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  1. 1. Reference Architecture for Enterprise Integration CIMOSA GRAI/GIM PERA Dima Nazzal
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Enterprise: a complex set of business processes that can be designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise integration ( agile manufacturing, business process reengineering, CIM): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The coordination of the operation of all elements of the enterprise working together in order to achieve the optimal fulfillment of the mission of that enterprise as defined by enterprise management. 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architecture : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A description (often graphical) of the structure of something 1 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A structured plan, a framework on the basis of which a product or an organization of an enterprise can be constructed 2 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Reference model : a general model that can be used as a base to derive other models from. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Architecture : is a structured set of models which represent the building blocks of the system. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Integration Reference Architecture : is a framework in which enterprise related concepts are organized. </li></ul><ul><li>The most known reference architectures are: CIMOSA, GRAI-GIM and PERA </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Enterprise Model Requirements <ul><li>The enterprise model which fits the specific objectives of the particular enterprise should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify the different processes in the enterprise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contain the machines, the information, the transfer of information, the human involvement and the functions that have to be carried out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>address design activities, manufacturing processes, the way materials are ordered, moved and transformed into products. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Enterprise Modeling <ul><li>Enterprise modeling has to fulfill several requirements to achieve efficient and effective enterprise integration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a modeling language easily understood by non-IT professionals, but sufficient for modeling complex industrial environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a modeling framework which: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>covers the life cycle of enterprise operation from requirements definition to end of life. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enables focus on different aspects of enterprise operation by hiding those parts of the model not relevant for the particular point of view. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supports re-usability of models or model parts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Open System Architecture for CIM - CIMOSA <ul><li>In 1985, the ESPRIT Consortium AMICE started to work on the definition and specification of a CIM architecture for enterprise integration. </li></ul><ul><li>CIMOSA (completed in 1996) is pre-modeling solution which provides a framework based on the system life cycle concept </li></ul>
  7. 7. CIMOSA <ul><li>CIMOSA Reference Architecture supports the description of the enterprise, from the management level to the shop floor level </li></ul><ul><li>CIMOSA consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise modeling framework (reference architecture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise modeling language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. CIMOSA Enterprise RA
  9. 9. CIMOSA Enterprise Modeling Constructs ( building blocks)
  10. 10. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling Domains with interacting Domain Processes
  11. 11. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
  12. 12. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling Decomposition of a Domain Process into Business Processes and Enterprise Activities
  13. 13. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
  14. 14. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling Domain Process Representation as a network of Enterprise Activities
  15. 15. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling
  16. 16. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling Functional Operations executed by Functional Entities (Resources)
  17. 17. CIMOSA Process Based Enterprise Modeling X X X FE1: vehicle controller FO3: pull up vehicle FO2: clasp the lot FO1: set down vehicle
  18. 18. CIMOSA Integrating Infrastructure <ul><li>The Integrating Infrastructure provides a set of service entities for model engineering and enterprise operation control. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Relations between the Enterprise System Life Cycle and the progress of the modeling process
  20. 20. GIM-GRAI Integrated Methodology <ul><li>Developed by the laboratory for automation and production at the university of Bordeaux- France since 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>GIM is composed of the following elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAI conceptual model: a representation of basic concepts of a manufacturing system decomposed into three sub-systems: physical system, decision and information system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIM modeling framework (RA) with three dimensions: views, life cycle, and abstraction level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIM structured approach: guide to show how to perform analysis and design of the manufacturing system in three main phases: analysis, user-oriented design, and technical-oriented design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIM modeling formalisms (languages): GRAI grid and GRAI nets for decision system modeling, IDEF0 and stock/resource for physical system modeling, ER for information system modeling, IDEF0 for functional system modeling. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. GIM Conceptual Model
  22. 22. GIM Modeling Framework and RA
  23. 23. GIM Structured Approach
  24. 24. GIM Modeling Formalisms
  25. 25. Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture - PERA <ul><li>PERA was developed at Purdue University during the period 1989-91. </li></ul><ul><li>The simplifying concepts of systems engineering in enterprise integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The place of the human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning and organization of the integration effort (the master plan) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. PERA - Enterprise Integration Project Phases <ul><li>Identify human tasks, initial choice and specification of human organization </li></ul><ul><li>Identify information and control equipment and mission fulfillment equipment </li></ul>Project Specification or Preliminary Design 4 <ul><li>Identify requirements, tasks and modules </li></ul><ul><li>Develop flow diagram or other models </li></ul><ul><li>of the Enterprise Entity </li></ul>Project Definition 3 <ul><li>Mission, vision and values </li></ul><ul><li>Operational policies </li></ul>Project Concept 2 Identity and boundaries of the enterprise Identification of the Enterprise Business 1 Description Title Phase The master plan
  27. 27. PERA - Enterprise Integration Project Phases Enterprise has come to the end of its economic life Decommissioning 8 Detailed design of human and organizational information, control, customer product and service components of the enterprise Completion of all detailed design needed for construction phase 5 Conversion of detailed design to actual plant elements, testing, operational trials and acceptance or commissioning Implementation,test and commissioning phase 6 The enterprise is carrying out its mission Operations phase 7 Description Title Phase
  28. 28. PERA RA
  29. 29. PERA- Models and tools involved at each phase of the life cycle
  30. 30. GERAM <ul><li>The IFAC/IFIP Task Force on Architectures for Enterprise Integration was formed by IFAC (The International Federation of Automatic Control) and IFIP (The International Federation for Information Processing) in August 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>The Task Force objective was to contribute a single, universally accepted architecture, framework, or model for enterprise integration. </li></ul><ul><li>They developed the architectural specification GERAM (Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology). </li></ul><ul><li>Task Force recognized three RA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIMOSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAI-GIM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The &quot;matrix&quot; model for GERAM was developed by combining the distinctive characteristics of each of three studied architectures into one diagram. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Components of the GERAM Framework
  32. 33. Comments on CIMOSA <ul><li>Constructs definitions are not very clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements definition level modeling is not well defined </li></ul><ul><li>No reference models to design the system </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring of RA into generic and partial modeling levels </li></ul><ul><li>Support for function, information, resource, and organization modeling views. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifying the processes and exchange of information using domain processes, events, and object views. </li></ul>Did not like liked
  33. 34. Comments on GIM-GRAI <ul><li>Requirements definition level modeling is not well defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of the decisional view. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reference models have been developed </li></ul>Did not like Liked
  34. 35. Comments on PERA <ul><li>lack of modeling formalisms. </li></ul><ul><li>methodology is not clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>The focus on preparing the master plan </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on defining the role of human </li></ul><ul><li>covers all phases of the enterprise life cycle </li></ul>Did not like Liked
  35. 36. References <ul><li>T. J. Williams. 1998. “PERA and GERAM – Enterprise Reference Architecture for Enterprise Integration”. </li></ul><ul><li>http:// cimosa . cnt .pl/Docs/Primer/primer0. htm </li></ul><ul><li>D. Chen, B. Vallespir and G. Doumeingts. 1997. “GRAI integrated methodology and its mapping onto generic enterprise reference architecture and methodology” Computers in Industry . V33 p387-394. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Doumeingts B. Vallespir, and D. Chen. 1995. “Methodologies for designing CIM systems: A survey”. V25 p263-280 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>