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  • XSLT: XSL Transformations is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents. RDF: Resource Description Framework. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) integrates a variety of applications from library catalogs and world-wide directories to syndication and aggregation of news, software and content to personal collections of music, photos and events using XML as an interchange syntax. XQuery: is a language from the W3C designed to query and XML and other data formats. The best way to explain XQuery is to say that XQuery is to XML what SQL is to database tables. XPath is a language for finding information in an XML document.

ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE Randeep Sudan, GICT ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE Randeep Sudan, GICT Presentation Transcript

  • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE Randeep Sudan, GICT Hanoi December 14, 2006
  • Winchester Mystery House
  • Winchester Mystery House
    • House without an architect
    • Located in San Jose, California
    • Built by Sarah Winchester between 1884 and 1922
    • 160 rooms, 40 bedrooms, 10,000 windows
    • Rooms around rooms
    • 65 doors to blank walls
    • 24 skylights in floors
    • 13 staircases go nowhere
  • What is Enterprise Architecture?
    • “Enterprise Architecture can be thought of as a whole of government blueprint and roadmap to guide how information systems and technologies are able to support the achievement of the Government’s Outcomes”. Enterprise Architecture Final Report, June 2004 Tasmania .
  • Gartner on Enterprise Architecture Source: Enterprise Architecture Research Agenda, 2006
    • Enterprise architecture is the process of describing, and the description of, the desired future state of an organization’s business process, technology and information to best support the organization’s business strategy.
      • Blueprint
    • The definition of the steps required, and the standards and guidelines to get from the current state to the desired future state.
      • Roadmap
  • Why Enterprise Architecture?
    • “… investing in IT without defining these investments in the context of an architecture often results in systems that are duplicative, not well integrated, and unnecessarily costly to maintain and interface.”
    • US General Accounting Office
    • Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management, (Version 1.1), April 2003 .
  • The US Experience
    • Clinger-Cohen Act 1996.
      • Requires among other things that the CIOs for major departments and agencies should develop, maintain, and facilitate the implementation of architectures as a means of integrating business processes and agency goals with IT.
    • E-Government Act of 2002
      • Established the OMB Office of Electronic Government
      • The office’s responsibilities include overseeing the development of EAs within and across federal agencies.
  • South Korea
    • The eGovernment Act of 2001 prohibits development of the same kind of software as developed in other government agencies for processing the same government business process.
    • 234 city/district governments were found to have 21 common business processes in respect of residents, vehicles, land, buildings, environment, construction, health, welfare, livestock, fisheries, water supply and sewage. These processes have been standardized and redesigned since 1997.
    • 23 existing finance related systems that were operating independently in various government departments have been interconnected and integrated into the National Finance Information System (NAFIS)
  • Key Disciplines Operating model Enterprise Architecture Engagement model
  • Key Disciplines Operating model Enterprise Architecture Engagement model
  • Four Operating Models Process standardization Process integration Low High Low High Governments
  • Four Operating Models Process standardization Process integration Low High Low High
    • Diversification
    • Few data standards across business units
    • Most IT decisions made within business units
    • Makes sense if few if any shared clients, no overlapping transactions
    • Coordination
    • Consensus for designing IT infrastructure services
    • IT application decisions with business units
    • Makes sense for operationally unique business units or functions with shared clients
    • Unification
    • IT decisions made centrally
    • Centrally mandated databases
    • Makes sense for business units with similar or overlapping operations, catering to a common client pool
    • Replication
    • Standardized data definition
    • Data locally owned
    • Centrally mandated IT services
    • Makes sense for operationally similar business units with few, if any shared clients
  • Organizational Change Process standardization Process integration Low High Low High Coordination Diversification Unification Replication
  • Key Disciplines Operating model Enterprise Architecture Engagement model
  • Inception dates of various EA frameworks
    • Zachman Framework, 1987
    • The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), 1995
    • Command, Control, Communications, Computing, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR), 1996
    • Treasury information Systems Architecture Framework (TISAF), 1997
    • Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF), 1999
    • Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework (TEAF), 2000
    • Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF), 2003
    • A new framework has been adopted every 15 months since the
    • Clinger-Cohen Act became law in August 1996
  • The Zachman Framework Canadian Business Transformation Enablement Program DETAILED REPRESENTATION (out of context) Subcontractor FUNCTIONING ENTERPRISE TECHNOLOGY MODEL (Physical) Builder SYSTEM MODEL (logical) Designer BUSINESS MODEL (conceptual) Owner SCOPE (contextual) Planner Why MOTIVATION When TIME Who PEOPLE Where NETWORK How FUNCTION What DATA
  • Federal Enterprise Architecture Performance Reference Model Business Reference Model Service Component Reference Model Data Reference Model Technical Reference Model Business Driven Approach 31 lines of business 132 sub-functions Measurement indicators
  • Business Value Common use of data Data standards and definitions Data Reference Model DRM Investments Technology that does the tasks Technical Reference Model TRM TRM, DRM Capabilities to accomplish business Service Component Reference Model SRM SRM What the business is Business Reference Model BRM BRM Goals, metrics Performance Reference Model PRM Drives Describes Model
  • Layers of Enterprise Architecture Business Solutions Information Technology Business processes and activities use … Applications such as custom or off-the-shelf software tools that run on … Data that must be collected, organized, safeguarded, and distributed using … Technology such as computer system and telephone networks. Strategic Mission , Goals, Objectives, Performance Measures, Security Objectives, define… IT Architecture
  • Core Diagram: Delta Airlines Source: Jeanne W.Ross et al, Enterprise Architecture as Strategy Allocate resources Prepare for flight departure Load aircraft Flight Departure and closeout Monitor flight Flight arrival and closeout Unload aircraft Clean and service aircraft Personalization Digital relationships Loyalty programs Customer experience Operational pipeline Skylinks Skymiles Reservations Travel Agent Skycap Ticket counter Crown room Boarding Inflight Baggage Location Flight Schedule Maintenance Equipment Employee Aircraft Customer Ticket Nine core databases Delta nervous system Business reflexes Employee relationship management E V E N T S P R O F I L E Pagers Voice Video Gate readers Cell phones Desktops Laptops Scanners Reservation systems PDAs Hand-helds Kiosks
  • NCS: Singapore’s eGovernment Framework Stakeholder Transition Framework eGovernment Framework Business Service Architecture G2C G2B G2G Delivery channels Enterprise IT Architecture Agency specific applications Security Education Health Taxation Management Retrieval Analysis Information Architecture Infrastructure Architecture Application Architecture Nationwide ICT Infrastructure eGovernment Supporting Infrastructure Business management Technical Standards Information Bank Land Hub People Hub Enterprise Hub Cross agency applications Government internal applications Citizen relationship Business intelligence
  • Washington DC Before
    • 21,000 employees (excluding public school system)
    • $5.4 billion budget
    • Services provided through 74 operating agencies
      • 10 centralized e.g. purchasing, HR, IT, legal services
      • 64 customer facing e.g. law enforcement, transportation
    • January 1999 DC was half a billion dollars in debt
    • Public services ranked at bottom of big city ratings
  • Operating Tenets
    • Single point of entry
      • All citizen requests to be routed to a central point of entry
    • Guaranteed closure
      • Citizen requests once submitted will be fulfilled, no matter which agency or how many agencies are involved
    • Benign service delivery
      • Make it easy for citizens to deal with the government
  • Operating model
    • Standardization of common processes
    • End to end integration of processes
    • Data sharing
    • Nine service modernization programs launched in 2001
    • Nine functional clusters: administrative, customer, educational, enforcement, financial, human, motorist, property, transportation services
    • Consolidation of servers, storage and software
    • DC government improved “from worst to first”
    • Government Technology magazine named DC portal as the number one Web portal in government
    • Cost of modernization program: $71 million
    • Measurable cost savings $150 million
    Washington DC After
  • Summary of Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework Version 1.1 (GAO) Maturation Return on EA investment is measured and reported. Compliance with EA is measured and reported. Attribute 4 Verifies satisfaction of commitment Attribute 3 Demonstrates satisfaction of commitment Attribute 2 Provides capability to meet commitment Adequate resources exist. Committee or group representing the enterprise is responsible for directing, overseeing or approving EA Attribute 1 Demonstrates Commitment Stage 5 Leveraging EA to manage change Stage 4 Completing EA products Stage 3 Developing EA products Stage 2 Building the EA management foundation Stage 1 Creating EA Awareness
  • The Importance of Standards: Baltimore Fire 1904
    • Major fire in downtown Baltimore
    • More than 1,200 firefighters, 57 engines and 9 trucks arrive from 5 states and the District of Columbia
    • Fire crews unable to assist, because out-of-town hose couplings would not fit Baltimore fire hydrants
    • Within 30 hours:
      • 70 city blocks devastated
      • 1,526 buildings destroyed
  • UK’s e-Government Interoperability Framework (e-GIF) e-GIF e-Gov Metadata Standard Government Category List Government Data Standards Catalogue XML Schemas Technical Standards Catalogue
  • Examples of Standards
    • Two letter country codes eg. VN for Vietnam defined by ISO 3166-1
    • ISO 8601 defines numeric representation of dates in the form YYYY-MM-DD
    • TCP/IP standard developed and endorsed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) through RFC 2246. Part of the protocol relates to IP addresses in the form nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where nnn is a number between 0 and 255
    • W3C standards include HTML, XML, XSLT, XML Schema, RDF, Web services, XQuery and XPath
  • Key Disciplines Operating model Enterprise Architecture Engagement model
  • Enterprise Architecture Reporting Structure IT Strategy Architecture and Planning Information Architect(s) Business Architect(s) Technical Architect(s) Solution Architect(s) Chief Architect CIO Gartner (April 2006)
  • Project Architects Information Architect(s) Business Architect(s) Technical Architect(s) Solution Architect(s) Chief Architect CIO PMO Support Staff Project Manager Project Architect(s) Gartner (April 2006)
  • The Engagement Model ALIGNMENT Enterprise architecture Municipal unit architecture Project IT architecture National Strategy and goals Municipal unit strategy and goals Project plan COORDINATION National level Municipal level Project team level Business IT Project management Nationwide IT governance Linking mechanisms Adapted from Jeanne W.Ross et al. Enterprise Architecture as Strategy
  • More visionary role Application Architect Enterprise Architect Chief Architect EA Modeling Team (Virtual) Gartner (April 2006) Application Architect Application Architect Application Architect EA Modeling Team (Virtual) EA Modeling Team (Virtual) EA Modeling Team (Virtual) Enterprise Architect Enterprise Architect Enterprise Architect
  • Plan Initial Research Project Initiation Best practices 3 ministries Technical Teams Workshops GEAF Draft Plan & Workshops Implementation Plan Engagement Model Assessment Methodology Project finalization Final Report Final Workshop Draft Plan & Workshop Training
  • Conclusion
    • Focus on defining the right EA process, and spend less time debating and choosing an EA framework.
    • Start the EA effort by devising a future-state architecture.
    • The secret of defining a great enterprise architecture is knowing when to stop.
    • Large organizations are simply too complex to be designed by a small group of enterprise architects, no matter how smart they are.
    Source: Gartner
  • Thank You