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Interoperable Architecture in Distributed Data Sharing Settings
 

Interoperable Architecture in Distributed Data Sharing Settings

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  • The OGC staff and our members are committed to the concept of geospatial data, services, and application interoperability. Together with terms like "metadata" and "joined-up thinking", this word is increasingly being used in information management discourse across all of our information gathering institutions. So what do we mean by interoperability? From the OGC technology perspective and as documented in the OGC Abstract Specification (derived from ISO 2382-1 and 19112) interoperability is the “capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units in a manner that requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique characteristics of those units”. Excellent examples of interoperability at its best are the Internet and the World Wide Web. “Plug and Play” is another term we often see in use. An excellent example of the implementation of plug and play concept is the stereo component market: you can plug and play receivers, DVD players, and dozens of other components from many providers – and it will work! We and our members have the same interoperability vision. However, interoperability at the technology level is only one aspect of what the term encompasses. At a higher (more general) level, To be interoperable, one should be actively engaged in the ongoing process of ensuring that the systems, procedures and culture of an organization are managed in such a way as to maximize opportunities for exchange and re-use of information, whether internally or externally. Based upon this definition, it should be clear that there is far more to ensuring interoperability than using compatible software and hardware, although that is of course important. Rather, assurance of effective interoperability will require often radical changes to the ways in which organizations work and, especially, in their attitudes to information and organisation.
  • OGC’s focus on Web Services has led to the formation of a reference architecture that enables: Access to multiple sources of information, and services to apply this information Reuse of technology solutions from multiple technology suppliers Minimizing of deployment costs through “plug and play” interfaces, and by eliminating redundant data collection and maintenance Improved access to geodata and services by citizens and consumers A foundation for interoperable service capabilities within and across enterprises This graphic illustrates the web services paradigm shift to enable desktop applications as well as web services.

Interoperable Architecture in Distributed Data Sharing Settings Interoperable Architecture in Distributed Data Sharing Settings Presentation Transcript

  • Interoperable Architecture in Distributed Data Sharing Settings Louis Hecht Executive Director Regional Operations and Development lhecht @opengeospatial.org 301-654-0698
  • Talk Topics
    • OGC leads the development of web based geospatial standards based on common architecture methods
      • What is OGC and What do we do, Some of our members
      • The General Idea Behind Interoperability
    • Interoperability in the Federal Enterprise Architecture
      • OGC architecture
      • OGC specifications and standards
    • Distributed Data and Services and Government interoperability – Data Harmonization
      • Protecting value of legacy data and systems
      • Easing insertion of new technologies and updating old ones
    • What might COG consider
  • OGC Background
    • Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)
      • Not-for-profit, international voluntary consensus standards organization
        • Incorporated in US, UK, Australia
      • 280+ industry, government, and university members
      • Class A Liaison of ISO TC 211, TC 204 and CEN TC 287
      • Founded in 1994
    OGC Mission To lead in the development, promotion and harmonization of open spatial standards, to support their effective implementation and ICT infrastructure architectures worldwide, and to advance the formation of new market opportunities for spatial information and processing services.
  • OGC Vision A world in which everyone benefits from geographic information and services made available across any network, application, or platform.
  • Who Belongs to OGC?
    • Vendors (examples)
      • Autodesk, Compusult, Cubewerx, ESRI, Galdos, Intergraph, Ionic, Laser Scan Ltd., ObjectFX, MapInfo, NAVTEQ, Tele Atlas
    • Integrators (examples)
      • BAE Systems, Boeing S&IS, Booze Allen Hamilton, Harris Corp, ITT Industries, Lockheed Martin, Michael Baker, Jr., Northrop Grumman – TASC, Parsons-Brinckerhoff, Raytheon, SAIC
    • Universities (examples)
      • Alabama – Huntsville, Arkansas, Columbia, MIT, GMU, Harvard, Illinois, Indiana, Penn State, Maine, Maryland, Michigan State, Minnesota, Washington U in St. Louis
    • Full list available at: http://www.opengeospatial.org/about/?page=members&view=Name
  • Who Belongs to OGC?
    • U.S. Government Organizations
      • U.S.   Defense Modeling & Simulation Office (DMSO)
      • U.S.  Naval Research Laboratory  
      • Program Executive Office, C4I and Space
      • US Army Corps of Engineers (ACE)  
      • US Census Bureau
      • US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
      • US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
      • US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)  
      • US Geological Survey (USGS), National Mapping Division
      • US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
      • US National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
      • US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/NCDDC)
  • What is OGC Interoperability? - The General Idea
    • The ability of systems to exchange and use information and services.
      • By "systems," we mean software processes, services and other components, the data, hardware, and supporting networks.
    • This capability comes from open standards.
    • OGC has developed an open framework that enables geospatial interoperability.
      • using a global-based voluntary consensus-based process -- specifications that result -- describe open, vendor-neutral, and non-proprietary interfaces, encodings and human to machine vocabularies.
  • Standards Enable Interoperability
    • INTEROPERABILITY: the ability of two or more autonomous, heterogeneous, distributed digital entities (e.g. systems, applications, procedures, directories, inventories or data sets) to communicate and cooperate among themselves despite differences in language, context, format or content. These entities should be able to interact with one another in meaningful ways without special effort by the user - the data producer or consumer - be it human or machine.
  • OGC’s Place in the Market
    • To enable interoperability
      • OGC operates our consensus process with industry, government and academic members to define architectures and interfaces
      • OGC commercial vendor and integrator members write and sell software that uses our published OGC interfaces
      • Interface specifications are also made public
      • Users like yourselves -- employ OGC-based architectures -- to decide what software to buy that satisfies your requirements and operational necessities
  • The Federal Enterprise Architecture
  • FEA Profiles
    • Two kinds of documents
      • Each agency and department identifies its own Lines of Business and then completes the profiles for them
        • Performance
        • Business
        • Service
        • Data
        • Technical
      • Several ‘cross cutting’ areas have been identified (those that are important to all agencies and probably all Lines of Business)
        • Security
        • Records Management
        • Geospatial
  • Geo and the Federal Enterprise Architecture
    • Federated interoperability means that the ‘hidden geospatial’ elements in all government data needs to be accessible and useable
      • FGDC defining a Geospatial profile of the FEA
      • Project Visible at Geospatial Community of Practice Wiki
        • http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?GeoSpatialCommunityofPractice
    • Geo Profile is an ‘overlay’ to all other lines of business
      • Some agencies have lines of business that are entirely geospatial
        • USGS, Census, others
      • Some agencies have lines of business that just include some data elements that are geospatial
        • HUD has thousands of housing units each with its own address
          • That address is geospatial, even though HUD uses it only as a mail box
  • Shared lines of business Integrated Data and Information “To Be State” Using the FEA-DRM Pollution Prevention & Control Energy Research Public Health Monitoring Recreational Resource Management & Tourism Consumer Health & Safety Consumer Safety DOE Emission DOI Natural Resource HHS USDA Health Recreation Geospatial Overlay
  • GeoCOP Plan
    • 30 September 2005
      • Deliver Geospatial Profile document
        • Overview
        • Context for all five Reference Models
        • Geo ‘overlay’ for all five Reference Models
      • Address geo as line of business
      • Address geo elements in all other lines of business
    • Next fiscal year
      • Demonstrate proof that the proposed profile supports interoperability
      • OGC specifications will be required
  • The Role of Data for Realizing the FEA Vision
    • Data needs to discoverable and semantically interoperable
      • The first barrier to sharing is knowing it exists
      • The user must know what a ‘road’ is
    • Services that access data need to automatically useable
      • User must know what the service is
      • Chaining is desireable
    • Architecture into which the services fit to manipulate the data
      • You plug your new stereo into the wall for power and into the rest of your system to make it work – why not geospatial processing too?
    • All three rely on open, industry consensus standards to fit the pieces together – multi-jurisdictional payers means multi-vendor software
  • Common Geospatial Interoperability Framework Multi-source Access and Integration (Homeland Security) Private Data and Services Local Data and Services State Data and Services Federal Data and Services Tribal Data and Services Data Providers Civil Authorities Emergency Mgmt Personnel First Responders Analysis & Support Geospatial Interoperability Framework meets cross-organizational enterprise challenges. Common Interoperable Operating Pictures Information Architecture: Models, Transforms, Application Schemas and Dictionaries Service Architecture: Standards, Certified Services for Accessing, Processing, Presenting Information
    • A single data model or specification for all domains is extremely unlikely
    • Traditional bulk transfer of data (sets) is often too inflexible and not meeting user requirements
    • Approach focussing on providing services to the information gained from different data holdings is required
    • Application Schema defines content and structure of data but may also specify services for accessing and manipulating data by an application
    • Services Architecture details the required services and interfaces to implement a solution that serves the user information requirements through automated translation of existing data sources and their existing stovepipe data models into harmonized schemas with resulting output suitable for sharing and human use
    Data Harmonization Approach (1)
  • Data Harmonization Approach (2)
    • Application Schema specifies the domain specific feature types
      • describing the specific view of the real world based on the information requirements of that domain
      • Define the core concepts of the domain in a meaningful way (e.g. “lake”, “parcel”, “road”) along with their attributes, properties, possible constraints, etc.
    • Proven to be extremely valuable in building geospatial information networks comprising heterogeneous data sources
  • Summary
    • OGC leads the development of web based geospatial standards based on common architecture methods
    • U.S. government is defining Federal Enterprise Architecture
      • OGC architecture fits into FEA
    • Data and services will move interoperably around the government –
      • Easing insertion of new technologies and updating old ones
      • Protecting value of legacy data and systems
    • COG and member organizations need to share data and use a plethora of sources...
      • COG will need to situate itself within the FEA framework
      • COG will need to consider an iterative development strategy
      • Today’s requirements for exchanging geospatial data and the multi jurisdictional nature of those sources requires COG to consider using open, industry standardization for sharing information between jurisdictions
  • BACK UP SLIDES
  • The Value of Interoperability
    • The value of interoperability is easy to understand because the World Wide Web provides the ideal example. Millions of implementations of the specifications for TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML, XML and other related standards makes possible a huge network of interoperating software processes, services, data, semantics, hardware, and networks. The OGC works to make geospatial information and services a fluid part of the World Wide Web, and to likewise enable interoperability across networks, systems and enterprises."
  • OGC Web Service (OWS) Architecture
    • Open GIS ® Reference Model (ORM) – architecture document that illustrates how services are provided using open, industry consensus interface and encoding standards
      • http://www.opengeospatial.org/specs/?page=orm
    • OGC Technical Baseline – latest version of standards
      • http://www.opengeospatial.org/specs/?page=orm
  • OGC Web Services Family
    • Catalog Service (CS) CS-W Profile
    • Filter Encoding (FE)
    • Geography Markup Language (GML)
    • GO-1 Application Objects (GO-1)
    • Web Services Common (WSC)
    • Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD)
    • Web Coverage Service (WCS)
    • Web Feature Service (WFS)
    • Web Map Context (WMC)
    • Web Map Service (WMS)
  • OGC Web Services - 1 Open GIS ® Catalog Services 2.0 2004-08-02  Defines a common interface that enables diverse but conformant applications to perform discovery, browse and query operations against distributed and potentially heterogeneous catalog servers.  Open GIS ® Coordinate Transformation Services 1.0 2001-01- 12 Provides interfaces for general positioning, coordinate systems, and coordinate transformations.  Open GIS ® Filter Encoding 1.1 2005-05-03  This document defines an XML encoding for filter expressions based on the BNF definition of the OpenGIS Common Catalog Query Language as described in the OpenGIS Catalog Interface Implementation Specification, Version 1.0 [2].  Open GIS ® Geography Markup Language 3.1.1 2005-05-03  The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding for the transport and storage of geographic information, including both the geometry and properties of geographic features. 
  • OGC Web Services - 2 Open GIS ® GO-1 Application Objects  (AOS) 1.0.0  2005-05-04  The GO-1 Application Objects specification defines a set of core packages that support a small set of Geometries, a basic set of renderable Graphics that correspond to those Geometries, 2D device abstractions (displays, mouse, keyboard, etc.), and supporting classes. Implementation of these APIs will support the needs of many users of geospatial and graphic information. Open GIS ® Grid Coverages  (GC) 1.0  2001-01-12  This specification was designed to promote interoperability between software implementations by data vendors and software vendors providing grid analysis and processing capabilities.  Open GIS ® OGC Web Services Common Specification  (Common) 1.0  2005-05-03  This document specifies many of the aspects that are, or should be, common to all or multiple OWS interface Implementation Specifications. Those specifications currently include the Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS), and Web Coverage Service (WCS).
  • OGC Web Services - 3 Open GIS ® Simple Features - SQL  (SFS) 1.1  1999-05-05  The Simple Feature Specification application programming interfaces (APIs) provide for publishing, storage, access, and simple operations on Simple Features (point, line, polygon, multi-point, etc).  Open GIS ® Styled Layer Descriptor  (SLD) 1.0  2002-08-19  The SLD is an encoding for how the Web Map Server (WMS 1.0 & 1.1 & 1.3) specification can be extended to allow user-defined symbolization of feature data.  Open GIS ® Web Coverage Service  (WCS) 1.0  2003-10-16  Extends the Web Map Server (WMS) interface to allow access to geospatial "coverages" that represent values or properties of geographic locations, rather than WMS generated maps (pictures).  Open GIS ® Web Feature Service  (WFS) 1.1  2005-05-03  The OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) interface is a collection of operations (implemented as messages carried over HTTP) for retrieving and manipulating geographic features. An implementation of the OGC WFS IS allows a client to retrieve and update geospatial data from one or more Web Feature Services. 
  • OGC Web Services - 4 Open GIS ® Web Map Context Documents  (WMC) 1.1 2005-05-03 This document is a companion specification to the OGC Web Map Service Interface Implementation Specification The present Context specification states how a specific grouping of one or more maps from one or more map servers can be described in a portable, platform-independent format for storage in a repository or for transmission between clients. Open GIS ® Web Map Service   (WMS) 1.3 2004-08-02  Provides three operations protocols (GetCapabilities, GetMap, and GetFeatureInfo) in support of the creation and display of registered and superimposed map-like views of information that come simultaneously from multiple sources that are both remote and heterogeneous.   Open GIS ® Reference Model (ORM) 0.1.2  2003-03-04  The ORM describes a framework for the ongoing work of the OpenGIS Consortium and our specifications and implementing interoperable solutions and applications for geospatial services, data, and applications. 
  • OWS in the Government
    • USGS
      • The National Map
      • Geospatial One-Stop
      • Geospatial Overlay for Federal Enterprise Architecture in work
    • DHS
      • Geospatial architecture
        • http://colab.cim3.net/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?HomelandSecurityGeospatialEnterpriseArchitecture
    • NASA
      • Earth-Sun Gateway
      • Numerous other sites
  • Better Decisions Via Interoperable Services Geoparser Geoparser Vendor Data Local Government National Government Other Collections Clearinghouse Whoville Cedar Lake Buildings Roads Images Targets Boundaries ... Catalog View Common interfaces enable interoperability Queries extract info from diverse sources Integrated View Gazetteer Coordinate Transform Web Mapping Server, Web Feature Server, Web Coverage Server Catalog Services Other Services Internet Geoparser Geocoder Clearinghouse Clearinghouse Whoville Cedar Lake Metadata Data Metadata Data Metadata Data Metadata