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Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA)

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  • 1. Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Draft Service Component Reference Model (SRM) Draft Technical Reference Model (TRM) Agency Briefing January 29, 2003 Federal Enterprise Architecture - Program Management Office (FEA-PMO) Architecture and Infrastructure Committee (AIC) Solution Architects Working Group (SAWG)
  • 2. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Next Steps Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 2
  • 3. The Federal Enterprise Architecture is a business-focused framework for cross-agency, Government-wide improvement The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) is providing OMB and Federal agencies with a new way of describing, analyzing, and improving the Federal Government and its ability to serve the citizen The FEA will eliminate the organizational obstacles that have historically hindered improvement without forcing reorganization The FEA is a business-focused approach and is not just for IT The FEA provides a common framework for improving a variety of key areas: Business Line Focus: Citizen Centered: - Budget allocation - Cross-agency collaboration - Horizontal and vertical information - Improved service to the citizen sharing - e-Government - Performance measurement and - Process integration budget/performance integration - Call center convergence - Component Based Architecture - and more 3
  • 4. The FEA is being constructed through a collection of inter-related “reference models” designed to facilitate cross-agency collaboration, and horizontal / vertical information sharing Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Performance Reference Model (PRM) • Government-wide Performance Measures & Outcomes Component-Based Architectures • Line of Business-Specific Performance Measures & Outcomes Business-Driven Approach (Citizen-Centered Focus) Business Reference Model (BRM) • Lines of Business • Agencies, Customers, Partners Service Component Reference Model (SRM) • Service Layers, Service Types • Components, Access and Delivery Channels Technical Reference Model (TRM) • Service Component Interfaces, Interoperability • Technologies, Recommendations Data Reference Model (DRM) • Business-focused data standardization • Cross-Agency Information exchanges 4
  • 5. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Next Steps Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 5
  • 6. The SRM is a business-driven, functional framework that classifies capabilities (or service components) with respect to how they support the business and performance objectives Performance Reference Model (PRM) Outcomes, Measurements, Metrics Business Service Component Technical Reference Model Reference Model Reference Model ( BRM ) ( SRM ) ( TRM ) Support Delivery Rule Technologies of Services Publication Platforms Regulatory Management Knowledge Mgmt J2EE CRM .NET Content Mgmt Windows NT Policy and Guidance Devel. Collaboration Data Mgmt Public Comment Tracking Search ODBC Regulatory Development Portal JDBC Rule Publication Personalization Business Logic Business lines and Enabling capabilities, Supporting technology functions components, and services and standards Data and Information Reference Model (DRM) Classification, Categorization, XML, Sharing Component-Based Architecture Service Layers Service Types Service Components 6
  • 7. The SRM is intended to support major government-wide transformation and reform efforts Scope of the SRM Benefits/Outcomes Increased Horizontal and Vertical Office of Homeland Security (OHS) Information Sharing Presidents Management Agenda The 24 Presidential Priority e-Gov Increased Cross-Agency Initiatives Collaboration E-Government Strategy The Federal Enterprise Architecture Aligned to Business and (FEA) Performance Objectives FAWG – eGov Enterprise Architecture Guidance Increased Shared Services and Statutory Requirements and Federal Component Reuse Policies Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 Reduction and Identification of Duplicative Investments 7
  • 8. The FEAPMO defined several objectives to support the creation of the SRM Objectives: Create a reference model that could be leveraged to identify existing services, components, and capabilities across the government Support the rapid assembly of business and cross-agency solutions through technology reuse Create a reference model that could evolve as we learn more about the capabilities of the government Provide agencies with a reference model that could leveraged in investment planning and initiative building Leverage and expand the work of others Federal Government Industry, State, Local, DoD Define the structure of the SRM Create a working draft of the SRM Capture and integrate Agency feedback – prior to release 8
  • 9. The FEAPMO leveraged multiple government and industry resources when creating the SRM Supporting References: Government State, Local, Industry Application Capability and Technical Gartner – 2002 Software Market Reference Models: Definitions INS IBM e-Business Patterns Army Corps of Engineers TRM - State of Texas Department of Defense Department of Energy FEA Working Group – eGov Guidance Environmental Protection Agency FEMA General Services Administration Housing and Urban Development Health and Human Services Office of Personnel and Management Small Business Administration Social Security Administration Department of Labor 9
  • 10. The FEAPMO chose a “starting point” to create the SRM - focusing on a value-based usage Value vs. Usage High Target Area Value of Use not too enough much detail detail Low 5 Number of 500 Service Components 10
  • 11. A Service Component is a business-driven, functional capability which assists the business in accomplishing it’s mission and/or performance objectives “Service Components are Technology and Agency Independent” Business Function (Example: Regulatory Management) Customer Personalization / Relationship Subscriptions Management BRM SRM Content Search “Service Components” Management Engine Document Access Control, Library User Management Payment Collection Problem Tracking, (Pay.Gov) Case Management 11
  • 12. The SRM framework is comprised of three (3) inter-related “service- orientated” tiers – each of which describes capabilities in greater levels of granularity Service Layers The collection of business oriented service categories that align service / component capabilities to a level in which they support the objectives and performance of the business. 7 Service Layers Level of Granularity Service Types A collection of business-driven, service types (or categories) that assist the Service Layer in accomplishing of mission and/or performance objectives. 27 Service Types Service Components The collection of components and/or capabilities that support the Service Type. 143 Service Components 12
  • 13. Service Component Reference Model (SRM) – Version 1.0 The SRM is structured across horizontal and vertical service areas that can provide – independent of business function – a leverageable foundation for reuse of applications, application capabilities, components, functions, and business services. Customer Services Service Types Common Services Process Automation Services Cross-Cutting Service Areas (i.e., Search, Security) Business Management Services Digital Asset Services Service Business Analytical Services Components Back Office Services Service Layers 13
  • 14. The SRM is supported by multiple Access and Delivery Channels that provide a foundation for accessing and leveraging the Service Component Accessing the Component Accessing the Component (Example: Renewal of Drivers License )) (Example: Renewal of Drivers License Access Private/Public Mobile, Wireless Web Browser Kiosks PDA Channels Partnership System to System Web Service EAI Other (FEA-TRM) Phone, Fax Internet Intranet Extranet Peer to Peer Delivery Mail Channels Face to Face (FEA-TRM) Portal Marketplace Exchange Commerce Integration Service Level Agreement to structure how Service Components are accessed and leveraged Service Layers, Service Types, and Service Components (FEA-SRM) 14
  • 15. Additionally, the SRM assists in helping define business process and performance gaps – that may be leveraged to improve services to stakeholders (i.e., citizens, business partners, agencies) Access Channels Access Channels (FEA-TRM) (FEA-TRM) Delivery Channels (FEA-TRM) Delivery Channels (FEA-TRM) What level of process, performance, and Performance outcome is the Business Performance and Measures service Process Measures (FEA-PRM) component achieving? Does this help to close a performance gap? Service Layers, Service Types, and Service Components (FEA-SRM) 15
  • 16. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Customer Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of capabilities that are directly related to the end customer, the business’ interaction with the customer, and the customer driven activities or functions. Customer Relationship Customer Customer Initiated Management (CRM) Preferences Assistance Call Center Management Personalization Online Help Customer Analytics Subscriptions Online Tutorials Sales and Marketing Alerts and Notifications Self-Service Product / Brand Management Profile Management Reservations / Registration Customer / Account Management Multi-Lingual Support Contact Management Assistance Request Partner Relationship Mgmt Customer Feedback Surveys 16
  • 17. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Process Automation Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of capabilities that support the automation of process and management activities that assist in effectively managing the business. Tracking and Routing and Workflow Scheduling Process Tracking Correspondence Management Problem / Issue Tracking Business Rule Management Performance Tracking Case Management 17
  • 18. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Business Management Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of capabilities that support the management of business functions and organizational activities that maintain continuity across the business and value-chain participants. Management of Organizational Investment Process Management Management Change Management Network Management Strategic Planning & Mgmt Configuration Management Workgroup, Groupware Portfolio Management Requirements Management Performance Management Program / Project Management Governance / Policy Mgmt Quality Management Supply Chain Procurement Management (SCM) Manufacturing and Production Sourcing Management Inventory Management Catalog Management Purchasing Ordering / Purchasing Sales and Distribution Order Tracking Scheduling and Delivery Storefront / Shopping Cart Logistics Management 18
  • 19. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Digital Asset Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of capabilities that support the generation, management, and distribution of intellectual capital and electronic media across the business and extended enterprise. Content Document Knowledge Management Management Management Content Authoring Document Imaging Information Retrieval Content Review and Approval Document Referencing Information Mapping / Taxonomy Tagging and Aggregation Document Revisions Information Sharing Content Publishing and Delivery Library / Storage Categorization Syndication Management Document Review and Approval Knowledge Engineering Document Conversion Knowledge Capture Indexing Knowledge Discovery 19
  • 20. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Business Analytical Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of capabilities supporting the extraction, aggregation, and presentation of information to facilitate decision analysis and business evaluation. Analysis and Visualization Statistics Modeling Graphing, Charting Predictive Imagery Simulation Multimedia Mathematical Mapping / Geospacial Structural, Thermal CAD Business Intelligence Reporting Risk Management Ad-Hoc Demand Forecasting / Mgmt Standardized / Canned Balanced Scorecard OLAP Decision Support and Planning Data Mining 20
  • 21. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Back Office Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of capabilities that support the management of enterprise planning and transactional-based functions Data Management Human Resources Financial Management Data Exchange Recruiting Billing and Accounting Data Mart Resume Management Credit / Charge Data Warehouse Career Development Expense Management Meta Data Management Time Reporting Payroll Data Cleansing Benefit Management Payment / Settlement Extraction and Transformation Retirement Management Debt Collection Loading and Archiving Personal Administration Auditing Records Management Education / Training Activity-Based Management - Authenticity - Integrity Currency Translation - Reliability - Disposition Assets / Materials Human Capital / Integration Management Workforce Management Asset Cataloging / Identification Legacy Integration Resource Planning and Allocation Asset Transfer and Allocation Enterprise Application Integration Skills Management Facilities Management Data Integration Workforce Directory / Locator Team / Org Management Contingent Workforce Management Workforce Acquisition / Optimization 21
  • 22. Extended descriptions of capabilities and Support Services functions are provided in Appendix B. Defines the set of cross-functional capabilities that can be leveraged independent of service layer objective and / or mission. Security Management Collaboration Search Identification Email Keyword Access Control Threaded Discussions Context Encryption Document Library Free Text Intrusion Detection Shared Calendaring Parametric Verification Task Management Digital Signature User Management Role / Privilege Management Communication Real-Time / Chat Instant Messaging Audio Conferencing Video Conferencing Event / News Management Community Management 22
  • 23. The SRM may be used in multiple forums to support transformational processes and strategic activities Investment Planning Creation of Joint / Cross-Agency Exhibit 300 Submissions IT Capital Planning (Select, Control, Evaluate) Target Enterprise Architecture Definition and Realization Reallocation of funds and workforce Expansion of business services Initiative Development Leverage existing capabilities vs. re-inventing the wheel Embrace proven capabilities Rapid assembly of solutions, increased speed to market 23
  • 24. As an example, the SRM can be integrated into existing IT Capital or Enterprise Architecture (EA) planning processes… IIlllu usttr s ra attiiv vee 3 What Service Components are being used to support the business and process? Service Component Reference Model (SRM) 1 A new performance gap Yes is identified. How do I Strategic Outcomes improve performance? 4 Customer Customer Business Business What performance measures, Results Results Results Results and outcomes are the Service Processes and Activities Processes and Activities Components supporting? People People Technology Technology Other Fixed Assets Other Fixed Assets Value Performance Reference Model (PRM) 2 Is the business function Same being performed across Business Process? 5 Will the Components support the Government? the business need? What modifications are needed? Service Level Program Admin Services to Citizens Compliance Agreements Public Asse t Management Regulated Activity Ap proval Marketable Asset Management Con sumer Safety Defense & Nat’l Security Ops Environmental Management Diplomacy & Foreign Relations Law Enforcement Di saster Management Legal Domestic Economy Revenue Collection Education Trade (Import/Export) Energy Management Transpo rtation Insurance Workforce Management Public Health Recreation & National Resource s Social Services R&D & Science Support Delivery of Services 6 What Access Channels can be Legislative Management Controls and Oversigh t Bu sine ss Management of Information Public Affairs IT Management Internal Risk Management and Mitigation Planning and Resource Allocation Federal Financial Assistance Regulatory Management No used to access the Component? Inter-Agency Internal Operations/Infrastructure Intra-Agency Human Resource s Financial Management Human Resource s Financial Management Admin Supply Chain Management Admin Supply Chain Management (i.e., Web Service, Portal, etc) Access and Delivery FEA Business Reference Channels Model (BRM) Create Service Component, Exhibit 300’s Advance FEA Capabilities Buy, Build, Borrow 24
  • 25. The results can assist in rapidly developing or expanding business capabilities… that leverage existing and proven capabilities New Initiative Existing Capability Co Con FEDERAL ASSET SALES PAY.GOV nce cep pttua uall Agency: (multiple) Agency: Department of Treasury Service Layer: Back Office Services Service Layer: Back Office Services Service Type: Asset / Materials Mgmt Service Type: Financial Management Component: Asset Cataloging Component: Debt / Payment Collection Asset Identification Access Channel: Web Service Access Channel: Web Browser Delivery Channel: Internet (HTTPS) Wireless Delivery Channel: Internet (HTTPS) Conceptual Process Conceptual Process $$$ ??? Web Browser Check, Credit Card Asset Found Wire Transfer Purchase Asset Web Service Purchase Request Approval User Validation Shipping Request User Debit Validation Access Channels Transfer Asset Gov Credit Validation Commit Transaction Web Service Confirmation 25
  • 26. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Next Steps Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 26
  • 27. The FEA Technical Reference Model (TRM) is a component-driven, technical framework that identifies the standards and specifications that comprise a Service Component Performance Reference Model (PRM) Outcomes, Measurements, Metrics Business Service Component Technical Reference Model Reference Model Reference Model ( BRM ) ( SRM ) ( TRM ) Support Delivery Rule Publication Technologies of Services Platforms Regulatory Management Knowledge Mgmt J2EE CRM .NET Content Mgmt Windows NT Policy and Guidance Devel. Collaboration Data Mgmt Public Comment Tracking Search ODBC Regulatory Development Portal JDBC Rule Publication Personalization Business Logic Business lines and Enabling capabilities, Supporting technology functions components, and services and standards Data and Information Reference Model (DRM) Classification, Categorization, XML, Sharing Component-Based Architecture Service Layers Service Types Service Components 27
  • 28. The FEAPMO identified core objectives to support the creation of the TRM FEA TRM Objectives: Unify Agency TRM’s and CIO Council e-Gov direction Create a government-wide TRM that compliments and guides (but does not replace) agency TRMs and existing eGov guidance Focus TRM standards, specifications, and recommendations on technologies that embrace the Internet and related approaches Create a foundation that focuses heavily on the delivery and construction of Service Components and their interfaces Identify the layers of a Component-Based Architecture and the supporting technologies and recommendations for each Provide standards to support trade-off analysis surrounding how to construct, exchange, and deliver service components Leverage today’s state-of-the-art technologies 28
  • 29. The FEA TRM is intended to supplement existing TRM and eGov guidance by providing a foundation to advance the reuse of technology and component services from a government-wide perspective • Citizen Focused • Interoperability, State / Local E-Gov Guidance • Service Component / Technology Reuse, CBA Office of Management and Budget • Government Technical Standards FEA-TRM • Strengthen e-Gov Act • e-Government Technology Specifications STRATEGIC TRANSFORMATION eGov Direction • e-Government Building Blocks, Assembly (Partnering Relationships) FEAW/CIO Council • OSE/OSI Service Layers, NIST • OSE/OSI Service Layers, NIST Agency Level • Strategic Planning, IT Capital Planning EA/TRM • Baseline -> Target Enterprise Architectures Bureau Level • Baseline -> Target Enterprise Architectures EA/TRM • Mission Accomplishment • Initiative Identification / Management State and Local Integrated Enterprise Architectures (Interoperable, Maximum Reuse of Components) 29
  • 30. In use, the TRM and other FEA reference models can be leveraged to support the creation and integration of cross-agency Service Components Co Con U.S. Customs nce cep (New eGov Border Control Initiative) pttua uall Acceptance of Cargo PRM BRM States FDA SRM Look up the license plate of the TRM Is the food properly packaged? vehicle. Are there any warrants for How much does a normal truckload the driver? DRM of banana’s normally weight? IRS Justice Does the driver fit the profile of any Check to see if the import company wanted suspects. What country, owes taxes, fines, or penalties what origin? USDA Do not let “x” animals into the country. Know viruses and risks Agency EA Service Component eGov Architecture Guidance Federal Enterprise Architecture 30
  • 31. The TRM is comprised of three (3) technical tiers to support the construction, exchange, and delivery of component-driven, Service Components FEA TRM Technical Tiers: How to leverage Service Access and Delivery and access The collection of Access and Delivery Channels that will be used to Service leverage the Service Component, and the Legislative Requirements that Components govern it’s use and interaction How to build, deploy, and Service Framework exchange Service The underlying foundation and technical elements by which Components Service Components are built, integrated and deployed across Component-Based and Distributed Architectures. How to support and maintain Service Platform Service A collection of platforms and specifications that embrace Components Component-Based Architectures and Service Component reuse 31
  • 32. Each tier is comprised of multiple categories that describe the technologies, standards, and specifications that support the service component FEA Technical Reference Model (TRM) - Snapshot Service Access and Delivery Service Framework Service Platforms Access Channels Service Transport Supporting Platforms Component-Based Web Servers Delivery Channels Architecture Application Servers Security Service Requirements Development Environment Presentation / Interface Business Logic Database / Storage Data Interchange Hardware / Infrastructure Data Management Service Interface and Interoperability 32
  • 33. Collectively, the TRM technical tiers provide a robust and effective foundation to support the reuse and delivery of service components FEA – Technical Reference Model Service Access How to leverage and Delivery Access Channels and access Service Delivery Channels Components Service Requirements How to build, deploy, and Service exchange Service Framework Component Architecture Components Service Transport Service Interface / Interoperability Security Presentation / Interface Business Logic Service Data Interchange How to support Platforms and maintain Data Management Service Components Service Platforms 33
  • 34. Supporting each Service Area, a collection of standards, technologies, and specifications were identified… Service Access and Delivery Access Channels Delivery Channels Service Requirements Web Browser Internet Legislative / Compliance - Internet Explorer Intranet - Section 508 - Netscape Communicator Extranet - Web Content Accessibility Peer to Peer (P2P) - Security (FISMA) Wireless / PDA Virtual Private Network (VPN) - NIST - Palm Pilot - Privacy (eGov Act) - Blackberry - P3P1.0 (emerging) - MS Pocket PC Compatible - Liberty Alliance - Symbian Epoc - Authentication / Single Sign-on Other Electronic Channels Performance (PRM) - Kiosk - 24x7 - Web Service - Normal Working Hours (9 to 5) - System to System - On Demand - Email - EAI Hosting - Call Center - Internal (within Agency) - External (ISP/ASP/FirstGov) 34
  • 35. Supporting each Service Area, a collection of standards, technologies, and specifications were identified… Service Framework Component Service Interface / Service Transport Architecture Interoperability Supporting Network Services Data Format - IMAP / POP3 - SNMP - XML Schema - MIME - LDAP - SMTP - X.500 Data Exchange / Delivery - ESMTP - SOAP - T.120 - H323 See Following Slides Service Discovery - UDDI Service Transport - TCP/IP Service Description / - HTTP Interface - HTTPS - WSDL -WAP - API / Protocol - FTP 35
  • 36. Supporting each Service Area, a collection of standards, technologies, and specifications were identified… Service Framework Component Architecture Security Presentation / Interface Business Logic Certificates / Digital Sign. Static Display Platform Independent (J2EE) - X.509 - HTML - Java/J2EE (EJB) - FIPS 186 - C, C++ - SSL Dynamic/Server-Side Display - JavaScript - Java Server Pages (JSP) - Java Servlet (JSR 53) Supporting Security Services - Active Server Pages (ASP) - Java Portlet (JSR 168) - S/MIME - ASP.Net - WSRP (emerging) - TLS - WS-Security Content Rendering - SAML - Dynamic HTML (DHTML) Platform Dependent (MS) - Extensible HTML (XHTML) - Visual Basic - Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) - Visual Basic .NET - C# (C-Sharp) Wireless / Mobile / Voice - VB Script - WML - COM/COM+/DCOM - XHTMLMP (emerging) - VXML (emerging) 36
  • 37. Supporting each Service Area, a collection of standards, technologies, and specifications were identified… Service Framework Component Architecture, Cont’d Data Interchange Data Management Data Interchange Reporting and Analysis - XML - XBRL - ebXML - JOLAP - RDF (emerging) - OLAP - WSUI (emerging) - XML for Analysis Data Transformation Database Connectivity - XSLT - JDBC - ODBC - ADO - ADO.Net 37
  • 38. Supporting each Service Area, a collection of standards, technologies, and specifications were identified… IIn n Pr Proogrre Service Platforms g es ss s Platforms Web Servers Development Environments Wireless / Mobile J2EE J2EE - J2ME – Java 2, Micro Edition - Internet Information Server - TBD (in progress) Platform Independent (J2EE) Microsoft 2000 Microsoft 2000 - Java 2 Enterprise Edition - Internet Information Server - Visual Studio Platform Dependent (MS) Microsoft .NET Microsoft .NET - Windows 2000 - Internet Information Server - Visual Studio .NET - Microsoft .NET Database / Storage Application Servers Hardware / Infrastructure Firewall - Check Point TBD TBD - Access Control Lists Routers / Switches Server 38
  • 39. As a foundation, the tiers within the FEA TRM reside across a typical network and application topology Outside World Demilitarized Zone Internal Network (DMZ) Leveraging or Using A Service Component Components Protocol Firewall (HTTP, Port 80) Domain Firewall (ACL, IP’s) Synchronous / Asynchronous Service Requirements Service Interface Delivery Channels Service Transport Access Channels Databases Service Platforms (J2EE, .NET) Directory Services Business Intelligence Building a Service Component or Application Security Presentation / Interface Business Logic Data Interchange Data Management 39
  • 40. The TRM should be implemented in concert with the FEA Reference Models, and enabled through a suite of business and performance patterns TRM Implementation Objectives: Define Patterns, Align to Technology Element of PRM Specific architectures for specific objectives What patterns of technology exist to solve a performance gap Choose Service Layers to support your architecture Choose Platform based on Agency TRM 40
  • 41. Leveraging a patterns approach initiatives may choose to implement all (or some) of the TRM layers to close a performance gap Example Pattern #1 – Back Office Integration Performance Reference Initiative Business and Model (PRM) Performance Drivers • Reduce the latency of business events • Easy to adapt during mergers and acquisitions • Integration across multiple delivery channels Defines The Defines • Minimize total cost of ownership (TCO) Architecture • Leverage existing skills • Leverage legacy investment • Maintainability • Scalability Financial Protocol Firewall (HTTP) Mgmt System Access Control List Intranet / Extranet X. 500, TCP/IP Records Mgmt XML, SOAP Web Browser Service Balanced Platforms Scorecard (J2EE) Reporting Engine Security (LDAP, Authentication, Auditing) Presentation (JSP) Portal Business Logic (EJB) Data Interchange (XML) Data Management (JDBC, XBRL) 41
  • 42. Leveraging a patterns approach initiatives may choose to implement all (or some) of the TRM layers to close a performance gap Example Pattern #2 – Rapid Information Sharing Performance Reference Initiative Business and Model (PRM) Performance Drivers • Time to Market • Minimize application complexity Defines The Defines Architecture • Minimize Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) • Leverage Existing Skills Protocol Firewall (HTTP) Access Control List HTTP, TCP/IP Web Browser Service Internet Data XML Platforms Repository (ASP / .NET) Security (Directory Access) Presentation (ASP) Custom Data Interchange (XML) Data Management (ODBC) 42
  • 43. Other examples of Patterns…. Horizontal and Vertical Information Sharing State, Local, Tribal Integration with External News Provider Minimize Application Complexity Portal Integration Rapid Implementation System Consolidation Internal and External Partner Integration Mobile Communications Collaboration and Decentralized Collaboration Many, Many, Others… 43
  • 44. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Next Steps Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 44
  • 45. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) was created to allow agencies to access the FEA to find opportunities for cross-agency collaboration and government capabilities Specifically, FEAMS will provide: Alignment of Agency Exhibit 300’s to the FEA Reference Models Data and Information to support cross-agency collaboration and investment reuse Capabilities, Components, and Government Services that may be leveraged Personalization and Role-Based Navigation (e.g., business analyst, solution architect, etc) Alerts and Notifications as new capabilities are discovered System Integration Capabilities IT Capital Planning Systems Enterprise Architecture Systems 45
  • 46. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Personalization (My FEAMS), Content Aggregation Options to Personalize Content within each dialog box Aggregation and roll-ups of data to support rapid navigation Downloadable Reports and Guidance Visualization tools to graphically illustrate cross- agency synergy possibilities 46
  • 47. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Initiative Detail, Improved Sharing Opportunities Clicking into an area within My EAMS will display all EA elements that relate to the selected area (i.e., Border Control) Detailed information that describes each initiative that is associated with the selected EA area 47
  • 48. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Searching and Filtering for Initiatives Co Con nc De cepttu De ep u siig al s g al n n Allow users to navigate through their search through FEA categories Search one or multiple reference models Filtering of Search results 48
  • 49. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Next Steps Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 49
  • 50. Next Steps… Capture and Integrate Agency Feedback Release Version 1.0 Service Component Reference Model (SRM) Technical Reference Model (TRM) Modify A-130 Guidance, Exhibit 300 Reporting Integrate SRM and TRM (and Exhibit 300 Linkages) into the Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Align FY04 agency initiatives to SRM and TRM Transition Ownership to the Architecture and Infrastructure (AIC) Committees Components Subcommittee Leveraging Technologies Subcommittee 50
  • 51. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Next Steps Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 51
  • 52. Appendix A – Sample Mappings of e-Gov Initiatives… SRM Mappings and Alignment 52
  • 53. Appendix A – Sample Mappings of e-Gov Initiatives… SRM Mappings and Alignment 53
  • 54. Appendix A – Sample Mappings of e-Gov Initiatives… SRM Mappings and Alignment 54
  • 55. Appendix A – Sample Mappings of e-Gov Initiatives… SRM Mappings and Alignment 55
  • 56. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 56
  • 57. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Customer Services Defines the set of capabilities that are used to plan, schedule and control the activities Customer Relationship Management between the customer and the enterprise both before and after a product or service is offered. Call Center Management Define the set of capabilities that handle telephone sales and/or service to the end customer. Customer Analytics Define the set of capabilities that allow analysis of an organization's customers. Define the set of capabilities that facilitate the promotion of a product or service and capture of Sales and Marketing new business. Product Management Define the set of capabilities that facilitate the creation and maintenance of products and services. Define the set of capabilities that support the application of a trade name to a product or sevice as Brand Management well as developing an awareness for the name. Define the set of capabilities that support the retention and delivery of a service or product to an Customer / Account Management organization's clients. Contact Management Define the set of capabilities that keep track of people and the related activities of an organization. Define the set of capabilities that are used to plan and control the activities between an Partner Relationship Mgmt organization, it's stakeholders and business partners. Define the set of capabilities that are used to collect, analyze and handle comments and feedback Customer Feedback from an organization's customers. Define the set of capabilities that are used to collect useful information from an organization's Surveys customers. 57
  • 58. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Customer Services, Cont’d Defines the set of capabilities that allow an organization's customers to change a user Customer Preferences interface and they way that data is displayed Personalization Define the set of capabilities to change a user interface and how data is displayed. Subscriptions Define the set of capabilities that allow a customer to join a forum, listserv, or mailing list. Define the set of capabilities that allow a customer to be contacted in relation to a subscription or Alerts and Notifications service of interest. Define the set of capabilities that allow for the maintenance and modification of a customer's Profile Management account information related to their profile. Defines the set of capabilities that allow customers to proactively seek assistance and Customer Initiated Assistance service from an organization. Online Help Define the set of capabilities that provide an electronic interface to customer assistance. Online Tutorials Define the set of capabilities that provide an electronic interface to educate and assist customers. Define the set of capabilities that allow an organization's customers to sign up for a particular Self-Service service at their own initiative. Reservations / Registration Define the set of capabilities that allow electronic enrollment and confirmations for services. Multi-Lingual Support Define the set of capabilities that allow access to data and information in multiple languages. Assistance Request Define the set of capabilities that support the solicitation of support from a customer. 58
  • 59. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Process Automation Services Defines the set of capabilities for automatic monitoring and routing of documents to Tracking and Workflow the users responsible for working on them to support each step of the business cycle. Process Tracking Define the set of capabilities to allow the monitoring of activities within the business cycle. Define the set of capabilities that assist in the monitoring of matters under resolution for an Problem / Issue Tracking organization or it's customers. Define the set of capabilities for measuring the effectiveness of an organization's business strategy, Performance Tracking products or services. Define the set of capabilities for managing the life cycle of a particular claim or investigation within Case Management an organization. Define the set of capabilities for the automatic directing, assignment, or allocation of Routing and Scheduling time for a particular action or event. Define the set of capabilities for the management of communication between and organization and Correspondence Management it's stakeholders Define the set of capabilities for the management of the processes and regulations that support an Business Rule Management organization. 59
  • 60. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Business Management Services Define the set of capabilities that regulate the activities surrounding the business cycle of Management of Process an organization. Define the set of capabilities that control the process for updates or modifications to the existing Change Management documents, software or business processes of an organization. Define the set of capabilities that control the hardware and software environments, as well as Configuration Management documents of an organization. Define the set of capabilities for gathering, analyzing and fulfilling the needs and prerequisites of an Requirements Management organization's efforts. Program / Project Management Define the set of capabilities for the management and control of a particular effort of an organization. Define the set of capabilities intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other Governance / Policy Mgmt matters within an organization. Define the set of capabilities intended to help determine the level that a product or service satisfies Quality Management certain requirements. Organizational Management Workgroup, Groupware Defines the set of capabilities that support multiple users working on related tasks. Defines the set of capabilities involved in monitoring and maintaining a communications network in Network Management order to diagnose problems, gather statistics and provide general usage. Defines the set of capabilities that manage the financial assets and capital of an Investment Management organization. Define the set of capabilities that support the determination of long-term goals and the identification Strategic Planning & Mgmt of the best approach for achieving those goals. Define the set of capabilities that support the administration of a group of investments held by an Portfolio Management organization. Define the set of capabilities for measuring the effectiveness of an organization's business strategy, Performance Management products or services. 60
  • 61. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Business Management Services, Cont’d Defines the set of capabilities for planning, scheduling and controlling a supply chain Supply Chain Management and the sequence of organizations and functions that mine, make or assemble materials and products from manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. Defines the set of capabilities for planning, scheduling and controlling the production of materials Manufacturing and Production and products for distribution and sale. Inventory Management Defines the set of capabilities for the controlling the products in storage for distribution and sale. Purchasing Defines the set of capabilities for the procurement of goods or services. Sales and Distribution Defines the set of capabilities that support the pre-sales and post-sales steps of the business cycle. Defines the set of capabilities that support the transferring of goods or services to an end Scheduling and Delivery customer. Define the set of capabilities that support the procurement, distribution, maintenance, and Logistics Management replacement of material and personnel within the business cycle. Defines the set of capabilities that support the ordering and purchasing of products and Procurement services. Sourcing Management Define the set of capabilities that support the supply of goods or services. Define the set of capabilities that support the listing of available products or services that an Catalog Management organization offers. Ordering / Purchasing Define the set of capabilities that allow the placement of request for a product. Define the set of capabilities that support the identification of where a shipment or delivery is Order Tracking within the business cycle. Define the set of capabilities that support the online equivalent of the supermaket cart, where Storefront / Shopping Cart orders and merchandise are placed. 61
  • 62. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Digital Asset Services Define the capabilities that manage the storage, maintenance and retrieval of website Content Management documents and all related elements. Define the capabilities that allow for the creation of tutorials, CBT courseware, Web sites, CD-ROMs Content Authoring and other interactive programs. Content Review and Approval Define the capabilities that allow for the approval of interactive programs. Tagging and Aggregation Content Publishing and Delivery Define the set of capabilities that allow for the propagation of interactive programs. Syndication Management Define the set of capabilities that control and regulate an organization's brand. Defines the set of capabilities that control the capture and maintenance of an Document Management organization's documents and files. Document Imaging Define the set of capabilities that support the scanning of documents. Document Referencing Define the set of capabilities that support the redirection to other sources or content. Document Revisions Define the set of capabilities that support the versioning and editing of content and documents. Library / Storage Define the set of capabilities that support document and data warehousing and archiving. Define the set of capabilities that support the editing and commendation of documents before Document Review and Approval releasing them. Document Conversion Define the set of capabilities that support the changing of files from one type of format to another. Indexing 62
  • 63. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Digital Asset Services, Cont’d Defines the set of capabilities that support the identification, gathering and Knowledge Management transformation of documents, reports and other sources into meaningful information. Information Retrieval Defines the set of capabilities that allow access to data and information. Defines the set of capabilities that support the creation and maintenance of relationships between Information Mapping / Taxonomy data entities, naming standards and categorization. Defines the set of capabilities that support the use of documents and data in a multi-user Information Sharing environment. Categorization Defines the set of capabilities that allow classification of data and information. Define the set of capabilities that support the translation of knowledge from an expert into the Knowledge Engineering knowledge base of an expert system. Knowledge Capture Defines the set of capabilities that facilitate collection of data and information. Knowledge Discovery Defines the set of capabilities that facilitate the identification of useful information from data. 63
  • 64. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Business Analytic Services Define the set of capabilities that support the examination of business issues, problems Analysis and Statistics and their solutions. Define the set of capabilities that support the simulating of conditions or activities by performing a Modeling set of equations on a set of data. Define the set of capabilities that support the foretelling of something in advance by the use of Predictive data. Define the set of capabilities that support the representation of the interaction between real-world Simulation objects. Define the set of capabilities that support the use of mathematical functions and algorithms for the Mathematical analysis of data. Define the set of capabilities that support the use of data flow and data modeling diagrams for Structural, Thermal applying systematic analysis of data. Define the set of capabilities that support the conversion of data into graphical or Visualization picture form. Define the set of capabilities that support the presentation of information in the form of diagrams Graphing, Charting or tables. Define the set of capabilities that support the creation of film or electronic images from pictures or Imagery paper forms. Define the set of capabilities that support the representation of information in more than one form Multimedia to include text, audio, graphics, animated graphics and full motion video. Mapping / Geospacial Define the set of capabilities that support the use of latitude and longitude coordinates. CAD Define the set of capabilities that support the design of products with computers. 64
  • 65. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Business Analytic Services, Cont’d Defines the set of capabilities that support information that pertains to the history, Business Intelligence current status or future projections of an organization. Define the set of capabilities that support the identification and probabilities or chances of hazards Risk Management as they relate to a task or decision. Define the set of capabilities that facilitate the prediction of sufficient production to meet an Demand Forecasting / Mgmt organization's sales of a product or service. Defines the set of capabilities that support the listing and analyzing of both positive and negative Balanced Scorecard impacts associated with a decision. Defines the set of capabilities that support the analyze information and predict the impact of Decision Support and Planning decisions before they are made. Define the set of capabilities that support the exploring and analyzing of detailed business Data Mining transactions to uncover patterns and relationships within the business activity and history. Define the set of capabilities that support the organization of data into useful Reporting information. Ad-Hoc Define the set of capabilities that support the use of dynamic reports on an as needed basis. Standardized / Canned Define the set of capabilities that support the use of pre-conceived or pre-written reports. Define the set of capabilities that support the analysis of information that has been summarized OLAP into multidimensional views and hierarchies. 65
  • 66. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Back Office Services Define the set of capabilities that support the usage, processing and general Data Management administration of unstructured information. Define the set of capabilities that support the interchange of information between multiple systems Data Exchange or applications. Define the set of capabilities that support a subset of a data warehouse for a single department or Data Mart function within an organization. Data Warehouse Define the set of capabilities that support the archiving and storage of large volumes of data. Define the set of capabilities that support the maintenance and administration of data that Meta Data Management describes data. Define the set of capabilities that support the removal of incorrect or unnecessary characters and Data Cleansing data from a data source. Extraction and Transformation Define the set of capabilities that support the manipulation and change of data. Loading and Archiving Define the set of capabilities that support the population of a data source with external data. Records Management 66
  • 67. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Back Office Services, Cont’d Defines the set of capabilities that support the recruitment and management of Human Resources personnel. Define the set of capabilities that support the identification and hiring of employees for an Recruiting organization. Define the set of capabilities that support the maintenance and administration of one's professional Resume Management or work experience and qualifications. Define the set of capabilities that support the professional growth and advancement of an Career Development organization's employees. Define the set of capabilities that support the submission, approval and adjustment of an Time Reporting employee's hours. Define the set of capabilities that support the enrollment and participation in an organization's Benefit Management compensation and benefits programs. Retirement Management Define the set of capabilities that support the payment of benefits to retirees. Personal Administration Education / Training Defines the set of capabilities that support the active building of employee capacities. 67
  • 68. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Back Office Services, Cont’d Define the set of capabilities that support the accounting practices and procedures that Financial Management allow for the handling of revenues, funding and expenditures. Define the set of capabilities that support the charging, collection and reporting of an organization's Billing and Accounting accounts. Define the set of capabilities that support the use of credit cards or electronic funds transfers for Credit / Charge payment and collection of products or services. Define the set of capabilities that support the management and reimbursement of costs paid by Expense Management employees or an organization. Define the set of capabilities that involve the administration and determination of employees Payroll compensation. Payment / Settlement Define the set of capabilities that support the process of accounts payable. Debt Collection Define the set of capabilities that support the process of accounts receivable. Auditing Define the set of capabilities that support the examination and verification of records for accuracy. Activity-Based Management Define the set of capabilities that support the calculations and difference between multiple Currency Translation mediums of exchange. 68
  • 69. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Back Office Services, Cont’d Define the set of capabilities that support the acquisition, oversight and tracking of an Assets/Materials Management organization's assets. Asset Cataloging / Identification Define the set of capabilities that support the listing and specification of available assets. Asset Transfer and Allocation Define the set of capabilities that support the movement and assignment of assets. Define the set of capabilities that support the construction, management and maintenance of Facilities Management facilities for an organization. Define the set of capabilities that support the communication between Integration hardware/software applications. Define the set of capabilities that support the communication between newer generation Legacy Integration hardware/software applications and the previous, major generation of hardware/software applications. Define the set of capabilities that support the redesigning of disparate information systems into one Enterprise Application Integration system that uses a common set of data structures and rules. Define the set of capabilities that support the organization of data from separate data sources into Data Integration a single source using middleware or application integration. 69
  • 70. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Back Office Services, Cont’d Human Capital/Workforce Management Define the set or capabilities that support the means for assignment of employees and assets to Resource Planning and Allocation sustain or increase an organization's business. Define the set of capabilities that support the proficiency of employees in the delivery of an Skills Management organization's products or services. Workforce Directory / Locator Define the set of capabilities that support the listing of employees and their whereabouts. Define the set of capabilities that support the hierarchy structure and identification of employees Team / Org Management within the various sub-groups of an organization. Define the set of capabilities that support a continuity B91of operations for an organization's Contingent Workforce Management business????????????? Define the set of capabilities that support the hiring and re-structuring of employees and their roles Workforce Acquisition / Optimization within an organization. 70
  • 71. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Common Services Defines the set of capabilities that support the protection of an organization's Security Management hardware/software and related assets. Identification Define the set of capabilities that support the management of permissions for logging onto a Access Control computer or network. Encryption Define the set of capabilities that support the encoding of data for security purposes. Intrusion Detection Define the set of capabilities that support the detection of illegal entrance into a computer system. Define the set of capabilities that support the confirmation of authority to enter a computer system, Verification application or network. Digital Signature Define the set of capabilities that guarantee the unaltered state of a file. Define the set of capabilities that support the administration of computer, application and network User Management accounts within an organization. Define the set of capabilities that support the granting of abilities to users or groups of users of a Role / Privilege Management computer, application or network. Collaboration Define the set of capabilities that support the transmission of memos and messages over a Email network. Define the set of capabilities that support the running log of remarks and opinions about a given Threaded Discussions topic or subject. Define the set of capabilities that support the grouping and archiving of files and records on a Document Library server. Define the set of capabilities that allow an entire team as well as individuals to view, add and Shared Calendaring modify each others schedules, meetings and activities. Define the set of capabilities that support a specific undertaking or function assigned to an Task Management employee. 71
  • 72. Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions… SRM Terms and Definitions Common Services, Cont’d Defines the set of capabilities that support the probing and lookup of specific data from Search a data source. Define the set of capabilities that support the lookup of specific data from a data source based Keyword upon user input of a word. Define the set of capabilities that support the lookup of records or documents based upon text Context contained in any part of the file instead of a pre-defined keyword. Define the set of capabilities that support the lookup of specific data from a data source based Free Text upon user-supplied criteria. Parametric Defines the set of capabilities that support the transmission of data, messages and Communication information in multiple formats and protocols. Define the set of capabilities that support the conferencing capability between two or more users Real-Time / Chat on a local area network or the internet. Define the set of capabilities that support keyboard conferencing over a Local Area Network or the Instant Messaging internet between two or more people. Define the set of capabilities that support audio communications sessions among people who are Audio Conferencing geographically dispersed. Define the set of capabilities that support video communications sessions among people who are Video Conferencing geographically dispersed. Define the set of capabilities that monitor servers, workstations and network devices for routine Event / News Management and non-routine events. Define the set of capabilities that support the administration of online groups that share common Community Management interests. 72
  • 73. Table of Contents: The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) The Service Component Reference Model (SRM) The Technical Reference Model (TRM) Federal Enterprise Architecture Management System (FEAMS) Appendices Appendix A – Sample Mapping of e-Gov Initiatives Appendix B – SRM Terms and Definitions Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions 73
  • 74. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Access and Delivery Access Channels define the interface between an application and it’s users, whether Access Channels it is a browser, personal digital assistant or other medium. The program that serves as your front end to the World Wide Web on the Internet. In order to Web Browser view a site, you type its address (URL) into the browser's location field. Internet Explorer Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE) is the most widely used World Wide Web browser Netscape Communicator Netscape is the second most widely used World Wide Web browser. Technology that uses transmission via the airwaves (Personal Digital Assistant) A handheld Wireless / PDA computer that serves as an organizer for personal information. It generally includes at least a name and address database, to-do list and note taker. Palm is the leading Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Version 5 of Palm OS provides Palm Operating System multitasking and other capabilities that will provide an improved platform for E-Gov solutions. http://www.palmos.com/dev/ The leading email enabled wireless device with wide use in several Agencies. Blackberry http://www.blackberry.com/developers/na/index.shtml Microsoft’s environment for internet capable cellular phones. Pocket PC Phone Edition http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/pocketpc/phoneedition/default.asp Microsoft’s environment for PDA level devices. Pocket PC 2000 http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/pocketpc/learnmore.asp A leading environment for web capable cellular phones. Symbian Epoc http://www.symbian.com/developer/index.html 74
  • 75. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Access and Delivery (Continued) Access Channels define the interface between an application and it’s users, whether Access Channels (continued) it is a browser, personal digital assistant or other medium. These represent other various mediums of information exchange and interface between a user Other Electronic Channels and an application. A kiosk is a small physical structure (often including a computer and a display screen) that Kiosk displays information for people walking by. Kiosks are common in public buildings. Kiosks are also used at trade shows and professional conferences. Web services (sometimes called application services) are services (usually including some combination of programming and data, but possibly including human resources as well) that Web Service are made available from a business's web server for Web users or other Web-connected programs. System to System involves at least two computers that exchange data or interact with each System To System other independent of human intervention or participation. Email E-mail (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages by telecommunication. Delivery channels define the level of access to applications and systems based upon Delivery Channels the type of network used to deliver them. The internet is a worldwide system of computer networks in which users at any one computer Internet can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer. An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. It may consist of many Intranet inter-linked local area networks and is used to share company information and resources among employees. An extranet is a private network that uses the Internet protocol and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with Extranet suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company. 75
  • 76. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Access and Delivery (Continued) Delivery channels define the level of access to applications and systems based upon Delivery Channels (continued) the type of network used to deliver them. Peer to Peer is a class of applications, that operate outside the DNS system and have Peer to Peer (P2P) significant or total autonomy from central servers, that take advantage of resources available on the Internet. A Private Data Network that makes use of the public telecommunication infrastructure, Virtual Private Network (VPN) maintaining privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures. Service Requirements define the necessary aspects of an application, system or Service Requirements service to include legislative, performance and hosting. Defines the pre-requisites that an application, system or service must have mandated by Legislative / Compliance congress or governing bodies. Web Content Accessibility Refers to hardware and software that helps people who are physically or visually impaired. Security Policy that deals with the protection of data against unauthorized access. Policy that deals with the degree to which an individual can determine which personal Privacy information is to be shared with whom and for what purpose. Section 508 requires that Federal agencies' electronic and information technology is accessible Section 508 to people with disabilities, including employees and members of the public. 76
  • 77. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework Service Transport defines the end-to-end management of the communications Service Transport session to include the access and delivery protocols. These consist of the protocols that define the format and structure of data and information that Supporting Network Services is either accessed from a directory or exchanged through communications. IMAP4rev1 allows a client to access and manipulate electronic mail messages on a server. IMAP – (Internet Message Access Protocol IMAP4rev1 permits manipulation of remote message folders, called "mailboxes", in a way that (RFC2060) V4.1) is functionally equivalent to local mailboxes. IMAP4rev1 also provides the capability for an offline client to resynchronize with the server. MIME extends the format of Internet mail to allow non-US- American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) textual messages, non-textual messages, multi-part message MIME (RFC 2045) – (Multipurpose Internet Mail bodies, and non-US-ASCII information in message headers. MIME support allows compliant Extensions) email clients and servers to accurately communicate embedded information to internal and external users. SMTP facilitates transfer of electronic-mail messages. It specifies how two systems are to SMTP (RFC821) – (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) interact, and the messages format used to control the transfer of electronic mail. T.120 contains a series of communication and application protocols and services that provide support for real-time, multipoint data communications. These multipoint facilities are important T.120 – (International Telecommunications Union building blocks for collaborative applications, including desktop data conferencing, and multi- (ITU)) user applications. http://www.imtc.org/t120body.htm H.323 addresses Video (Audiovisual) communication on Local Area Networks, including H323 – (International Telecommunications Union Corporate Intranets and packet-switched networks generally. (ITU)) http://www.imtc.org/h323.htm ESMTP (RFC1869) – (Extended Simple Mail ESMTP allows new service extensions to SMTP to be defined and registered with Internet Transfer Protocol) Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 77
  • 78. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) Service Transport defines the end-to-end management of the communications Service Transport (continued) session to include the access and delivery protocols. These consist of the protocols that define the format and structure of data and information that Supporting Network Services (continued) is either accessed from a directory or exchanged through communications. SNMP V3 – (Simple Network Management SNMP Eliminates several of the security vulnerabilities in earlier version. Protocol) http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2570.txt?number=2570 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a subset of X.500 designed to run directly over the TCP/IP stack. LDAP is, like X.500, both an information model and a protocol for querying LDAP V3 (RFC 1779) – (Lightweight Directory and manipulating it. LDAPv3 is an update developed in the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Access Protocol) Force), which address the limitations found during deployment of the previous version of LDAP. http://www.opengroup.org/directory/branding/ldap2000/x99di.htm X.500 – (International Telecommunication Union Defines how global directories should be structured. X.500 directories are hierarchical with Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU)) different levels for each category of information, such as country, state, and city. These consist of the protocols that define the format and structure of data and information that Service Transport is either accessed from a directory or exchanged through communications. This is the protocol of the Internet and has become the global standard for communications. TCP provides transport functions, which ensures that the total amount of bytes sent is received TCP/IP – Transport Control Protocol / Internet correctly at the other end. IP accepts packets from TCP, adds its own header and delivers a Protocol "datagram" to the data link layer protocol. It may also break the packet into fragments to support the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the network. The communications protocol used to connect to servers on the World Wide Web. It’s primary HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol function is to establish a connection with a web server and transmit HTML pages to the client browser. The protocol for accessing a secure Web server. Using HTTPS in the URL instead of HTTP HTTPS – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure directs the message to a secure port number rather than the default Web port number of 80. The session is then managed by a security protocol. 78
  • 79. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) Service Transport defines the end-to-end management of the communications Service Transport (continued) session to include the access and delivery protocols. These consist of the protocols that define the format and structure of data and information that Service Transport (continued) is either accessed from a directory or exchanged through communications. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an open, global specification that empowers users of digital mobile phones, pagers, personal digital assistants and other wireless devices to WAP – (Wireless Application Protocol) securely access and interact with Internet/intranet/extranet content, applications, and services. http://www.wapforum.org/ A protocol used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network (Internet, UNIX, etc.). For example, FTP – File Transfer Protocol after developing the HTML pages for a Web site on a local machine, they are typically uploaded to the Web server using FTP. 79
  • 80. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Security defines the method of protecting applications, systems and data against Security unauthorized access. Software used by a certification authority (CA) to issue digital certificates and secure access to Certificates / Digital Signature information. X. 509 – (International Telecommunication Union - The international standard for the digital certificate authentication that is used for user Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) identification, especially for creation of an electronic document used to prove identity and Certificate Authentication) public key ownership over a communications network. FIPS 186 – (Digital Signature Standard (DSS) also The DSS standard specifies a digital signature algorithm (DSA) appropriate for applications Draft ANSI X9.30-199x Part 1; and ISO/IEC requiring a digital, rather than written, signature. The DSA authenticates the integrity of the JTC1/SC27/WG2, Project 1.27.08 Digital Signature signed data and the identity of the signatory. The DSA may also be used to prove that data with Appendix) was actually signed by the generator of the signature. An open, non-proprietary protocol for securing data communications across computer networks. SSL is sandwiched between the application protocol (such as HTTP, Telnet, FTP, and SSL – (Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)) NNTP) and the connection protocol (such as TCP/IP, UDP). SSL provides server authentication, message integrity, data encryption, and optional client authentication for TCP/IP connections. 80
  • 81. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Security defines the method of protecting applications, systems and data against Security (continued) unauthorized access. These consist of the different protocols and components to be used in addition to certificates Supporting Security Services and digital signatures Provides a consistent way to send and receive secure MIME data. Based on the Internet MIME standard, S/MIME provides cryptographic security services for electronic messaging S/MIME – (Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail applications: authentication, message integrity and non-repudiation of origin (using digital Extensions) signatures) and data confidentiality (using encryption). S/MIME is not restricted to mail; it can be used with any transport mechanism that transports MIME data, such as HTTP. http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/smime-charter.html Standard for the next generation SSL. Provides communications privacy over the Internet. The TLS – (Transport Layer Security) protocol allows client/server applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery. http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/tls-charter.html Describes enhancements to SOAP messaging to provide message integrity, message confidentiality, and single message authentication. These mechanisms can be used to accommodate a wide variety of security models and encryption technologies including X.509, WS-Security – (Web Services Security) Kerberos, and SAML. http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/wss/ http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/ws-secure/ 81
  • 82. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Security defines the method of protecting applications, systems and data against Security (continued) unauthorized access. These consist of the different protocols and components to be used in addition to certificates Supporting Security Services (continued) and digital signatures An XML-based framework for exchanging security information expressed in the form of assertions about subjects, where a subject is an entity (either human or computer) that has an SAML – (Security Assertion Markup Language) identity in some security domain. SAML is expected to play a key role in the Federal-wide E- Authentication initiative, and is supported by both the Liberty Alliance and WS-Security. http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/security/ http://xml.coverpages.org/saml.html This defines the connection between the user and the software, consisting of the Presentation / Interface presentation that is physically represented on the screen. Static Display consists of the software protocols that are used to create a pre-defined, Static Display unchanging graphical interface between the user and the software. The language used to create Web documents and a subset of Standard Generalized Markup HTML – (Hyper Text Markup Language) Language (SGML) http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/ 82
  • 83. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. This defines the connection between the user and the software, consisting of the Presentation / Interface (continued) presentation that is physically represented on the screen. This consists of the software that is used to create graphical user interfaces with the ability to Dynamic / Server-Side Display change while the program is running. JSP is part of Sun’s J2EE architecture and provide template capabilities for presenting dynamically generated Web content. JSPs are text files written in a combination of standard JSP – (Java Server Pages) HTML tags, JSP tags, and Java code. http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/ A Web server technology from Microsoft that allows for the creation of dynamic, interactive ASP – (Active Server Pages) sessions with the user. ASP.NET is a set of technologies in the Microsoft .NET Framework for building Web applications and XML Web Services. ASP.NET pages execute on the server and generate markup such as ASP.Net – (Active Server Pages .Net) HTML, WML or XML that is sent to a desktop or mobile browser. http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/nhp/Default.asp?contentid=28000440 83
  • 84. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. This defines the connection between the user and the software, consisting of the Presentation / Interface (continued) presentation that is physically represented on the screen. This defines the software and protocols used for transforming data for presentation in a Content Rendering graphical user interface. A collective term for a combination of new Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags and DHTML – (Dynamic HTML) options, style sheets, and programming that will allow Web pages that are more animated and more responsive to user interaction than previous versions of HTML. XHTML – (eXtensible HTML (emerging)) The W3C’s recommendation for the next generation of HTML leveraging XML http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xhtml11-20010531/ A style sheet format for HTML documents endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium. CSS1 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) (Version 1.0) provides hundreds of layout settings that can be applied to all the subsequent HTML pages that are downloaded. 84
  • 85. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. This defines the connection between the user and the software, consisting of the Presentation / Interface (continued) presentation that is physically represented on the screen. Consists of the software and protocols used for wireless and voice-enabled presentation Wireless / Mobile / Voice devices. WML – Wireless Markup Language An XML-based protocol designed for Wireless devices. XHTMLMP is designed for resource-constrained Web clients that do not support the full set of XHTML features, such as mobile phones, PDAs, pagers and set-top boxes. It extends XHTML XHTMLMP – (XHTML Mobile Profile (emerging)) Basic with modules, elements and attributes to provide a richer authoring language. XHTML replaces the Wireless Markup Language (WML). http://www.wapforum.org/what/technical.htm VXML is an XML vocabulary for specifying IVR(Integrated Voice Response) Systems VXML – (Voice XML (emerging)) http://www.w3c.org/Voice/ http://www.voicexml.org/ 85
  • 86. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Defines the software, protocol or method in which business rules are enforced Business Logic within applications. Consists of all software languages that are able to execute and run on any type of operating Platform Independent (J2EE) system or platform. A software component in Sun's J2EE platform, which provides a pure Java environment for Java/J2SE (EJB) developing and running distributed applications. C – A procedure programming language. C, C++ C++ - An object-oriented version of C that has been widely used to develop enterprise and commercial applications. JavaScript A scripting language that runs within a web browser. Java Servlets provide reusable web components that can be incorporated into portals. JSR 53 – (Java Servlet) http://www.jcp.org/aboutJava/communityprocess/final/jsr053/ Java Portlet API enables interoperability between Portlets and Portals by defining APIs tha.t JSR 168 – (Java Portlet API) address the areas of aggregation, personalization, presentation and security. http://www.jcp.org/jsr/detail/168.jsp WSRP defines an XML and Web services standard that will allow the plug-n-play of visual, user- WSRP – (Web Services for Remote Portals facing Web services with portals or other intermediary Web applications. (emerging)) http://www.oasis-open.org/commitees/wsrp 86
  • 87. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Defines the software, protocol or method in which business rules are enforced Business Logic (continued) within applications. Consists of the programming languages and methods for developing software on a specific Platform Dependent (MS) operating system or platform. A version of the BASIC programming language from Microsoft specialized for developing Visual Basic Windows applications. A version of the BASIC programming language from Microsoft specialized for developing Visual Basic .NET Windows applications that is used within Microsoft’s .NET environment. An object-oriented programming language from Microsoft that is based on C++ with elements C# (C-Sharp) from Visual Basic and Java. A scripting language from Microsoft. A subset of Visual Basic, VBScript is widely used on the VB Script Web for both client processing within a Web page and server-side processing in Active Server Pages (ASPs). A component software architecture from Microsoft, which defines a structure for building COM / COM+ / DCOM program routines (objects) that can be called up and executed in a Windows environment. 87
  • 88. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Data Interchange defines the protocols and methods in which data is transferred Data Interchange and represented in and between software applications. Data Interchange Data Interchange is concerned with the sending of data over a communications network. XML has emerged as the standard format for web data, and is beginning to be used as a common data format at all levels of the architecture. Many specialized vocabularies of XML are XML – (eXtensible Markup Language) being developed to support specific Government and Industry functions. http://www.w3.org/XML/ A modular suite of specifications that enables enterprises to conduct business over the Internet: exchanging business messages, conducting trading relationships, communicating data ebXML – (Electronic Business using XML) in common terms and defining and registering business processes. http://www.ebxml.org/ RDF provides a lightweight ontology system to support the exchange of knowledge on the Web. It integrates a variety of web-based metadata activities including sitemaps, content ratings, stream channel definitions, search engine data collection (web crawling), digital library collections, and distributed authoring, using XML as interchange syntax. RDF is the foundation RDF – (Resource Description Framework for the Semantic Web envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee - an extension of the current web in (emerging)) which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. http://www.w3.org/RDF/ http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/ WSUI uses a simple schema for describing a WSUI "component" that can be used in a portal to call backend SOAP and XML services. WSUI uses XSLT stylesheets to construct user-facing WSUI – (Web Services User Interface (emerging)) views to enable users to interact with the services. http://www.wsui.org/ 88
  • 89. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. Data Interchange defines the protocols and methods in which data is transferred Data Interchange (continued) and represented in and between software applications. Data Transformation consists of the protocols and languages that change the presentation of Data Transformation data within a graphical user interface or application. Transforms XML document from one schema into another. Used for data interchange between XSLT – (eXtensible Stylesheet Language systems using different XML schema, or mapping XML to different output devices. Transform) http://www.w3.org/Style/XSL/ The management of all data/information in an organization. It includes data Data Management administration, the standards for defining data and the way in which people perceive and use it. Consist of the tools, languages and protocols used to extract data from a data store and Reporting and Analysis process it into useful information. Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL is an open specification which uses XML-based XBRL – (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) data tags to describe financial statements for both public and private companies. http://www.xbrl.org/ JOLAP is a Java API for the J2EE environment that supports the creation and maintenance of JOLAP – (Java Online Analytical Processing) OLAP data and metadata, in a vendor-independent manner. http://www.jcp.org/jsr/detail/69.jsp 89
  • 90. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. The management of all data/information in an organization. It includes data Data Management (continued) administration, the standards for defining data and the way in which people perceive and use it. Consist of the tools, languages and protocols used to extract data from a data store and Reporting and Analysis (continued) process it into useful information. (On-Line Analytical Processing) - Decision support software that allows the user to quickly OLAP analyze information that has been summarized into multidimensional views and hierarchies. XML for Analysis uses the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) to let Web browser-based programs access back-end data sources for data analysis. The specification allows companies XML for Analysis to build online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining applications that work over the Web. http://www.microsoft.com/data/xml/XMLAnalysis.htm Database Connectivity Defines the protocol or method in which an application connects to a data store or data base. JDBC provides access to virtually any tabular data source from the Java programming language. It provides cross-DBMS connectivity to a wide range of SQL databases, and other JDBC – (Java Data Base Connectivity) tabular data sources, such as spreadsheets or flat files. http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/ A database programming interface from Microsoft that provides a common language for ODBC - (Open DataBase Connectivity) Windows applications to access databases on a network. ODBC is made up of the function calls programmers write into their applications and the ODBC drivers themselves. 90
  • 91. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) The component architecture consists of the design of application or system software that incorporates protocols and interfaces for interacting with other programs and for future flexibility and expandability. This includes, but is not Component Architecture limited to, modules that are designed to interoperate with each other at runtime. (Continued) Components can be large or small, written by different programmers using different development environments and may be platform independent. Components can be run in stand-alone machines, on a LAN, intranet or the Internet. The management of all data/information in an organization. It includes data Data Management (continued) administration, the standards for defining data and the way in which people perceive and use it. Database Connectivity (continued) Defines the protocol or method in which an application connects to a data store or data base. ActiveX Data Objects) A programming interface from Microsoft that is designed as "the" Microsoft standard for data access. First used with Internet Information Server, ADO is a set of ADO – (Active Data Objects) COM objects that provides an interface to OLE DB. The three primary objects are Connection, Command and Recordset. ADO.NET is the data-access component of the Microsoft’s .NET Framework. It provides an extensive set of classes that facilitate efficient access to data from a large variety of sources, ADO.Net – (Active Data Objects .Net) enable sophisticated manipulation and sorting of data http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?xmlid=fh%3BEN-US%3Badonet 91
  • 92. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Framework (Continued) Service Interface / Interoperability Defines the way data is represented in an application, system or web service. The structure of a file. There are hundreds of formats, and every application has many Data Format different variations (database, word processing, graphics, executable program, etc.). Each format defines its own layout of the data. The file format for text is the simplest XML has emerged as the standard format for web data, and is beginning to be used as a common data format at all levels of the architecture. Many specialized vocabularies of XML are XML – (eXtensible Markup Language) being developed to support specific Government and Industry functions. http://www.w3.org/XML/ Data Exchange / Delivery Defines the way in which data is communicated from an application. SOAP provides HTTP/XML based remote procedure call capabilities for XML Web Services SOAP – (Simple Object Access Protocol) http://www.w3.org/2000/xp/Group/ http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/0300/soap/soap.asp Defines the method in which applications, systems or web services are registered and Service Discovery discovered. UDDI provides a searchable registry of XML Web Services and their associated URLs and WSDL UDDI – (Universal Description Discovery and pages. Integration) http://www.uddi.org/about.html Service Description / Interface Defines the method for publishing the way in which web services or applications can be used. WSDL is an XML based Interface Description Language for describing XML Web Services and WSDL – (Web Services Description Language) how to use them. http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl (Application Program Interface) A language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a database management system (DBMS) or communications protocol. APIs are implemented by API / Protocol writing function calls in the program, which provide the linkage to the required subroutine for execution. Thus, an API implies that some program module is available in the computer to perform the operation or that it must be linked into the existing program to perform the tasks. 92
  • 93. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Platforms A hardware or software architecture. The term originally dealt with only hardware, Platforms and it is still used to refer to a CPU model or computer family Radio transmission via the airwaves. Various communications techniques are used to provide Wireless / Mobile wireless transmission including infrared line of sight, cellular, microwave, satellite. packet radio and spread spectrum. Sun’s Java environment for devices. It promises a relatively portable environment for those J2ME – (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition) using Java for other tiers of the architecture. http://java.sun.com/j2me/docs/ Defines the programming languages that are able to execute and run on any platform or Platform Independent (J2EE) operating system. Sun’s J2EE and Microsoft’s .Net are the two dominant distributed computing architecture frameworks. J2EE provides portability of a single language (Java) over multiple operating J2EE – (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) systems and hardware platforms. http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.html#platformspec Defines the programming languages that are able to execute and run on any platform or Platform Dependent (J2EE) operating system. Also known as "Win2K" and "W2K," it is a major upgrade to Windows NT 4. Launched in Windows 2000 February 2000, Windows 2000 comes in one client and three server versions. Windows 2000 looks like Windows 95/98, but adds considerably more features, dialogs and options. Microsoft’s .Net and Sun’s J2EE are the two dominant distributed computing architecture frameworks. .Net supports a wide range of languages but is primarily tied to the Microsoft .Net Windows operating system and Intel hardware. http://www.microsoft.com/net/products/default.asp 93
  • 94. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Platforms A computer that provides World Wide Web services on the Internet. It includes the hardware, operating system, Web server software, TCP/IP protocols and the Web Web Servers site content (Web pages). If the Web server is used internally and not by the public, it may be known as an "intranet server." Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition) A platform from Sun for building distributed enterprise applications. J2EE services are performed in the middle tier between the user's machine and J2EE the enterprise's databases and legacy information systems. J2EE comprises a specification, reference implementation and set of testing suites. A widely-used public domain, UNIX-based Web server from the Apache Group Apache (www.apache.org). It is based on, and is a plug-in replacement for, NCSA's HTTPd server Version 1.3. The name came from a body of existing code and many "patch files." Microsoft 2000 Microsoft’s latest operating system, which includes the IIS web server. Web server software from Microsoft that runs under Windows NT and Windows 2000. It Internet Information Server supports Netscape's SSL security protocol and turns an NT-based PC into a Web site. Microsoft's Web browser, Internet Explorer, is also included. Microsoft .Net Microsoft’s new integrated software development environment. Web server software from Microsoft that runs under Windows NT and Windows 2000. It Internet Information Server supports Netscape's SSL security protocol and turns an NT-based PC into a Web site. Microsoft's Web browser, Internet Explorer, is also included. 94
  • 95. Appendix C – TRM Terms and Definitions… TRM Terms and Definitions Service Platforms In a three-tier environment, a separate computer (application server) performs the Application Servers (TBD) business logic, although some part may still be handled by the user's machine. After the Web exploded in the mid 1990s, application servers became Web based. This consists of the hardware, software and supporting services that facilitate the Development Environments (TBD) development of software applications and systems. 95