Chapter 5 (modified)

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  • Personal digital assistant (PDA) A small hand-held computer that performs simple tasks such as taking notes, scheduling appointments, and maintaining an address book and a calendar. The PDA screen is touch-sensitive, allowing a user to write directly on the screen, capturing what is written. Laptop A fully functional computer designed to be carried around and run on battery power. Laptops come equipped with all of the technology that a personal desktop computer has, yet weigh as little as two pounds. Tablet A pen-based computer that provides the screen capabilities of a PDA with the functional capabilities of a laptop or desktop computer. Similar to PDAs, tablet PCs use a writing pen or stylus to write notes on the screen and touch the screen to perform functions such as clicking on a link while visiting a Web site. Desktop Available with a horizontal system box (the box is where the CPU, RAM, and storage devices are held) with a monitor on top, or a vertical system box (called a tower) usually placed on the floor within a work area. Workstation Similar to a desktop but has more powerful mathematical and graphics processing capabilities and can perform more complicated tasks in less time. Typically used for software development, Web development, engineering, and e-business tools. Minicomputer (midrange computer) - Designed to meet the computing needs of several people simultaneously in a small to medium-size business environment. A common type of minicomputer is a server and is used for managing internal company networks and Web sites. Minicomputers are more powerful than desktop computers but also cost more, ranging in price from $5,000 to several hundred thousand dollars Mainframe computer Designed to meet the computing needs of hundreds of people in a large business environment. Mainframe computers are a step up in size, power, capability, and cost from minicomputers. Mainframes can cost in excess of $1 million. With processing speeds greater than 1 trillion instructions per second (compared to a typical desktop that can process about 2.5 billion instructions per second), mainframes can easily handle the processing requests of hundreds of people simultaneously. Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer. Organizations such as NASA that are heavily involved in research and number crunching employ supercomputers because of the speed with which they can process information.
  • Chapter 5 (modified)

    1. 1. CHAPTER 5 IT ARCHITECTURES
    2. 2. Chapter Five Overview <ul><li>SECTION 5.1 - HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE BASICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Basics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SECTION 5.2 – MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Architecture </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. SECTION 5.1 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
    4. 4. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Describe the six major categories of hardware and provide an example of each </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different computer categories and explain their potential business uses </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between primary and secondary storage </li></ul>
    5. 5. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>List the common input, output, storage, and communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the eight categories of computers by size </li></ul><ul><li>Define the relationship between operating system software and utility software </li></ul>
    6. 6. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. HARDWARE BASICS <ul><li>Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication device </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. HARDWARE BASICS (RAM, ROM, Cache)
    9. 9. Hardware - Another View
    10. 10. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor ) - the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit - interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>CPU speed factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip line width </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary digit ( bit ) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process </li></ul><ul><li>Byte - a group of eight bits representing one natural language character </li></ul>
    13. 13. Advances in CPU Design <ul><li>Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip - type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip - limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization - a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines </li></ul>
    14. 14. Primary Storage <ul><li>Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU </li></ul>
    15. 15. Random Access Memory (RAM) <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    17. 17. Read-Only Memory (ROM) <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory stick </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Secondary Storage
    20. 20. Magnetic Medium <ul><li>Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape - an older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically sensitive recording medium </li></ul><ul><li>Hard drive - a secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism </li></ul>
    21. 21. Optical Medium <ul><li>Optical medium types include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video disk (DVD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Input Devices <ul><li>Input device - equipment used to capture information and commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joystick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bar code scanner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic ink character reader </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Output Devices <ul><li>Output device - equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathode-ray tube (CRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid crystal display (LCD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotter </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Communication Devices <ul><li>Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. COMPUTER CATEGORIES <ul><li>Computer categories include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistant (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minicomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Computer Categories PDA Laptop/Tablet SmartPhone Desktop/Workstation Microcontroller Mainframe Supercomputer Ultra-Mobile PC Minicomputer Business, Industrial, Scientific, and Academic Personal (Micro Computers)
    27. 27. COMPUTER CATEGORIES <ul><li>For the past 20 years, federally funded supercomputing research has given birth to some of the computer industry’s most significant technology breakthroughs including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic browser </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. SOFTWARE BASICS <ul><li>System software - controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Categories of Software
    30. 30. Utility Software <ul><li>Types of utility software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crash-proof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File and data recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstaller </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Application Software <ul><li>Types of application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. How Hardware and Software Interact
    33. 33. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points <ul><li>Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? </li></ul><ul><li>What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use? </li></ul>
    34. 34. SECTION 5.2 Enterprise Architecture
    35. 35. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><ul><li>Explain the three components of an enterprise architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how an organization can implement a solid information architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List and describe the five ilities of an infrastructure architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Web services and open systems </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architect (EA) - a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business </li></ul>
    37. 37. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Primary goals of enterprise architectures </li></ul>
    38. 38. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    39. 39. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
    40. 40. Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Backup - an exact copy of a system’s information </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery - the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failover </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery best practices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind the enterprise architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the quality of computer networks that provide data on power suppliers and demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the networks can be restored quickly in the case of downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up disaster recovery plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate staff training, including verbal communication protocols “so that operators are aware of any IT-related problems </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Financial Institutions Worldwide Spending on Disaster Recovery </li></ul>
    43. 43. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery plan - a detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery cost curve - charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold site </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Disaster Recovery Cost Curve
    45. 45. Information Security <ul><li>A good information architecture includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong information security plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing user access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-to-date antivirus software and patches </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
    47. 47. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Application architecture - determines how applications integrate and relate to each other </li></ul>
    49. 49. Web Services <ul><li>Web service - contains a repertoire of Web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul>
    50. 50. Web Services <ul><li>Event - detect threats and opportunities and alert those who can act on the information </li></ul><ul><li>Service - more like software products than they are coding projects, and must appeal to a broad audience, and they need to be reusable if they are going to have an impact on productivity </li></ul>
    51. 51. Open Systems <ul><li>Open system - a broad, general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by the standards and procedures by which their products work, making it easier to integrate them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow systems to seamlessly share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalize on enterprise architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate proprietary systems and promote competitive pricing </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points <ul><li>How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an organization use the devices mentioned in the case to protect information security? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five ilites and rank them in order of importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how a “Customer Phone Number” Web service could be used by one of the products outlined in the case </li></ul>
    53. 53. CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the Tribune Co.’s business </li></ul><ul><li>What is the disaster recovery cost curve? Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the curve? </li></ul><ul><li>Define backups and recovery. What are the risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to implement an adequate backup plan? </li></ul>
    54. 54. CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune <ul><li>Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current operations and future growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the need for information security at the Tribune Co. </li></ul><ul><li>How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad Web service across its different businesses? </li></ul>
    55. 55. CLOSING CASE TWO UPS in the Computer Repair Business <ul><li>Do you think UPS’s entrance into the laptop repair business was a good business decision? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different types of hardware UPS technicians might be working on when fixing laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of memory and why only certain types of data are lost during a computer failure. Also identify a potential backup strategy you can suggest to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of software found in a typical laptop </li></ul>
    56. 56. CLOSING CASE THREE Fear the Penguin <ul><li>How does Linux differ from traditional software? </li></ul><ul><li>Should Microsoft consider Linux a threat? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>How is open source software a potential trend shaping organizations? </li></ul>
    57. 57. CLOSING CASE THREE Fear the Penguin <ul><li>How can you use Linux as an emerging technology to gain a competitive advantage? </li></ul><ul><li>Research the Internet and discover potential ways that Linux might revolutionize business in the future </li></ul>

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