entire EIA lifecycle like a living thing. Then we can go on next step to define the detail management guide and add other considerations. Source: 1. Hong Sik Kim 2. "Process Improvement Journey" written by John Vu of Boeing for part of the stage contents. ===== Ben Bovée Enterprise Architecture Book of Knowledge Table of CONTENTS page # PREFACE 1 ABSTRACT 1 KEYWORDS 1 BACKGROUND 1 INTRODUCTION 2 USE 2 SCOPE 2 APPLICABILITY 2 ASSUMPTIONS 2 PRE-CONDITIONS 2 POST-CONDITIONS 2 OVERVIEW 2 MANAGERIAL CONTROLS 3 OPERATIONAL CONTROLS 4 TECHNICAL CONTROLS 5 CONCLUSION 6 CONSTRAINTS 6 FUTURE WORK 6 APPENDIXES 7 APPENDIX A: DOCUMENT CONTROLS 7 Textual Notations 7 Graphical Notations 7 Claims 7 Disclaimers 7 Responsible Personnel 7 Review Personnel 7 Validation Personnel 8 Revision History 8
  • 14. APPENDIX B: ABBREVIATIONS 8 APPENDIX C: GLOSSARY OF TERMS 8 APPENDIX D: REFERENCES 8 Legal and Regulatory References 8 Industry Standards and Guidance References8 Organization Document References 8 APPENDIX E: GLOSSARY OF DISCIPLINES 9 APPENDIX F: GLOSSARY OF ROLES 9 APPENDIX G: NOTATION STANDARDS - QUICK REFERENCES 9 ==== Haiping Luo An Enterprise Architecture Management Guide An Outline Part I: Definitions 1. Concept Taxonomy E n te r p r is e A r c h it e c t u r e D is c ip lin e E n te r p r is e A r c h ite c to n ic s E n te r p r is e A r c h it e c tu r e M a n a g e m e n t E n te r p r is e A r c h ite c t u r e P r o fe s s io n G e n e r a l E n te r p r is e A r c h ite c to n ic s A r c h ite c tin g S e r v ic e s E A P r o f e s s io n E s t a b lis h m e n t S p e c ia lt y A r c h it e c t o n i c s E A K n o w le d g e A d v a n c e m e n t M a n a g e m e n t S e r v ic e s E A E d u c a tio n & T r a in in g B u s in e s s A r c h ite c t o n ic s I n f o r m a t io n S e r v ic e s E A C o m m u n it y D e v e lo p m e n t O r g a n iz a tio n A r c h ite c to n ic s P r o je c t S e r v ic e s R e s o u r c e s A r c h it e c t o n ic s E A P ro g ra m M a n a g e m e n t In fo r m a tio n A r c h ite c to n ic s E A O r g a n iz a tio n M g m t A p p li c a t io n A r c h it e c t o n ic s E A P ro d u c t M a n a g e m e n t S e c u r it y A r c h it e c t o n ic s E A P r o je c t M a n a g e m e n t T e c h n o lo g y A r c h it e c to n ic s In te r g r a tio n A r c h ite c to n ic s 2. Definitions Enterprise: An Enterprise is any entity or a group of entities that pursues a common goal or a set of common goals.
  • 15. An Enterprise’ Architecture: An Enterprise’ Architecture is more accurately defined as the architectural environment of an enterprise. An enterprise’ architectural environment comprises the ACTUAL structure(s), topology, and dynamics that are within or related to the enterprise. The structure of an enterprise comprises the enterprise’ elements and the relationships among the elements. The topology of the enterprise is the location, layout, and connections of enterprise elements across space. The dynamics of the enterprise is the interactions among elements over the time dimension. The architecture of an enterprise can be narrowly referred as the “Structure of an Enterprise”. The Documentation of an Enterprise’ Architecture: The Documentation of an Enterprise’ Architecture is the structured and organized information that describes the architectural environment and structural characteristics of an enterprise. Enterprise Architecture Discipline: The Enterprise Architecture Discipline is the combination of theories, methodologies, technologies, and practical approaches that supports designing, developing, and managing enterprise architectural environments. The Enterprise Architecture Discipline can be generally referred as “Enterprise Architecture” but the full term “Enterprise Architecture Discipline” is preferred due to less ambiguity. Enterprise Architectonics: Enterprise Architectonics is the art, science, and body of knowledge pertinent to designing and transforming an enterprise’ architectural environment to support an enterprise’ mission. Enterprise Architecture Management: Enterprise Architecture Management is the act, manner, and practice of leading the enterprise to improve its architectural environment as well as of obtaining and controlling resources to support enterprise architecting activities. Enterprise Architecture Profession: Enterprise Architecture Profession is the occupation that requires both formal education and practical experience in the discipline of enterprise architecture. Enterprise Architecting: Enterprise Architecting is the activities and processes of developing and strengthening an enterprise' architectural environment in order to support the mission of the enterprise. Enterprise Architecting applies enterprise architectural approaches to a specific enterprise to improve its structure. The architectural approaches include EA principles, EA frameworks, EA methodologies, EA processes, EA tools and techniques, and EA body of knowledge. The objectives of enterprise architecting are to align elements, harmonize relationships, optimize locations, streamline interactions, coordinate timing, and connect past, present, and future. Through achieving these objectives, enterprise architecting reaches its goal of making the entire enterprise more productive, efficient, and in harmony. Part II: EA Management Guide’s Outline 1. Overview 1.1. What is Enterprise Architecture (definition tree) 1.2. The Objectives of Enterprise Architecture Discipline: Enterprise Architecture Discipline (EA) focuses on developing and strengthening the architectural environment of an enterprise in order to support the mission of the enterprise. The Enterprise Architecture discipline uses architectural approaches to develop and strengthen an enterprise' architectural environment. Enterprise architectural approaches include EA principles, EA frameworks, EA methodologies, EA processes, EA tools and techniques, and EA body of knowledge. Enterprise
  • 16. architectural approaches emphasize aligning elements, harmonizing relationships, optimizing locations, streamlining interactions, and coordinating timing to make the entire enterprise more productive, efficient, and in harmony. 1.3. The Structure of the Guide (Covers Enterprise Architectonics and Enterprise Architecture Management; EA professional development is covered from EA management perspective.) 2. Enterprise Architectonics (What makes a good structure? What are good methods to architect an enterprise’ structure? What are good approaches to transform an enterprise’ structure?) 2.1. General Enterprise Architectonics: theories, principles, methodologies, frameworks (Zachman, DODAF, FEAF…), lifecycle of enterprise architecting. 2.2. Specialty Architectonics: principles and methodology, input, tools and techniques, output of architecting specialty structures 2.2.1.Business Architectonics 2.2.2.Organization Architectonics 2.2.3.Resources Architectonics 2.2.4.Information Architectonics 2.2.5.Application Architectonics 2.2.6.Security Architectonics 2.2.7.Technology Architectonics 2.3. Integration Architectonics: principles and methodology, input, tools and techniques, output of integrating specialty structures to form a functional, efficient and harmonious enterprise structural environment. (Spewak enterprise planning framework.) 3. Enterprise Architecture Management (How to manage enterprise architecture resources and activities to achieve architecting goals.) 3.1. Enterprise Architecting Services 3.1.1. Management services 3.1.1.1.Formulation of EA policy, standards, & procedure 3.1.1.2.EA design 3.1.1.3.EA planning 3.1.1.4.EA governance 3.1.1.5.EA coordination 3.1.1.6.EA advisory to enterprise management 3.1.2. Information services 3.1.2.1.EA repository 3.1.2.2.EA intelligence 3.1.2.3.EA applications 3.1.2.4.EA reports 3.1.2.5.EA analyses 3.1.2.6.EA management historian 3.1.2.7.EA product/project documentation 3.1.3. Project services 3.1.3.1.Project’s EA review and approval 3.1.3.2.Project’s EA consultation
  • 17. 3.1.3.3.Project’s EA monitory and evaluation 3.2. EA Program Management. 3.2.1.EA Organization Management 3.2.1.1. Internal organization structure: roles and responsibilities 3.2.1.2. EA Governance structure 3.2.1.3. Professional Development 3.2.1.3.1.Ethic 3.2.1.3.2.Quality (position description, professional development) 3.2.2.EA Product Management 3.2.3.EA Project Management 3.2.3.1.EA Project coordination 3.2.3.2.EA Project execution 4. Enterprise Architecture Applications: (How to utilize enterprise architecture approaches to solve real world challenges.) 4.1. Capital Planning and Investment Control: portfolio architecting and management. 4.2. Compliance Management (such as HIPAA, Sarbox, A-123): comprehensive and dynamic requirements management. 4.3. Electronic Alliance (such as E-gov): federated connection and coordination over a wide range of enterprises. 4.4. Emergency Management (such as hurricane relief): rapid coordination and cooperation to form large temporary enterprises. 4.5. Merge Management: integrating and unifying unrelated and dissimilar entities. 4.6. Business Transformation (such as modernizing complex legacy systems): systematic approach to support live and partial rollover from old systems, mindsets, and culture to new ones. ===== Mitre Guide to the (Evolving) Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge http://www.mitre.org/tech/eabok/ ; http://www.mitre.org/tech/eabok/documents/eabok.pdf Paula J. Hagan, Editor Table of Contents Participants.......................................................................................................................... 5 1. Introduction to the Guide................................................................................................ 6 2. EA Charter and Context................................................................................................ 12 2.1 Evolution of the Definition of Enterprise Architecture .......................................... 12 2.2 EA Legislation and Guidance................................................................................. 17 2.2.1 The Evolution of EA-Related Legislation....................................................... 17 2.2.2 United States Code Sections Relevant to EA Reference Model (NCOW RM) 2.2.3 Refining EA Guidance through OMB Circulars.............................................. 19 2.2.4 EA Guidance from the CIO Council................................................................ 20
  • 18. 2.2.5 Historical Developments in EA ........................................................................... 22 3. Foundational Practices and Tools for EA Development............................................... 26 3.1 Enterprise Architecture Frameworks ...................................................................... 28 3.1.1 What is an Enterprise Architecture Framework?............................................. 28 3.1.2 The Zachman EA Framework – Foundational Ideas ....................................... 29 3.1.3 Overview of Major Federally-Sponsored Frameworks ................................... 31 3.1.4 State and Industry-Sponsored Frameworks ..................................................... 40 3.1.5 Comparing Frameworks................................................................................... 41 3.2 Reference Models and Reference Architectures..................................................... 44 3.2.1 OMB Reference Models: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) ........... 44 3.2.2 Net-Centric Operations and Warfare (NCOW- Future .................................... 57 3.2.3 The Global Information Grid (GIG) – Future.................................................. 57 3.3 Processes for Developing the EA ......................................................................... 58 3.3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................... 58 3.3.2 DODAF Six Step Process ................................................................................ 58 3.3.3 MetaGroup Process Model .............................................................................. 59 3.3.4 Spewak’s Enterprise Architecture Planning .................................................... 60 3.3.5 Practical Guide Process.................................................................................... 62 3.3.6 TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) ...................................... 63 3.3.7 Levis Process for Developing Products for the C4ISR (DODAF) Framework63 3.3.8 Other EA Development Processes ................................................................... 64 Modeling Methods ............................................................................................ 66 3.4.1 Introduction...................................................................................................... 66 3.4.2 The Business Process Model ........................................................................... 67 3.4.3 The Data Model – Future ................................................................................. 82 3.4.4 Other Modeling Methods – Future .................................................................. 82 3.5 Architecture Modeling Tools.................................................................................. 83 3.5.1 Types of Architecture Tools and Users........................................................... 84 3.5.2 Tool Assessment Criteria ................................................................................. 86 3.5.3 Assessment Approach ...................................................................................... 89 3.5.4 Issues with Choosing a Tool............................................................................ 90 3.5.5 Issues with Organizational Use of Automated Tools ...................................... 91 3.5.6 Recommended Solution ................................................................................... 91 Dummy heading to clear text ....................................................................................... 92 4. Establishing and Managing the EA Program................................................................ 93 4.3.1 Determining the Information Needed for the Enterprise Architecture ............ 95 4.3.2 Tailoring EA Products for Specific Circumstances .................................. 97 4.5 Risks...................................................................................................................... 104 4.9 Maturing Agency EA Efforts............................................................................... 106 4.9.1 Vision, Values, and Leadership..................................................................... 106 4.9.2 Areas of Responsibility and Establishing Cooperation ................................. 106 4.9.3 Purpose and Scope......................................................................................... 107 4.9.4 Simplifications for the Initial EA Products.................................................... 107 4.9.5 Initial and Maturing Processes....................................................................... 107 5. Engineering the EA................................................................................................... 110
  • 19. 5.1 Engineering Issues for EA Views ......................................................................... 110 5.1.1 The Business Architecture View – FUTURE ................................................ 110 5.1.2 The Data Architecture View .......................................................................... 111 5.1.3 Infrastructure – Future ................................................................................... 115 5.1.4 Security .......................................................................................................... 115 5.3 Component-Based Architectures – Future............................................................ 116 5.4 Federated Architectures – Future.......................................................................... 116 5.5 Using Reference Models and Reference Architectures – Future.......................... 116 5.6 Issues with Legacy Systems – Future ................................................................... 116 5.8 Achieving Flexibility to Incorporate New Technology - Future .......................... 126 5.9 Sequencing Plan – Future ..................................................................................... 126 6. Using the Enterprise Architecture............................................................................... 127 6.1 Compliance within the Service or Agency – Future ............................................. 127 6.2 EA Use in Transformation - Future ...................................................................... 127 6.2.1 Financial......................................................................................................... 127 6.2.2 Business Operations – EA Use in BPR and Process Improvement – Future. 128 6.2.3 Technical – EA Use in Systems Design and Engineering – FUTURE.......... 129 6.2.4 Organizational – EA Use in Organizational Change Management ............... 129 7. Evaluating EA............................................................................................................. 130 7.1 EA Maturity Models ............................................................................................. 130 7.2 Seven High-Level EA Evaluation Criteria ........................................................... 132 7.3 Assessment of EA Products - Future .................................................................... 134 7.4 Assessment of EA Development Processes - Future ............................................ 134 7.5 Assessment of EA Usage Processes – Future ....................................................... 135 7.6 Assessment of EA Resources – Future ................................................................. 135 8. Lessons Learned and Practical Experience................................................................. 136 EABOK Glossary............................................................................................................ 138 Forward, Preface, Next Steps, Acknowledgements - FUTURE Acknowledgement Thanks to Frank Driscoll for championing the idea of a Guide to the EABOK and supporting the effort. Next Steps Consensus Best practices EE Revised February 6, 2004 What is EA An EA describes how the elements of an organization fit together – the business processes, organizations responsible for them, Information Technology (IT) capabilities and infrastructure – today and in the future. The EA also describes how the elements transition to support the organization’s strategic plans. Federal agencies are required to develop an EA to facilitate capital planning and IT development sequencing. In addition, the EA defines high level interoperability needs and specifies standards. It is a useful guide for technical developers.
  • 20. EA Knowledge Areas ===== Scott Bernard What is EA Enterprise Architecture: The analysis and documentation of an enterprise in its current and future states from an integrated strategy, business, and technology perspective. An Introduction To Enterprise Architecture Table of Contents http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1418498084/103-5916873-1622253? v=glance&n=283155&%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance ===== FEAC Institute: Federal Enterprise Architecture Certification Program FEA course http://www.feacinstitute.org/za/FEA?PAGE=FEAF_WHAT Course Descriptions 01. CONCEPTS
  • 21. Laws, Regulations, Concepts, Theories, Principles, Methodology – Creating Enterprise Architecture Understanding & Awareness (4 CEUs)  Definition of the "Enterprise" in Enterprise Architecture terms: Strategic, Business, Information, Data, Systems and IT architectures  Legislative Mandates and other Guidance and their relationships  The process and approach, the intended use, the lifecycle and the scope of the EA  EA Framework Views - Ballpark, Owners, Designers, Builders, Vendors to Functional Systems - Examples of Enterprise Architecture frameworks  Historical perspective of Enterprise Architecture - From Business through IT, Applications to Data  Some Examples of Best Practices, success stories  Techniques for "EA Thinking" and the Enterprise Architecture process according to CIO Council's "A Practical Guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture":  Federal Enterprise Architecture Vision and Principles as per CIO Council's "FEAF" V 1.1  GAO's view of EA, OMB's view of EA  Explore the Synergism of Enterprise Architecture and Program Management  EA - Bridging the Gap between Business and IT  Strategic visioning using Strategic Planning Models  Discuss how the "Target" Architecture can be started during "As-Is" Enterprise Architecture Planning  Chief Architects Forum updates 02. PLANNING Preparation, Planning, Requirements For Business – Develop an Sow, How to Institutionalize Governance & Management Foundations (4 CEUs)  Strategic Planning as the corner stone of EA  The Importance of Culture and how to change Culture in an Enterprise  First Examination the FEA-PMO Business Reference Models  Drivers: Reorganization, Modernization, Integration, eCommerce positioning, Business Cases  Defining the Business Architecture - taking into account businesses strategy, long term goals and objectives, the technological environment, and the external environment, location, politics, and strategic business planning  Determining Enterprise Architecture principles  Relating Information, Activities and Process to Organizational Units  Zachman about the evolution of requirements (top two rows of his Framework)  Zachman Framework as the universe for building a complex environment  Business case and benefits for developing an EA  How do Business Rules relate to an EA  Developing a Business Model  Managing the creation of an Enterprise Architecture in a Government business environment  Developing "As Is" Architecture Concepts  How to develop a Concept of Operations (CONOPS)  First Identification of Viable Enterprise Architecture projects for the practicum (Course 5)
  • 22. 03. IMPLEMENTATION Using Internal Implementation, Marketing, Selling, & Sustainment To Manage Change (4 CEUs)  IT Architecture Methodologies (Zachman, IT Asset Framework, Boar, Student's Own Framework) - review of basic concepts in light of an integrated repository  Activity based costing and cost/benefits analysis  Always the latest and best Case Studies of EA efforts  Developing performance measures: Performance Measures and Balanced Scorecards (BSC and GPRA)  Visually Modeling Transition to Implementation  EA methods, products, and tools and the relevance of visual models in Enterprise Architecture  Continuously refining the different EA's relationships  Managing and incorporation of legacy systems as the basis for managing change and selling the EA  Project Management for large scale Enterprise Architecture systems  How to plan for Information Assurance with and within an EA  Planning Migration, Translation and Implementation strategies  Stakeholder communication strategies - internal and external marketing  How to create an Enterprise Architecture deliverable that is "actionable"  Maintaining/sustaining the architecture as an asset of the organization 04. INTEGRATION Data, Application, Technology & How to Bridge Business to IT (4 CEUs)  Business views of an Information/Data architecture  Information Architecture as the common denominator for Interoperability  Detailed Examination of each of the FEA-PMO Business Reference Models  EA methods, products, and tools and the relevance of visual models in Enterprise Architecture  The Capital Planning and Investment Control process (CPIC) links to budget formulation and specific program outcomes  Information Standards, Information Exchange, Information Brokers, EAI  Relationships vs. Entities  Roles and State Transitions  Modeling data components, Object Oriented Concepts for the business views  Information as an asset  Linking applications to objects, activities and processes  Linking applications and systems  Modeling IT operational characteristics and behavior  How do Business Rules, Rules Engines and Application Development relate  Developing an integrated Infrastructure Architecture and relating it to the FEA PMO  Modeling data/system/platform distribution  Incorporating infrastructure data and its relationships in one repository framework
  • 23. 05. PRACTICUM Project Development and Presentation, Program Certification Exam (4 CEUs)  Sit for the Certification exam for professional Enterprise Architecture Certification (about 2 hours)  Formal presentations, critique and grading of individual and teamwork projects developed during the program's practicum period based on the SOW developed in the beginning of the program (part of the learning experience) ==== FEAC DODAF course http://www.feacinstitute.org/za/FEA?PAGE=DODAF_WHAT Course Descriptions 01. Framework Basics  Introduction to Enterprise Architecture  Framework background, history, and planned evolution  Overview of relevant government regulations  Uses of architectures  Framework philosophy, concepts and definitions  Overview of six step process  Framework product overview and relationships  Details of government regulations and reporting requirements  Class Example Architecture Workshop  Case Studies, comparison with other Frameworks and methods, and overview of Universal Reference Resources for the DoD Framework 02. Core and Support Product Development/Modeling  Overview of core products and their relationships  All Views core products  Operational View core products  Systems View core products  Technical View core products (Relationship to DoD TRM and JTA to be covered in Class VI)  Core Product Workshop 03. Planning for Architecture Development and Use  Details of six step architecture process  Use of architectures  Selection of products and tailoring flexibility  Relationship of framework architecture products to BPI and system development methodologies
  • 24.  Architecture governance and maintenance  Planning and scheduling for architecture development  Tools Workshop  Planning Workshop 04. Supporting Product Development/Modeling Related Technologies and Methods  Overview of the supporting products and their relationship(s) to the core products and to each other  All Views supporting products overview (details to be covered in Class V)  Operational View supporting products  Systems View supporting products  Technical View supporting products  Supporting Products Workshop  Data and Activity Modeling (with Mini-Workshop)  LISI  TRM/JTA  Security  CADM and XML  DoD Technical Reference Model (TRM) and Joint Technical Architecture (JTA)(with Technical Architecture Profile Mini-Workshop) 05. Practicum/Workshop Practicum Project Development and Presentation, Program Certification Exam (4 CEUs)  Sit for the Certification Exam for professional Enterprise Architecture Certification  Formal presentations, critique and grading of individual and teamwork projects developed during the program's practicum period based on the SOW developed in the beginning of the program ==== EA Management Guide Klaus D. Niemann Based upon: Klaus D. Niemann: Von der Unternehmensarchitektur zur IT-Governance, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN: 3-528-05856-0 What is enterprise architecture An EA is a structured and balanced model collection of an enterprise’s IT-portfolio development , • which show various aspects of IT-systems (e.g. data, fubctions, interfaces, platforms, networks),
  • 25. • and their relationship to business (e.g., supported goals, processes, stragegies, organizational units), • dedicated to various stakeholders (e.g. manager, planners, owners, designers), • in different views and details, • in historic, recent and future states. What is enterprise architecture management EA Management is responsible for planning, organizing, controlling and governing the processes to develop, use and maintain an EA. EA Management adresses both strategic and operational issues: Documentation, Analysis and Planning of EA must be supplemented by Transformation and Controlling in real-life projects. Strategisches Operatives Strategie Architektur- Architektur- Umsetzung management management Outline 2 Basics and Definitions: Finding the starting point 2.1 Enterprise Architecture document! analyze! 2.2 IT-Architecture 2.3 Architekture Management 2.4 IT-Architect check! 2.5 Corporate Governance 2.6 IT-Governance 2.7 Enterprise Architecture as as basis for IT-Governance act! plan! 2.8 Development and Usage of EA 2.9 EA and the IT-Management-Framework 3 Goals: Do the things the right way 3.1 Benefits of EA 3.2 Optimize IT Efficiency 3.3 Optimize IT Effectiveness 3.4 Minimize IT Risks 3.5 The purpopse: Enlighting the darkness of IT-Management 4 Documentation: Structure EA 4.1 Anatomy of EA 4.2 Business Architecture 4.3 Application Architecture 4.4 Systems Architecture 4.5 Application Landscape
  • 26. 5 Analysis: Evaluate EA 5.1 Basics of Analysis Procedures 5.2 Dependency Analysis 5.3 Coverage Analysis 5.4 Interface and Interaction Analysis 5.5 Heterogenity Analysis 5.6 Compexity Analysis 5.7 Conformity Analysis 5.8 Cost Analysis 5.9 Value Analysis 6 Planning: Design EA 6.1 IT-Application Landscaping 6.2 EA ModelManagement 6.3 Develop scenarios („to be“ models) 6.4 Evaluate scenarios (“to be” models) 6.5 Plan Transformation Process 7 Transition: develop EA 7.1 Transform Strategy into Operations 7.2 Develop Strategic Architecture Management (Process and Methodology) 7.3 Develop Operational Architecture Management (Process and Methodology) 7.4 Develelop EA Organization 7.5 Cost of EA 7.6 Value of RA 7.7 Frameworks and Tools 8 Check: govern EA Development 8.1 Processss 8.2 Boards 8.3 Metrics ====