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  1. 1. Model Driven Architecture in the Enterprise Midterm Report 10/21/05 CSE 333 Professor: Steven Demurjian Amit Adur Keyur Patel Sabhay Kapoor Saleh Ibrahim
  2. 2. Table Of Contents Abstract................................................................................................................................1 1. Introduction......................................................................................................................1 2. Background......................................................................................................................2 2.1 MDA..........................................................................................................................2 2.1.1 MDA Objectives.................................................................................................2 2.1.2 MOF: the MDA’s Genie.....................................................................................2 2.1.3 Role of UML in MDA........................................................................................4 Improvements in UML 2.0:.........................................................................................4 2.2 EDOC: Model-Driven Enterprise Architecture.........................................................4 The Open Distributed Processing Reference Model....................................................4 2.3 Alternatives to MDA/EDOC......................................................................................5 3. Tools that support MDA..................................................................................................5 3.1 OpenMDX: An Advanced MDA Framework............................................................5 3.2 ExecutableUML (xUML)..........................................................................................6 3.3 Rhapsody by I-Logix.................................................................................................6 3.4 Component-X by DataAdvancedTechnology............................................................7 3.5 The TAU Generation2 Approach to MDA................................................................7 4. Project Schedule and Task Assignment...........................................................................7 Figure 5: Timeline and Task Distribution............................................................................8 Changes to our scope of the project.................................................................................9 Appendix A: UML 1.x and MDA......................................................................................10 A.1 Advantanges............................................................................................................10 a) Separation of Abstract Syntax from Concrete Syntax...........................................10 b) Enabling Extensibility...........................................................................................10 c) Supports platform-independent models.................................................................10 d) Open Standard.......................................................................................................10 A.2 Disadvantages of using UML 1.x:..........................................................................11 a) Not enough support for component based modeling.............................................11 b) UML and MOF are not in sync.............................................................................11 Appendix B: 4. Other Enterprise Architectures.................................................................12 B.1 TOGAF Model........................................................................................................12 B.2 IDEF (for Integrated Definition).............................................................................12 B.3 The Zachman Framework.......................................................................................13 B.4 C4ISR......................................................................................................................14 B.5 The Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework (TEAF)....................................14 References..........................................................................................................................15
  3. 3. MDA in the Enterprise Abstract Model Driven Architecture (MDA) has the potential to revolutionize software development, especially for enterprise application where integration and maintainability are challenging. In this project we will present the basics of MDA and how it can leverage enterprise application development. We will also present the relatively-new Enterprise Distributed Object Computing (EDOC) standard, which attempts to standardize MDA application to the Enterprise. The role UML plays in MDA is explained along with what has been introduced in UML 2.0 to enhance this role. Other enterprise development approaches will be briefly explain and contrasted with MDA/EDOC. Furthermore, we evaluate MDA/EDOC-support in available software modeling tools. Finally we will attempt to anticipate the future direction in MDA-based standards as well as industry support and adoption of these standards. 1. Introduction For decades, software engineering continued to be an evolving discipline. Software developers are still after software development approaches that achieve reusability at more levels of abstraction. This is particularly true for developing applications for the enterprise; where business collaborations are a central concern. Software designers need a modeling framework that enables process engineering by assembling reusable services. Moreover, the development approach must enable parts of the enterprise to react quickly and reliably to changes in requirements and in available technologies. Model Driven Architecture (MDA) enables the clear separation of platform-independent and platform-specific models, allowing the implementation of platform-independent models on any platform. Although UML isn't an integral part of MDA, it is still a language of choice for MDA. UML version 2.0 was specifically enhanced to empower UML's role in MDA. Before MDA was standardized by OMG, this approach has been applied for years to embedded and real-time software development. Now, the concept of MDA is applicable to almost all categories of the software industry [7]. While enterprise software development benefited from MDA, Enterprise Distributed Object Computing (EDOC) arrived as a standardized MDA-based modeling framework tailored for enterprise needs. EDOC also carefully covers the five viewpoints of the Open Distributed Processing Reference Model (ODP-RM), which is a widely-accepted software engineering reference model for distributed processing [2]. The rest of this document is organized as follows: Section 2 presents some background information on MDA, MOF, and ODP-RM, and the role of UML in MDA. EDOC is given special attention as an MDA-based standard for modeling enterprise component systems. Section 3 introduces the software modeling tools that are have been identified as MDA-compliant. Section 4 explains the current status of our project and future plan. -1-
  4. 4. Appendix A explains the advantages and disadvantages of UML 1.x and Appendix B presents Alternative Enterprise Development approaches 2. Background The Enterprise Distributed Object Computing profile is a UML profile for modeling enterprise applications. In this section we will describe the rational for MDA, how it relates to existing concepts and standards such as MOF, ODP-RM, and UML. 2.1 MDA Over the past decade, software designers’ attention shifted towards more clear separation between platform independent and platform dependent models. OMG’s Model Driven Architecture (MDA) provides an open, vendor-neutral approach to the challenge of business and technology change [3]. This is why MDA is often defined as an approach to modeling that separates the specification of system functionality (platform1-independent model) from the specification of its implementation on a specific technology platform (platform-specific model) [1]. But actually the benefits of MDA go even further. In this subsection we elaborate on the various objectives of MDA and how MOF and UML enable MDA to achieve these objectives. 2.1.1 MDA Objectives Usually different aspects of the same application can be modeled separately using different modeling languages. For example, the relational data store structure can be modeled using and Entity-Relationship diagram, while the format of communicated messages carrying the same pieces of data can be modeled using an XML Document Type Definitions. One of the most difficult challenges a software architect faces is keeping these different models in sync [7]. MDA achieves this objective by taking one step back and starting at the model level, hence model-driven architecture. An MDA-based framework will be composed of a set of modeling languages that will be used for modeling different aspects or viewpoints of the application. By defining transformation rules between the different modeling languages consistency between the different models developed can be observed. Figure 1 illustrates the role of MDA in integrating different models describing the same application. 2.1.2 MOF: the MDA’s Genie In order to define modeling languages, MDA uses formal models called meta-models. Metamodels are basically models that describe modeling languages [7]. As an example of a metamodel refer to Figure 2 for the metamodel for Java Class Contents [9]. The Meta Object Facility (MOF) supports the managing of different metadata in a coordinated way. The basic idea is to define a formal model of each language. These models then drive MOF-based generators that keep the consistency between models 1 It is important to note that platform here refers also to middleware as well as the conventional hardware, programming language or operating system platform. -2-
  5. 5. based on the rules defined on their corresponding metamodels. Figure 3 illustrates the role of MOF generators Obviously MDA can achieve neat separation of platform-independent models from platform-specific models, by guiding the software architect to carefully define platform- independent metamodels, platform-specific metamodels and the mappings between them. MOF-Generators can then convert platform-independent models into platform dependent artifacts, such as interfaces, classes, beans, etc. Figure 1. MDA is an overall architecture for integrating different specifications of the same software product made from different viewpoints in different languages [7]. Figure 2 The metamodel for Java Class Contents expressed in UML [9] -3-
  6. 6. 2.1.3 Role of UML in MDA Although MDA as an approach is not built on UML, practically MDA took advantage of many of the UML strengths and drived enhancements to the UML standard. In 2003, UML 2.0 was created to correct some of the shortcomings of the previous versions of UML 1.x. The following sections will describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of UML 1.x from an MDA perspective [7]. Then we will look at UML 2.0 and discuss how some of these disadvantages are eliminated [8]. Refer to Appendix A for details. UML 1.x Advantages UML 1.x Disadvantages • Separation of Abstract Syntax from • Not enough support for component Concrete Syntax based modeling • Enabling Extensibility • UML and MOF are not in sync • Supports platform-independent models • Open Standard Improvements in UML 2.0: a) Support for component based modeling UML 2.0 has added functionality of modeling objects via composite structures. For example structured classifies such as classes and components can be decomposed hierarchically and assembled. b) UML and MOF The slight inconsistencies between UML and MOF have been corrected in UML 2.0 2.2 EDOC: Model-Driven Enterprise Architecture One step from conceptual specification to technical specification of MDA was OMG’s introduction of the EDOC specification. EDOC integrates enterprise platform- independent application models called the Enterprise Collaboration Architecture, with platform-specific UML profiles, including but not limited to Web Services, .NET, CORBA, and J2EE. In this manner, both business and technical aspects of an application can grow at its own pace independent of each other. The Open Distributed Processing Reference Model ISO has approved a Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (ODP-RM) partitions system specifications into five viewpoints, namely [2], the enterprise viewpoint, the information viewpoint, the computational viewpoint, the engineering viewpoint, and the technology viewpoint. This clear separation of concerns is crucial to the success of enterprise modeling. What it lacks was the mechanism to seamlessly integrate multi-viewpoint models into a consistent enterprise model, and this is where MDA comes to action. -4-
  7. 7. The EDOC elements can be clearly divided into three categories; Platform-Independent Profiles, Platform Dependent Profiles and Pattern Profiles. Figure 3 illustrates these categories and their location in the ODP-RM [1]. Figure 3: EDOC Elements from the ODP-RM viewpoints perspective 2.3 Alternatives to MDA/EDOC There has been many approaches to enterprise software development, usually focusing on different aspects of the development process. Some of them are already obsolete, while others even integrate with MDA. TOGAF, IDEF, The Zachman Framework, C4ISR, and TEAF has been identified and briefly described in Appendix B. 3. Tools that support MDA We have identified the following tools that claim MDA-support. In this section we will introduce these tools, along with what they claim to be. In a later phase of the project we will conduct an extensive evaluation of these tools. Our final goal will be to evaluate these MDA complaints tools. 3.1 OpenMDX: An Advanced MDA Framework OpenMDX is an advanced implementation of the OMG Model Driven Architecture (MDA) initiative. OpenMDX is an industrial-strength, model-driven runtime engine, open, and framework for PIMs. OpenMDX claims that unlike most commercial tools, openMDX does not implement the generative PIM-to-PSM-mapping approach. Instead, openMDX provides a generic, distributed object engine which serves as a PIM platform. Business logic here is added as plug-ins. The basic design-principles are it follows the model-driven architecture (MDA) approach: "The model is the implementation” and 100% commitment to standards defined by OMG & Sun/J2EE. Also it makes no use of features which are not absolutely necessary and makes the framework open and pluggable wherever possible. -5-
  8. 8. The key benefits of openMDX are Open, extremely flexible framework for the integration existing and new applications and support of the MDA standards. It offers a wide-range of patterns, prefabricated add-ons and plugins offering a wide range of deployment scenarios. OpenMDX supports component-oriented, multi-tier application architectures which is open for multi-party software development process. 3.2 ExecutableUML (xUML) The xUML process developed by Kennedy Carter involves the creation of platform independent. ExecutableUML model with the UML diagrams is being supported by the action semantics-compliant Action Specification Language (ASL). The resulting model can be independently debugged, executed, viewed and tested. Multiple Executable UML models can be assembled together to form complex systems with the mappings between models. Both the individual executable models and multi-model assemblies can then be translated into target implementations. The execution rules of the xUML formalism mean that the same models can be translated into a wide variety of target architectures without changes to the models. A cornerstone of the translation approach is that the mappings to target implementations are themselves expressed using executable Models. These translation models are then used to code generate a code generator for the target system architecture. The xUML process embodies these distinctive characteristics of being precise, complete Models that can be subjected to rigorous testing by simulation having simple notations, using the Unified Modeling Language organized into a coherent set of layers. In xUML, usable models which can be utilized by system designers and coders without the need for unreliable "interpretation" of the meaning of the models and also Large-Scale Reuse, in which entire sets of classes are reused as a single component. 3.3 Rhapsody by I-Logix Rhapsody developed by I-Logix is one of the market leading UML 2.0 Model-Driven Development solutions because it is built around a series of enabling technologies provides users the most effective means of producing systems and software intensive designs. Rhapsody support of UML 2.0 is unparalleled and uniquely enables bridging the functional and object oriented gap in one environment allowing a very flexible design approach. Rhapsody has always focused on the needs of the embedded developer and fully supported the concepts of MDA. For true effective Model-Driven Development, Rhapsody creates a design environment that keeps you in constant communication with the system's behavior through execution and graphical design. It also allows collaborative and fully scalable infrastructure for a very cohesive team environment. Embedded developers and their tools must focus on their specific needs in order to maximize the benefits of MDA while meeting their special needs of real-time performance, reliability and the specialized hardware control that often exists in their environment. Rhapsody’s key enabling technologies are focused on the needs of the embedded developer. It follows the concept of separating functionality and behavior from implementation detail which enable embedded developers to get the most out of their -6-
  9. 9. MDA process. Rhapsody claims to supports all of these important UML 2.0 concepts that aid in creating a robust, complete and efficient PIM. 3.4 Component-X by DataAdvancedTechnology Component-X seems so far to be the official EDOC tool. No other tool has been found so far to support the relatively new EDOC standard. Special focus will be given to this tool as soon as their authors provide us with an evaluation copy. Component X is based upon open standards to become the component model for XML web services. Component-X provides with CCA, a triple standards alignment with ebXML, EDOC and EAI. EDOC provides the basis for global enterprise computing, integrating the information system with events and information which has been implemented in Component-X. Component-X and the EDOC Component Collaboration Architecture are part of the UML family of languages. Component X solves the problem of developing integrating applications across platforms, across technologies, across Internet, across technology generation and across the enterprise.Component-X is based on the OMG EDOC standard for enterprise modeling and implements the Component Collaboration Architecture defined in EDOC. Components from all sources like computation, networking, including native Java covering database access, networking, computation, and logic - together with XML definitions, web services, and other composite components can be assembled into business domain components using a drag- and-drop assemby and configuration using Component 3.5 The TAU Generation2 Approach to MDA The TAU Generation2 is model driven approach to software development which is based on architectural blueprint languages such as UML 2.0 to substantially improve software productivity and quality. The approach is compatible with MDA initiative, and takes advantage of its second-generation MDA standards, such as UML 2.0 and the UML 2.0 Profile for Testing. TAU Generation2 is a family of model-centric and role-based tools using UML 2.0 standards. TAU Generation2 can automate the transformation of a Platform Independent Model of requirements into a Platform Specific Models that can generate production quality code and test scripts. 4. Project Schedule and Task Assignment Figure 5 displays the timeline we have developed for this project as well as the component wise breakdown of the project into individual tasks. Thus far, our team has been focusing on the theory and background of MDA. The scope of the project changed significantly after our initial presentation by taking a step backward towards MDA and away from EDOC. Unfortunately because of this reason, we lost the first few weeks in research EDOC. Since then to until now, the tasks were divided as shown in the Stage 1 on Figure 5. Saleh was responsible for surveying MDA, MOF and EDOC. Amit was gathering information on the role of UML and the part it plays in the concepts of MDA. A different task for researching specific tools, which support MDA, to be later evaluated was taken on by Keyur, and finally the job of looking at other enterprise modeling architectures was the responsibility of Sabhay. -7-
  10. 10. Introduction to Relevant Role of UML in Stage 1: MOF, and and Background (Sep. 19 – Oct. 21) MDA, Conception MDA supported enterprise MDA EDOC tools (Keyur) architectures (Amit) (Saleh) (Sabhay) Stage 2: Criteria/Guidelines for evaluation of tools: (Oct 22 – Nov 4) Develop and finalize the criteria on how the different tools will be evaluated (Team work) Stage 3: Analysis and Evaluation2 tools (Nov 4 – Nov 27) Tool 1 Tool of Tool 3 (Keyur) Tool 4 (Sabhay) (Saleh) (Amit) Stage 4: Future Outlook and Delivery: Final Report (Nov. 28 – Dec. 4) (Reports generated in step 3 will be merged into a final report) Figure 5: Timeline and Task Distribution As seen from Stage 2 of figure 5, the next step for our project is to develop a set of criteria, which will be used to evaluate each MDA supported tool. We are anticipating to be done with this phase by November 4th. Stage 3 describes the delegation of one tool, which passes our initial inspection, to each team member for further evaluation. The tools to be evaluated are yet to be decided and once we have atleast four tools to assess, we can then proceed to dividing the four tools amongst us four. Stage 3 should take around a month to finish, which will lead us into the final few weeks of the semester. At this point, we will bring together our individual reports and merge them into a final report which will contain but is not limited to the future of MDA, EDOC, UML and the MDA supported tools, and end with conclusions and recommendations. -8-
  11. 11. Changes to our scope of the project In the early stages of the semester, our goal for the project was to do a survey on EDOC and its various components such as Enterprise Collaboration Architecture (ECA), patterns profile, and platform dependent profile. During the first few weeks, we looked at the definition of EDOC and the details of its components. Our objective was to get a sound understanding of EDOC concepts and apply our knowledge to modeling an enterprise application. After the first presentation, our group realized in order to understand EDOC, we have to step back and first look at MDA and its history more closely. After this realization, we directed our efforts towards gaining an understanding of MDA’s origin, its evolution and its ideas. Then we set a course towards researching few of the various tools available for enterprise component modeling using the MDA approach and is UML 2.0 compliant. This along with an evaluation of the discovered tools will be our future tasks for this project and the remainder of the semester. -9-
  12. 12. Appendix A: UML 1.x and MDA A.1 Advantanges a) Separation of Abstract Syntax from Concrete Syntax From a modeling viewpoint, such as UML, concrete syntax implies the class diagrams, sequence diagrams, use cases which can be used to graphically represent a particular application. Meanwhile, abstract syntax is the formal model of UML that defines the concepts that modelers use to graphically represent a software product. Therefore, abstract syntax is the metamodel or model of the model. This is a big advantage because from an MDA standpoint the semantics or properties of a model matter more than the layout of the graphical representation. b) Enabling Extensibility Another requirement of MDA is the need for specialized languages for various systems which supports the specifications of the particular system. This is achieved in UML by the highly extensive and specialized languages known as UML profiles. When we talk about profiles, we also have to have mappings which indicate how to translate the specialized profiles into something that is relevant to the system that the profile defines. For instance, the UML profile for object computing will require mapping for translation for EJB, J2EE, .NET, CORBA, etc. UML profiling can also create profiles or specialized languages for platform independent models which is also a big requirement for MDA c) Supports platform-independent models By platform-independent, we imply that the model is independent of data formatting technologies such as XML DTD and XML Schema, independent of languages such as JAVA, C++, and Visual Basic, independent of distributed component technologies such as J2EE, CORBA, and .NET. UML raises the level of abstraction by separating the semantics from implementation. For example it can specify the relationships between classes without going into the detail of implementation. d) Open Standard The benefit of having UML governed by OMG which is a standards organization is that it is not a proprietary technology making it available for developers for personal use. Developers can create custom plug-ins for UML to be used in their own custom environment and also use their custom plug-ins or modeling framework which could be -10-
  13. 13. used to represent the security aspect, together with modeling framework designed by other developers, which could represent several other aspects of the application. A.2 Disadvantages of using UML 1.x: a) Not enough support for component based modeling In UML 1.x, the notion of components is very clear. It is possible to create very basic UML profiles for components in UML although the results of doing so are not very satisfactory. b) UML and MOF are not in sync UML 1.x and MOF are slightly out of sync which causes problems for developers who are trying to building tools that support MDA based on these two standards. -11-
  14. 14. Appendix B: 4. Other Enterprise Architectures The world seemed to have been divided on the basis of frameworks and architectures, with each of the companies modeling each one of them and trying to implement them in the various applications. The major issue that came up from all these things was that the mapping from one application to another was a very difficult task and thus the software industry became a world full of various kinds of architectures and frameworks functioning independently all together with hardly any interaction with each other. OMG’s Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is a standards-based approach to system development, which increases the power of models in that work. It is model-driven because it provides a means for using models to direct the course of understanding, design, construction, deployment, operation, maintenance and modification. An MDA approach starts with the well-known and long established idea of separating the specification of the business functionality of a system from the details of the way that system uses the capabilities of its underlying platform technology to achieve that functionality. An MDA approach is independent of development methodologies as well as technology. This separation of business functionality from computing technology and methodology preserves a company’s core software assets in the constantly changing world of information technology. B.1 TOGAF Model One of the most important architecture model that works in tandem with MDA for enterprise applications is the TOGAF Model. TOGAF is a “detailed method and a set of supporting tools - for developing an enterprise architecture.” The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) explains how to derive an organization-specific enterprise architecture that addresses business requirements. The ADM provides a reliable, proven way of developing the architecture; architecture views which enable the architect to ensure that a complex set of requirements are adequately addressed; linkages to practical case studies; and guidelines on tools for architecture development[10]. Some other frameworks that have been used to model various Enterprise applications are given below: B.2 IDEF (for Integrated Definition) This is a framework that started in the 1970’s and consists of a group of modeling methods that can be used to describe operations in an enterprise. IDEF was a creation of the United States Air Force and is now being developed by Knowledge Based Systems. Originally developed for the manufacturing environment, IDEF methods have been adapted for wider use and for software development in general. -12-
  15. 15. IDEF consists of sixteen methods, from IDEF0 to IDEF14 (and including IDEF1X), are each designed to capture a particular type of information through modeling processes. IDEF methods are used to create graphical representations of various systems, analyze the model, create a model of a desired version of the system, and to aid in the transition from one to the other[11][12]. B.3 The Zachman Framework It is a matrix of 36 cells covering the Who, What, Where, When, Why, and How questions of an enterprise. The enterprise is then split that into six perspectives, starting at the highest level of business abstraction going all the way down to implementation. Such objects or descriptions of architectural representations are usually referred to as Artifacts. The framework can contain global plans as well as technical details, lists and charts. Any appropriate approach, standard, role, method or technique may be placed in it. It has been looked at as a framework for building computer systems, The Zachman Framework is actually a classification scheme for descriptive representations of the enterprise as a whole, irrespective of its use of computers. Zachman works with many users and vendors to promote the use of enterprise architecture[12][13]. Figure B.1: Explains the detailed concept of The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture[13][12] -13-
  16. 16. B.4 C4ISR Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance was started in 1995 by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (ASD, C31) formed the C4I Integration Support Activity (CISA) to develop a unified approach for development and evaluation of information and architectures. CISA is developing and coordinating a common set of Architecture terms and Definitions, and supporting the working group that is developing the Standard Data Element-Based Automated Architecture Support Environment and the Automated Architecture Tool Suite[12][14]. B.5 The Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework (TEAF) It was an architectural framework that was developed by the Department of the Treasury in response to a number of government directives, including The Information Technology Management Reform Act (ITMRA) of 1996 ("Clinger-Cohen Act") .The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 . The Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) of 1999.The purpose of the TEAF is to provide a framework for the Treasury and its bureaus to produce their enterprise architectures .An enterprise architecture offers important benefits to an agency, capturing information needed for planning and decision making and providing high-level views to help communicate the complexity of large systems[12][14]. -14-
  17. 17. References [1] “Enterprise Collaboration Architecture (ECA), v1.0”, http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/2004-02-01 [2] Ian Joyner, “Open Distributed Processing: Unplugged!”, http://homepages.tig.com.au/~ijoyner/ODPUnplugged.html [3] “OMG Model Driven Architecture”, OMG, http://www.omg.org/mda/ [4] “UML Profile for Patterns, v1.0”, OMG, http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?formal/2004-02-04 [5] “EDOC-Vision”, Data Access Technologies (DAT), http://www.enterprise-component.com/docs/EDOC%20Vision.pdf [6] Steve Demurjian, “The Unified Modeling Language” http://www.engr.uconn.edu/%7Esteve/Cse298300/finaluml.ppt [7] David Frankel. “Model Driven Architecture - Applying MDA to Enterprise Computing”, Wiley Publishing Inc, 2003 [8] Cris Kobryn and Eric Samuelsson, “Driving Architectures with UML 2.0- The TAU Generation2 Approach to Model Driven Architecture”, Telelogic, August 2003. http://www.uml-forum.com/docs/papers/White_Paper_Driving_Architectures_UML2.pdf [9] “Metamodel and UML Profile for Java and EJB Specification”, OMG, February 2004 [10] “Open Group Architecture Forum” http://www.Opengroup.org/architecture/ [11] “IDEF (for Integrated Definition)” http://www.IDEF.com [12] “DoD and Telelogic collaboration” http://www.government.popkins.com [13] “Zachman Framework” http://www.zifa.com [14] “EA Frameworks” http://www.eaframeworks.com/architectures/ [15] "The open standards-based Java-XML solution for worldwide computing", DataAdvancedTechnologies, Component-X, http://www.enterprise-component.com/edocsubmissiondanvers.htm [16] "Executable System Design with UML" by I- Logix [17] "Executable UML(xUML)" by Kennedy Carter http://kc.com/xuml.php [18] "OpenMDX -The leading open source MDA plaform" http://www.openmdx.org/ -15-

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