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  • In-house team was mostly for implementation. That’s 56 people directly involved.
  • Site before December 21, 2001. Major buckets/global nav is the standard products, services, customers, news and events.
  • New site – launched Dec 21, 2002. Global nav is task focused, based upon users’ mental model.
  • More than just “blueprints and wireframes” Very different from consulting work. -doing research, strategy, making recommendations, creating blueprints and wireframes – core IA functions Did more than just “traditional IA"
  • Many team members had only limited domain knowledge -producers only knew -CMC only knew CC -IS didn’t understand the content needs Had deepest understanding of the goal since was such a part of its development. Had the luxury of only working on this project, so could focus all attention on it. Was the single point person for questions… good because people got consistent answers
  • Worked with other consultants so they could better understand PeopleSoft and vice versa Worked with IS so they understood the goals. Reviewed and help design the templates in Interwoven. Was a big user advocate. Presented project internally; worked with product marketers so they understood the “why” in what we were doing and how their information would be effected
  • IA is hard for people to understand, especially when they only have conceptual diagrams to work from (e.g., blueprints) Spent time 1-on-1 helping producers determine the proper wireframe to use, how to structure their section and how users would flow within their sections. Contextual navigation was a new concept (it wasn’t really done on the old site) and it was hard for many producers to really understand how to use it effectively. They understood the concept, but had trouble when it came to picking links for their page. Co-led training sessions on how to use CMS templates Dr. IA was created because things were changing so fast. Many IA decisions were made on the fly. The newsletter was an effective way to keep people up to date. Examples of newsletters were the rules for breadcrumbing, or how to choose the right audience for a piece of content.
  • Did many non-IA types of things All hands on desk at the end to make the launch deadline. We had 17 weeks to do everything – install and create the CMS, migrate 1800 pages by hand, etc. Responsible for site map, site index, and product index, as well as document archive. This is a producer’s role. Fred did the actual indexing to create it. IA type things that I didn’t think of as IA at first: directory structure, branching system. They reflect the IA of the site, but not a 1-to-1 match
  • Some of the squares don’t look too good when you do slide show. Shall we take another screen shot?
  • Modules are the smallest unit
  • Low fidelity works well Good activity to do with internal client – they can help move things around.
  • Supports different browsing models – user coming in looking for support, or coming in thinking of product they own Different tabs appear for different audiences Links designed to be module specific so patches would lead to the CBM specific patches
  • Direct results of content analysis Thesauri for products, services & subject. Company Names is an authority file.
  • Shows preferred term, [] is related term, {} is alternate term
  • Example of a different way to leverage the bottom up work Approx. 590 entries in site index 42,954 page views since January 1, 2002
  • Used to be very difficult to understand how products fit together product like expenses works with a lot of other products. It used to have many pages, hard to tell it was the same product Once the products were mapped out, could understand them and build the products section of the site based upon that structure
  • Sets the structure of the product hierarchy – new products need to be able to be slotted within these areas. Website matches this exactly.
  • Complete Slides

    1. 1. Case Study Enterprise Information Architecture March 16, 2002 Chiara Fox, PeopleSoft Peter Merholz, Adaptive Path
    2. 2. What We’ll Talk About <ul><li>I. Project Overview </li></ul><ul><li>II. The Role of the IA In the Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>III. Merging Top-Down and Bottom-Up IA </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Content Analysis Methodologies </li></ul>
    3. 3. I. Project Overview: The Problem <ul><li>Three separate web properties with different architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>, Customer Connection, and Alliance Connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No unified user experience and quality varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are duplicated (sometimes triplicated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard for users to find things cross-site due to differences in IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to share content that is the same across sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each site has separate technical backend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites published with FutureTense, Lotus Notes, and other relational databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three sites, three search engines, no structured content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Internet Systems teams to support the different platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to plan for implementation of PeopleSoft Portal </li></ul>
    4. 4. Project Overview: The Team <ul><li>Consultants – Adaptive Path and Lot21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indi Young, Janice Fraser, Peter Merholz, Marcus Haid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-house – Web development team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiara Fox, Information Architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camille Sobalvarro, Manager Design & Information Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 web producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 member migration “posse” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 thesaurus developer/IA/indexer consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 designers + 2 design consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 usability and metrics specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 technical developers + 3 CMS consultants </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Project Overview: The Process
    6. 6. Project Overview: Implementation Tracks <ul><li>Visual design and site style guide </li></ul><ul><li>Content migration, including ROT removal </li></ul><ul><li>Installation and preparation of Interwoven’s TeamSite (templates, workflow, scripting) </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata development (schema, vocabularies, indexing) </li></ul><ul><li>Training (on using system, creating and using templates, architecture, indexing) </li></ul><ul><li>Refining IA at a highly detailed level as content was migrated </li></ul>
    7. 9. II. The Role of the IA in the Enterprise <ul><li>Hub of the entire process </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison between many teams </li></ul><ul><li>Migrator training </li></ul><ul><li>One title, many roles </li></ul>
    8. 10. Role of the IA: Hub of Process <ul><li>Only team member with detailed knowledge of all content on all sites </li></ul><ul><li>Had vision of how sites should function when complete </li></ul><ul><li>Understood every aspect of the architecture, wireframes, blueprint, and other specifications </li></ul>
    9. 11. Role of the IA: Liaison Between Many Teams <ul><li>Consultants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information architecture, CMS implementation, graphic design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Systems </li></ul><ul><li>In-house designers </li></ul><ul><li>Other departments within PeopleSoft, such as product marketing </li></ul>
    10. 12. Role of the IA: Migrator Training <ul><li>Understand new architecture </li></ul><ul><li>How content fits into wireframes </li></ul><ul><li>Use of CMS templates </li></ul><ul><li>“Ask Dr. IA” newsletter </li></ul>
    11. 13. Role of the IA: One Title, Many Roles <ul><li>Project manager </li></ul><ul><li>XML coder </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary editor </li></ul><ul><li>Content migrator </li></ul><ul><li>Copyeditor </li></ul><ul><li>Directory creator </li></ul><ul><li>CMS system architecture designer </li></ul>
    12. 14. III. Merging Top-Down and Bottom-Up IA <ul><li>Two primary approaches to developing the new information architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Top-Down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by user research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop mental models of audience types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive main site organization from this understanding of approaches to the task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom-Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation for designing architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building product module pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site and product indexes </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Top-Down IA: User Interviews <ul><li>19 subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 potential customers, 7 current customers, 6 alliance partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four slices – C-level, Director, Manager, Implementer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hour-long task analysis interviews, probing how the person was involved in the process of purchasing enterprise-level software </li></ul>
    14. 16. Create a “mental model” for an audience
    15. 17. For each set of tasks, map the content that could be used to support it
    16. 18. Which still resembles…
    17. 19. Bottom-Up IA: Forms the Foundation <ul><li>Closely linked with the content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and describing the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding the patterns and groupings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching content with user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results are leveraged in different ways </li></ul>
    18. 20. Bottom-Up IA: Building Product Module Pages <ul><li>Went through the site and pulled together all information related to products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used sticky notes to gather the items into logical groups </li></ul><ul><li>Logical groups became the tabs on the module pages </li></ul>
    19. 23. Bottom-up IA: Metadata Development <ul><li>12 attribute schema developed based upon patterns found and functionality we wanted </li></ul><ul><li>10 controlled vocabularies developed of varying complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Individual thesauri were developed for the products, services, and subject attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-automatic indexing tool used to tag content, as well as manual tagging </li></ul>
    20. 24. FINANCIALS [Financial Analytics]   FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT [Financial Analytics] Analytic Forecasting {Financial Analytic Forecasting} {Financial Forecasting} Asset Liability Management {Liability Management} Asset Management {Managing Assets} Balanced Scorecard Billing {Bills} Budgeting {Budgets} CFO Portal {Portal for CFO} {Chief Financial Officer Portal} {Portal for Chief Financial Officer} Contracts {Contracting} Deduction Management {Deductions} {Managing Deduction} eBill Payment {e-Bill Payment} {Bill Payment} Expenses Financial Insight [Financial Analytics] General Ledger {G/L} Payables {Accounts Payable} {A/P} Projects Purchasing Receivables {Accounts Receivable} {A/R}   MARKETPAY [MarketPlace]   TREASURY MANAGEMENT Deal Management {Managing Deals} {Management of Deals} Risk Management {Risk} {Managing Risk} {Management of Risk}
    21. 25. Bottom-up IA: Site Index & Product Index <ul><li>Alternative to the primary navigation for getting to content </li></ul><ul><li>Indexed just like a back of the book index </li></ul><ul><li>Product index based upon the product vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Indexers Society award for Web Indexes </li></ul>
    22. 27. IV. Content Analysis Methodologies <ul><li>Many methodologies of content analysis were employed </li></ul><ul><li>Content inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Unified content map </li></ul><ul><li>Product matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Classification scheme analysis </li></ul>
    23. 28. Content Analysis: Content Inventory <ul><li>Clicked through thousands of pages across the three properties (8,000 lines in the Excel spreadsheet) </li></ul><ul><li>Automated attempts insufficient—manual attention required </li></ul><ul><li>Tagged each piece of content with metadata, preparing it for both IA and CMS migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where it lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link Ids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 30. Content Analysis: Unified Content Map <ul><li>Graphical representation of content on the sites </li></ul><ul><li>Shows redundancies and gaps in content between the sites </li></ul>
    25. 31. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Connection </li></ul>
    26. 32. Content Analysis: Product Matrix <ul><li>Began as a way to understand how products fit together </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates the atom –> molecule –> crystal model </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the basis of the product hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Now used in other departments to understand how products are structured </li></ul>
    27. 34. Content Analysis: Classification Scheme Analysis <ul><li>Done early in project </li></ul><ul><li>Compare terms used across the different sites </li></ul><ul><li>Great for building a case for the project by showing inconsistencies </li></ul><ul><li>Used to discover alternate terms for vocabularies </li></ul>
    28. 36. Thank You <ul><li>Chiara Fox </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architect, PeopleSoft </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Merholz </li></ul><ul><li>Partner, Adaptive Path </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>