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Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling
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Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling

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  • 1. Enterprise Architecture Vol. 8, No. 3 Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling by Ken Orr, Senior Consultant, Cutter Consortium; in collaboration with Bill Roth and Ben Nelson In most large organizations, how quickly the organization can respond to critical market changes is directly related to how well it manages its business-IT assets and infrastructure. The need for reduced cycle time has spurred a growing interest and investment in enterprise architecture. In recent years, a number of breakthroughs have occurred in enterprise architecture that help organizations better manage their business-IT assets; Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling is a new framework that incorporates these breakthroughs.
  • 2. Cutter Business Technology Council Rob Austin Tom DeMarco Christine Davis Lynne Ellyn Jim Highsmith Tim Lister Ken Orr Lou Mazzucchelli Ed Yourdon Access to the About Cutter Consortium Experts Cutter Consortium is a truly unique IT advisory firm, comprising a group of more than 100 internationally recognized experts who have come together to offer content, consulting, and training to our clients. These experts are committed to delivering top-level, critical, and objective advice. They have done, and are doing, groundbreaking work in organizations worldwide, helping companies deal with issues in the core areas of software development and agile project management, enterprise architecture, business technology trends and strategies, enterprise risk management, metrics, and sourcing. Cutter offers a different value proposition than other IT research firms: We give you Access to the Experts. You get practitioners’ points of view, derived from hands-on experience with the same critical issues you are facing, not the perspective of a desk-bound analyst who can only make predictions and observations on what’s happening in the marketplace. With Cutter Consortium, you get the best practices and lessons learned from the world’s leading experts; experts who are implementing these techniques at companies like yours right now. Cutter’s clients are able to tap into its expertise in a variety of formats including content via online advisory services and journals, mentoring, workshops, training, and consulting. And by customizing our information products and training/ consulting services, you get the solutions you need, while staying within your budget. Cutter Consortium’s philosophy is that there is no single right solution for all enterprises, or all departments within one enterprise, or even all projects within a department. Cutter believes that the complexity of the business-technology issues confronting corporations today demands multiple detailed perspectives from which a company can view its opportunities and risks in order to make the right strategic and tactical decisions. The simplistic pronouncements other analyst firms make do not take into account the unique situation of each organization. This is another reason to present the several sides to each issue: to enable clients to determine the course of action that best fits their unique situation. For more information, contact Cutter Consortium at +1 781 648 8700 or sales@cutter.com.
  • 3. Business Enterprise Architecture Modeling ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE Executive Report, Vol. 8, No. 3 by Ken Orr, Senior Consultant, Cutter Consortium; in collaboration with Bill Roth and Ben Nelson We have to be very careful We think the primary reason Enterprise architecture, as its about making even small enterprise architecture has name implies, is all about high- changes in IT today because become so interesting is that, at level thinking and high-level they can impact the entire organization. some point during the past few design. IT and communications years, IT made a quantum leap have become so complex and so — Transportation into a new domain, a domain in interrelated in large organizations, Division Director which IT assets are increasingly and enterprise data has become important to the overall success so fundamental, that it is no All of a sudden, enterprise archi- (or failure) of large enterprises. longer possible to design, build, tecture (EA) is a very hot activity. Suddenly, people in large organi- and install major systems in isola- Most large enterprises today have zations around the world are dis- tion. Someone has to be thinking some sort of EA program, and bil- covering just how dependent they about the big picture, about how lions of dollars are being spent are on IT systems and IT infra- all the pieces fit together, because around the globe on enterprise structure as well as how inter- the big picture has become such architectures in order to help dependent all the various pieces a significant issue. organizations manage their vast of IT are with one another and IT expenditures and exposures in with users inside and outside the This Executive Report discusses a a more rational fashion. An inter- organization. Most importantly, new way of looking at enterprise esting question is, why now? Why people are seeing that IT enables architecture that encompasses is it that enterprise architecture is new things to be done, things that both advanced and traditional suddenly so hot? Why are enter- were not possible before. Once design concepts. The EA frame- prise architects in such demand? again, we see the truth behind work that we propose here is the old saw “The whole is greater called BEAM, short for Business than the sum of its parts.” Enterprise Architecture Modeling.
  • 4. 2 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE While this approach builds on been done to bring these three and value of their EA program. many of the historical enterprise different approaches into better This report is intended to address architecture frameworks, it is in alignment. While these three both of these audiences. many ways a different approach, approaches still represent three a much more business- and different views of what enterprise BEAM — AN EXTENDED data/information-driven strategy. architecture is about, there is EA FRAMEWORK greater consensus today about In a world of acronyms, adding THE THREE FACES OF how they complement each other. yet another is not likely to be ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE The Cutter report made a strong greeted with universal applause; Because of its newness in the case for business-driven enterprise however, acronyms do seem marketplace, there is confusion architecture as the key to the long- to help people remember and surrounding what enterprise term success of EA programs differentiate between different architecture is exactly and its regardless of whether the enter- approaches. We chose BEAM as value to business and IT manage- prise is public or private. In the an acronym because it captures ment. A recent Cutter Consortium time since the report was pub- the business-process orientation Executive Report [8] laid out the lished, the enterprise architecture that largely drives our strategy and major strategies for enterprise discipline has moved to reinforce because “physical beams” are architecture that are popular in this conviction. structural members of buildings North America.1 Those three and houses, so BEAM makes Enterprise architecture is now approaches are: sense in an architectural setting at a period of consolidation and as well. 1. Technology-driven enterprise reassessment. More and more architecture organizations are extracting value As with any good framework, from their EA programs at a vari- creating BEAM involved tying 2. Business (process)-driven ety of levels. These organizations together a number of different enterprise architecture are increasingly aware of how crit- ideas: mental models, proc- 3. Federal Enterprise Architecture ical enterprise architecture is to ess models, diagramming (FEA) their enterprises over both the approaches, and organizational short and long term. And there is strategies. Also, like any good Since that report was published, also a whole new set of organiza- methodology, much of BEAM is a great deal of practical work has tions that are just adopting enter- simply applied common sense. prise architecture and trying to We do not apologize for that fact. 1There are an increasing number of EA frame- put it into practice. Both of these Indeed, we have all been involved works being promoted and deployed around classes of users need guidance. the world. Many of these have decades of in business, systems, and technol- R&D behind them, as does BEAM. The three Those just getting started need ogy for quite a long time and, as approaches described here are the ones that advice on where to begin, what a result, have found things that have become increasingly popular in North America, and we believe in northern Europe kinds of skills they need, what work well in doing systems plan- as well, but this does not mean that we steps they should take, and so on. ning, requirements, and high-level have a full understanding of what all these approaches recommend or what their Those well underway need guid- design, and we have discovered strengths and weaknesses are. ance on how to extend the impact The Enterprise Architecture Advisory Service Executive Report is published by Cutter Consortium, 37 Broadway, Suite 1, Arlington, MA 02474-5552, USA. Tel: +1 781 641 9876 or, within North America, +1 800 492 1650; Fax: +1 781 648 1950 or, within North America, +1 800 888 1816; E-mail: service@cutter.com; Web site: www.cutter.com. Group Publisher: Kara Letourneau, E-mail: kletourneau@cutter.com. Production Editor: Linda M. Dias, E-mail: ldias@cutter.com. ISSN: 1530-3462. ©2005 by Cutter Consortium. All rights reserved. Unauthorized reproduction in any form, including photocopying, faxing, and image scanning, is against the law. Reprints make an excellent training tool. For information about reprints and/or back issues of Cutter Consortium publications, call +1 781 648 8700 or e-mail service@cutter.com. VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 5. EXECUTIVE REPORT 3 that these things also seem to communications infrastructure The Enterprise Systems work well in doing EA. and to its core (mission-critical) Feedback Model applications, can hinder as well as There are literally hundreds of But BEAM is no panacea; rather, facilitate management strategies ways of thinking about enter- it is a practical approach to doing and plans. Poor IT strategies can prises. The one underlying BEAM something very important. At create arthritic organizations just is the Enterprise Systems Feed- base, enterprise architecture is as it can create agile ones. back Model, which is derived about getting people — all sorts from cybernetics (systems think- of people — within the organiza- In the same sense that modern ing). The idea is that an enterprise tion to think in both broader and cities and nations depend upon can be thought of as a component longer terms about IT, IT infra- their fundamental infrastructure in a larger environment; what structures, and the core data and investments in utilities, transpor- the enterprise does is convert systems that IT supports. During tation, communications, and so resources from sources into the past 30 or 40 years, computers on, so too do large enterprises products and services for some and communications have played depend upon their IT infrastruc- given market or set of customers. a major part in restructuring most, ture investments. As a result, Figure 1 shows these components if not all, major organizations savvy management increasingly connected in such a feedback around the world. Today, organiza- realizes that it will have to invest structure. tions are now significantly differ- both wisely and well if it is going ent in the ways they operate and to be competitive in the 21st cen- In this model, the enterprise is are managed — much different tury. Enterprise architecture, then, represented as a black box that than they were just a decade or is a tool for leveraging technology takes in “resources” and produces two ago. Information no longer to make things happen faster and “products” or “services.” These just circulates within organiza- at less cost. products or services, in turn, are tions, it literally beams across used by customers or clients to the organization at light speed. THE ELEMENTS OF BEAM “do something” (that something Like any good approach to solving we refer to as “product usage”). But while computers and com- As a result of producing these munication have revolutionized large problems, BEAM involves several interrelated components. products and services, there is the way organizations operate, the also “product feedback,” which systems, connections, and hard- The most important of these com- ponents, discussed in detail in this deals with how well the product ware involved in this amazing meets its internal requirements, transformation are largely invisible section, are: and “customer (or usage) feed- to most who use it and even more A basic Enterprise Systems back,” which deals with how well invisible to those who make the Feedback Model (ESFM) the product meets the customer’s key decisions about how many expectations. If we were to apply resources should go into IT and A new way of considering business-technology alignment this model to the auto business, for what projects. for example, product feedback and innovation could be thought of as the “Six With the coming wave of ever An extension to the classic Sigma” (quality) part of the more powerful wireless devices, Zachman Framework model, and the customer (usage) the underlying IT infrastructure Treating the role of enterprise feedback might be referred to will be even harder to visualize. architect as a “committee as the “J.D. Power’s” (customer But IT, particularly as it relates of skills” relationship) part of the model. to an enterprise’s computer and ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 6. 4 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE ESFM brings two important ideas ESFM and FEA models without decisions back to critical business to the study of enterprise archi- any difficulty. decisions. tecture: (1) all enterprises are in business to “make something” or While the ESFM may seem too Benson and Parker’s Square simple for those who think of the Wheel: Business and Technology “provide some service,” and (2) Alignment and Innovation they survive by adding value. organization as a complex thing, it is useful for getting people to think A second conceptual model that One of the great things about of their organization as a system is extremely important to BEAM is the ESFM is that it works both in component itself. In a systems Bob Benson and Marilyn Parker’s the public and the private sector. feedback sense, IT is all about “square wheel” model [1]. Figure Later, when we discuss the US systems and infrastructure. If one 2 shows this model, with the left government FEA model, we will cannot understand how those sys- side of the diagram representing be able to show the necessary tems and infrastructure relate to the business domain, and the right correspondences between the the business goals and objectives, side representing the technologi- it is exceedingly difficult to tie IT cal or technology domain. In the business domain, there are two components: business planning Sources Enterprise/Agency and business operations. Similarly Market (Business Partners) (Customer/Client) in the technology domain, there products/ product are also two components: tech- resources nology planning and technology services usage operations. The square wheel gets its name from the sequence of product feedback linkages between these various components. customer (usage) feedback Between business planning and Figure 1 — The Enterprise Systems Feedback Model.2 business operations, there is the “organize” function. Between business operations and technol- ogy operations there is an “align” Impact Business Technology function. Between technology Planning Planning operations and technology plan- ning, there is the “opportunity” Organize Opportunity function. And, finally, between technology planning and business planning, there is the “impact” (innovation) function. Align Business Technology Operations Operations For the most part, technology management experts have focused almost exclusively on Figure 2 — Benson and Parker’s square wheel [1]. the organizing and aligning func- 2There are hundreds of examples of systems models in literature, but this model is adapted tions to bring business and IT directly from Improving Performance [11]. closer together. They tended to VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 7. EXECUTIVE REPORT 5 leave out the link between tech- their organizations via real-time (systems) but in the entire region nology operations and technology collaboration. And organizations (enterprise). Urban planners planning. It might have made will have to be increasingly “trans- develop long-range documents sense 20 or 30 years ago to have parent.” Their systems will have that promote the well-being and most of IT’s focus be on aligning to be documented and auditable. happiness of all the residents technology with the business as it New requirements like those (users). To do this, they create existed, but today, technology is imposed by the US Sarbanes- land-use plans, negotiate with changing the way business is Oxley Act focus increased scrutiny developers, and help set building done everywhere. Key initiatives, on the role that IT systems play codes (architectural standards) — even entire business market- in today’s management of large building architects do none of places, have been created in the organizations. these activities. In this regard, past 10 or 15 years that leverage urban planners do a great many new technologies to deliver Extending Zachman’s Framework things for cities and counties that goods and services in previously A previous Cutter Executive Report enterprise architects must do for unthinkable ways. [6] discussed the need to extend the enterprises and divisions if the Zachman Framework using they are to be successful. Benson and Parker have provided urban/transportation planning us, then, with an important new Transportation planners are rather than building architecture way of thinking about manage- involved in planning the most as the basic model for enterprise ment communication. One of important infrastructure in any architecture. This extension has the most difficult problems con- city or region — the highway/ proved extremely useful, both in fronting business and IT managers public transportation infrastruc- doing enterprise architecture and today is communication. Histor- ture that moves the region’s in explaining it to business and IT ically, in most organizations, top IT goods, services, and people. management. management has not always been That physical infrastructure is part of the highest-level business Recently, a number of other influ- both very expensive and very decision making. Benson and ential organizations have begun to difficult to put in place. Moreover, Parker’s square wheel shows just speak in similar terms. For exam- highways and light rail are how important including IT man- ple, Microsoft now refers to what extremely hard to modify once agement is and will be in making it calls its “Metropolis” metaphor they are constructed. So trans- decisions about the enterprise’s IT [5]. This model reflects a new portation planners must be assets — what systems to attack, thinking on the part of high-level exceedingly careful and detailed what technologies to invest in, enterprise architecture developers in their planning. Transportation and so on. and consultants. Similarly, Disney planners routinely look 20 or 30 has begun to speak of the “build- years into the future when think- Increasingly, organizations rely ing about major arterial roads, ing code metaphor” in which it on their IT infrastructure and intersections, and projects; like- refers to “master plans” and systems to produce value. In order wise, enterprise infrastructure “building codes” as the key to be competitive, public and pri- planners are going to have to plan elements [3]. vate organizations will have to further and further ahead. If enter- become much more agile. They We feel the urban/transportation prise architecture is to become a will need to continuously improve planner is a more realistic analogy mature discipline, it will have to their business processes, find the than a classic building architect. model itself after other mature right data to solve management Urban planners are interested disciplines like urban and trans- problems, and connect the right not just in individual buildings portation planning. In developing people both inside and outside ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 8. 6 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE the BEAM framework, we have Building architect skills period from the mid-1950s to the worked hard to create a frame- 1980s, for example, was domi- Librarian skills work that makes sense and that nated first by the development of parallels similar disciplines. The remainder of this section the interstate road system and examines each of these skill sets then by the “ring roads” that The BEAM Enterprise Architect: increasingly encircled major A “Committee of Skills” as they apply to BEAM. cities. These changes brought Architect (Gk. arkhitekton about profound revolutions in “head builder,” from Urban Planning Skills our cities and suburbs. Interstate arkhi- “head” + tekton The first set in the committee of roads funneled people further and “builder, carpenter.”) skills is urban planning. Urban further away from inner cities; and — Oxford Dictionary of planners work in an environment ring roads, in an attempt to allow English Etymology (Oxford in which they must try to reach a interstate traffic to bypass the University Press, 1966) consensus among several com- central cities, made high-speed, peting parties. Urban planning light-rail public transportation Increasingly, our work brings us involves working with developers, almost impossible, furthering the into contact with a wide variety of elected officials, and community deterioration of the central core. EA organizations — each different representatives to further the but with a similar set of problems entire community. As it turns out, So transportation planners have and constraints. One issue that this is much the same job that an enormous burden; they have continues to concern EA man- enterprise architects face every to be able to decide today where agers is determining the kind of day in the business-IT workplace. people and businesses will be personalities, skills, and training located decades from now. To do that are needed to do enterprise Urban planning skills involve this, they look at all the possible architecture work. planning, research, negotiation, information: economic data, and, most importantly, communi- demographic information, as well In putting together the BEAM cation. Planners must be technical as changes in technology and framework, we have come up enough to understand the dynam- lifestyle. with some clear ideas about roles ics of urban growth and decay and skills that are needed in an and sensitive enough to get war- In enterprise architecture, enter- EA group. What we have found, ring parties to sit down and nego- prise infrastructure architects take for example, is that the “complete tiate workable, economically on the same role as the trans- enterprise architect” doesn’t exist. viable solutions. Enterprise archi- portation planners. They must Rather, we concluded that there tects must be able to get user look at what IT infrastructure is a “committee of skills” that a management, IT management, exists today; try to imagine how rounded enterprise architecture and vendors to reach solutions and where people will be operat- team should contain. These that work in both the short and ing in the future; and then come skills include: long term. up with approaches that best Urban planning skills provide a communication and Transportation Planning Skills computer infrastructure that is Transportation planning skills both reliable and secure. To In real urban or regional environ- do this job well, enterprise infra- Building inspection skills ments, the highway engineers are structure architects must be good County agent skills often responsible for the most at detailed planning, but they profound changes. In the US, the must also be highly skilled at VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 9. EXECUTIVE REPORT 7 research, forecasting, and, again, an environment that has much County Agent Skills communication. more specific industry support. Between the end of the US Civil Because urban planning and War and the beginning of World Building Inspection Skills building code inspection have War I, agriculture in the US been around for decades, the In the world of urban planning/ changed dramatically. Before the rules and procedures are well zoning/building codes, it is the Civil War, American agriculture worked out. In addition, building building inspector who takes was basically on par with the rest codes are normally a reflection of on the role of enforcer. The build- of the world. However, by the industry standards, and, therefore, ing inspector is responsible for beginning of World War I, there are industry training classes reviewing plans, checking blue- American agriculture was clearly available to help practitioners. prints, and periodically visiting ahead of everyone else. Students For example, if you want to be a building sites to see that the plans of knowledge management credit licensed electrician or a licensed and all the requisite building this amazing leap forward to two plumber, you must attend specific codes are followed. major innovative programs: (1) classes and perform specific tasks the land-grant and (2) the county to get your license. Moreover, In enterprise architecture, the extension service/county agent. before you can be licensed, you enterprise project architects and must have served as an appren- As the name implies, land-grant enterprise project architecture tice for a period of time. With all colleges and universities came review teams play the role of of these standards in place, the into existence through an act of building inspector. In most mature building inspection department the US Congress, which allowed EA organizations, this process is does not have to assume respon- states to sell large blocks of pub- one of the key ways in which sibility for training practitioners; it licly owned land and earmark the enterprise architecture directly only has to monitor their work. monies obtained from these sales affects the long-term success of an enterprise’s IT management. for funding colleges and universi- The enterprise architecture Since enterprise architecture is ties devoted to research and situation is quite different. EA seen in many organizations as a teaching in the practical arts, standards and regulations are technology-control function, this is especially agriculture and engi- still evolving at a rapid rate, and, not that surprising. In the better neering. Some of the greatest because there are few people in EA groups, this inspection proc- universities in the country were the organization that understand ess is pushed further and further created as land-grant schools those standards and regulations, down in the organization, so that (e.g., Ohio State University, training, counseling, and men- the people who understand the Texas A&M, and Kansas State toring are especially important local environment are also the University). These schools con- issues. And while there is a cer- ones charged with ensuring that ducted research in agriculture, tain amount of knowledge transfer individual projects meet enter- pioneering such breakthroughs as that takes place as a result of prise standards. hybrid seeds, new animal breed- project-review sessions, in the ing techniques, and new pest con- long haul, enterprise architecture One of the material differences trol strategies. This led to huge will fail to take hold in most between enterprise project amounts of information to help organizations unless significant architects and building inspec- farmers and ranchers produce up-front training is provided. tors in the real world is that more at less cost. building inspectors operate in ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 10. 8 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE But the research produced by to use those standards and rules. issues that play a part in the land-grant colleges did not auto- Like farmers and ranchers, devel- failure of very large projects. I dis- matically change farming in the opers are also practical people cussed the essential role a real, US. At the time, many farmers with little time to spare. Hands-on competent project architect plays, were illiterate, and even if they training helps people understand or should play, on these projects. had been of the mindset to try how to leverage enterprise archi- I argued that, in the real world, new things, few were aware tecture ideas, and mentoring links building architects do the design of the availability of new research that information to real-world and then stay with their projects information. This is where the circumstances. over the entire length of a given county extension service and the construction cycle. Here we rec- county agent came into play. Over the past few years, we have ommend that enterprise project been promoting the “enterprise architects do the same — that The county extension service was architect as county agent.” This they be responsible for detail created by the US Department of idea has met with nearly unani- requirements and design and then Agriculture to provide technical mous interest and support. More be charged with quality control support for farmers and ranchers. and more organizations are com- and change control of those In turn, the county extension ser- ing to understand that for enter- designs. vice created the position of county prise architecture to take root in agent, whose job was to review an organization, there needs to Throughout history, building the research coming out of the be more than just EA project codes and design standards have land-grant colleges, internalize review and audit sessions. People almost always been the result of that information, and then take need to know why and how these disasters. One only has to think it out and demonstrate it to the standards came into being and of the famous 1906 San Francisco farmers and ranchers. This proved how to use them in the most earthquake and fire or the to be amazingly successful. Most efficient and practical ways. Tacoma Narrows Bridge disaster farmers and ranchers of that time in 19403 to see the point. Indeed, were very practical people (as Building Architect Skills in one issue of the Society of they are now), with little time to Mechanical Engineers publication, spare. County agents brought the In BEAM’s committee of enter- there was a discussion of the information to them and showed prise architecture skills, the skills organization’s history, and it them how to use whatever it of a true building architect are turned out that the organization was that the latest research still necessary. In the real world came into being as a direct result recommended. of large-scale construction, build- of boilers blowing up and trestles ing architects are responsible for falling down during the latter part Today, county agents would be working with owners/developers, of the 19th century. As a result classified as mentors or field con- coming up with detailed plans, of these disasters, engineering sultants. Their job in enterprise and then staying with the project societies were formed, and architecture is to take plans, stan- throughout the construction, being politicians set up rules that dards, and rules to the individual responsible for quality and change included professional testing and developers and users and to control. This is a role for which licensing. Something similar will explain and demonstrate them. there is a direct correlation in In general, this means communi- enterprise architecture, especially 3On 7 November 1940, the Tacoma Narrows cating the following: (1) the stan- on large projects. Bridge, a suspension bridge, collapsed due to wind-induced vibrations. Situated on the dards and rules; (2) the reasons Tacoma Narrows in Puget Sound, near the for those standards; and (3) how In a recent Cutter Executive city of Tacoma, Washington, USA, the bridge Report [7], I described several had been open to traffic for only four months. VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 11. EXECUTIVE REPORT 9 eventually happen with software, The Committee of Skills in Operation 3. Data/information/content but until that occurs, the closest architecture In operation, our committee of thing we have is training and skills may take several different 4. Application architecture certification. forms. In a large organization, 5. Technology architecture4 each skill set may end up being Librarian Skills a separate section of an overall EA For small organizations, a high- The final set of skills that we rec- group. In this kind of environment, level version is usually sufficient to ommend as being important for a people tend to specialize by their give them enough information to serious EA group is that of a clas- specific roles. In turn, people with do their IT planning and manage- sic librarian. People who study unique skills get classified into ment. For large organizations, library science learn a number of specific jobs. BEAM has two major phases: a important things: how to analyze high-level version followed by a In small organizations, individuals information, how to classify that number of lower-level architec- often wear more than one hat. For information, and how to help tures for each major part (busi- instance, an enterprise architect in people retrieve information from ness area) of the business. a small group may have to play a large organized store. the role of urban planner one day This may appear somewhat con- In this world of information and building inspector the next. fusing at first. What we do is use overload, being able to analyze, Or he or she may have to be infra- the process in Figure 3 first to do a index, and retrieve huge amounts structure planner one day and high-level “enterprise” version of of information is increasingly county agent the next. In small our enterprise architecture (only important. For more than a organizations, circumstances about 10 to 15 diagrams) and decade, IT professionals have pur- define what has to be done, so then, depending on the organiza- sued the idea of reuse, but reuse flexibility is a must. tion, develop lower-lever versions has proved largely elusive. Part of by “business area.” In practice, Enterprise architecture is such a the reason is that while the exact these business-area EAs typically new field that it will be some time component that we might need evolve out of day-long joint appli- before we have enough experi- in a given circumstance already cation development (JAD) ses- ence to know exactly what the exists, finding it can be a major sions with 15 to 25 users. At the roles and responsibilities will look undertaking; if people think that end of this second cycle with the like. Until that time, the commit- finding something will take too business areas, we have found it tee of skills is a good way to think long, they are more likely to build necessary to go back and rework about how we staff and manage their own. the enterprise-level version enterprise architecture. as well. Currently, enterprise architecture breaks down into business, data/ THE BEAM PROCESS In each of the following sections, information, application, and tech- BEAM is a systematic approach the same general framework nology domains. Each of these for developing enterprise archi- shown in Figure 3 is used to domains requires skills for which tecture for any size organization. drive the activity. librarians are trained. Over the It involves the following five 4The first four architectures here represent a next few years, we expect to see major phases: classic way of looking at enterprise architec- increased demand for these skills ture. Recently, we have been working to in enterprise architecture groups. 1. Strategic intentions bring yet another development/integration/ maintenance/migration architecture into the 2. Business architecture picture as well. ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 12. 10 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE Strategic Strategic diagrams such as the one shown Intentions Intentions in Figure 4. These diagrams show Business Business u iness B Architecture the major organizational units, Context Co ntext business partners, and systems Business Value connected by arrows that repre- Business sent the messages (transactions, Process documents). These diagrams Data provide a quick, easily under- Architecture standable map of the primary Application interactions between parts of the Architecture organization and its business part- Technology ners. The development of a good Architecture business context diagram pro- Figure 3 — The BEAM approach. vides a consistent framework for thinking about an organization’s inputs, outputs, and outcomes. Strategic Intentions intentions are normally updated as a result of interviews with top In practice, more than one work- The first step of BEAM, gathering executives and facilitated sessions ing context diagram is often pro- strategic intentions, involves with executive committees. duced. And although it often takes understanding the general direc- more than one session to produce tion of the enterprise as seen by Business Architecture an enterprise context diagram all top management, taking into The next major step in BEAM participants can agree upon, the account external forces. In an involves developing the business effort helps to create a shared ideal world, enterprise architec- architecture. Of the four major understanding of the flow of infor- ture operates with a full-blown, enterprise architecture compo- mation within the enterprise. One three-to-five-year enterprise strate- nents, the business architecture of the most significant benefits of gic plan. In those organizations is by all measures the most criti- the context-diagramming process where such a plan does not exist cal, since it ties the basic and is that it allows everyone involved or where such plans cannot be advanced business functions to to express their knowledge and to divulged, IT planners must derive the other pieces of the enterprise reach a common understanding what they see as the organiza- architecture. Within BEAM, busi- of how the pieces of the organi- tion’s strategic intentions from ness architecture is made up of zation communicate with one their perception of top man- three subareas: another and with outside entities. agement’s direction over time, Business context diagrams also including such items as budgets 1. Business context provide a starting point for the and changes in organizational business value maps and business structure as well as any explicit 2. Business value maps process diagrams. initiatives. 3. Business processes Over the long haul, it is possible to Business Value Maps Business Context come up with a reasonable set of A process can be seen as a strategic intentions by looking at A key subprocess within the “value chain.” By its contri- other similar-sized organizations business architecture step is the bution to the creation or in similar industries. Strategic delivery of a product or creation of one or more context service, each step in a VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 13. EXECUTIVE REPORT 11 job request proposal order Customer complaints Sales delivery date estimate customer shipment invoice Estimating vendor shipment job spec Receiving receipt notice P.O. P.O. forecast product prices Production order Purchasing Vendor production schedule purchase request vendor Scheduling Inventory payment inventory status production report Control inventory status production schedule time cards Production time cards payroll checks Payroll Employee material costs payroll j/e production report cust inv j/e Billing G/L System P.O. cust payment j/e A/P vendor invoice purchasing j/e credits invoice A/R and Sales Cost Accounting material j/e customer payment Accounting G/L report Management P/L management reports Figure 4 — A business context diagram. process should add value Firm Infrastructure to the preceding steps. Supporting HR Management — Geary A. Rummler and Activities R&D Alan P Brache, Improving . Procurement Performance [11, p. 45] Operations and Sales Outbound Marketing Logistics Logistics The business value map can Inbound Service be traced back to the work of Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School. In 1980, Porter published the first of a set of diagrams that he called business Primary value diagrams (see Figure 5) Activities [10]. The most important feature of the diagrams was the idea that Figure 5 — Michael Porter’s business value diagram [10]. all enterprises have (1) a set of primary activities that are the fundamental value-adding and/or services and (2) a set of for the primary activities (e.g., processes by which enterprises supporting activities that provide finance, HR, procurement, produce their sets of products resources and management budgeting, IT management). ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 14. 12 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE What is most important to get We consider such a process underlying truth within busi- right in developing a business canonical because a value map nesses of all kinds. Earlier, value map is the set and like this is common in many areas Henry Ford took this idea of sequence of the primary activities. of large-scale construction (e.g., work sequencing and created the In Figure 5, the primary activities buildings, airports, terminals) as assembly line, which was simply a are taken from what Porter con- well as for highways. Since such different way of executing busi- siders the basic sequence within process models are so common ness processes so that individual, a manufacturing organization: in the way architects and engi- specialized groups could work on inbound logistics, operations, out- neers think about the overall exe- what they were good at while the bound logistics, marketing and cution of their projects, it is not assembly line moved the work sales, and, finally, service. Porter’s at all surprising to find that many from organization (workstation) insight in thinking of organizations construction organizations are to organization. as input/output processes allowed organizationally structured into many organizations, for the first separate planning, design, con- Recently, the success of orga- time, to look at their operations struction, operations, and mainte- nizations like the Supply-Chain from the very highest level and to nance divisions. Council5 with its SCOR model has see not only their organizations’ reinforced the idea of canonical internal functions flow, but also The canonical construction model business processes. SCOR, how their organizations fit into an can be further extended to deal which stands for Supply-Chain even larger business context — a with utilities whose job it is to Operations Reference-model, has supply chain. build (construct) and operate net- five major processes: planning, works. In such models, the plan- sourcing, making, delivering, This simple but elegant way of ning, design, and construction can and returning. Using just these representing complex businesses be thought of as the “build-out of processes, SCOR has been able to touched off a flurry of business the network,” and the “opera- fashion an entire framework for reengineering processes in the tions” can be considered (1) the analyzing, measuring, and improv- 1980s and 1990s. With the advent part that deals with connecting ing a large organization’s supply of the Internet, it also provided the customer to the network and chain management. an intellectual and engineering (2) customer service that provides basis for developing e-business the service and then bills and Business value maps are exceed- and e-government applications collects for that service. ingly important as a guide for on the Web. understanding an organization’s All large organizations develop business framework. Figure 6, for Over the years, it has become some sort of fundamental canoni- example, shows the business increasingly clear that what Porter cal business process based on value map for a transportation actually described was only one of the natural “break points” in their agency. The items in gray refer to a number of “canonical business business activities. This allows the the primary activities, while those processes” — value chains that organization to subdivide the work in black refer to the supporting are shared by organizations in the naturally so that, for example, the activities. same business or business area. planning, design, and construction For example, a canonical business units can work independently of The business value map is a map process (primary activities) for a one another with well-defined of the entire IT landscape for the highway construction organization interfaces. might be as follows: planning → 5The Supply-Chain Council is an organization design → construction → Porter’s business value chains made up of supply chain managers from operations/maintenance. have simply rediscovered an some of the world’s largest enterprises. VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 15. EXECUTIVE REPORT 13 enterprise. It has proven espe- Administrative Management cially useful in distinguishing between primary business activi- IT Management ties and sporting ones. One of the HR Management uses we’ve made of the business value map is adding overlays to Financial Management show the major applications or Supporting (Financial, HR, IT) Assets the major data classes for the enterprise. (See sidebar “Using Program/Project/Contract Management Business Value Maps.”) Preconstruction Construction Maintenance Real-Time Business Processes Operations An organization is only as Planning effective as its processes. Local Support (Public, Transit, Aviation, Other) — Improving Performance [11, p. 45] Research and Laboratories Business processes are the heart Safety of large organizations. Business Transportation Infrastructure Assets processes are the way things get done. There’s a push today for organizations to formalize and Figure 6 — A business value map for a transportation organization. USING BUSINESS VALUE MAPS Like any good map, a business value map provides an overall way of looking at the territory — in this case, the whole enter- prise. What makes this map useful is that it continuously ties enterprise architecture components (applications, data classes, etc.) to the business itself. These maps have no technological bias, and they allow people unfamiliar with the enterprise to have a quick look at what it does and what it produces. In practice, we usually place an organization’s business value map as the first or second thing in our enterprise business documentation. The business value map fits neatly within our Enterprise Systems Feedback Model (ESFM) as well. Recently, we have begun to reinterpret business value and systems feedback diagrams in light of the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) initiative. In FEA, a series of reference models are used, including: Performance Reference Model (PRM) Business Reference Model (BRM) Service Component Reference Model (SRM) Data Reference Model (DRM) Technical Reference Model (TRM) From a business architecture standpoint, PRM and BRM are by far the most important. Using the ESFM and the business value map, we have been able to link the ESFM and FEA frameworks directly (see Figure A). (Sidebar continues on next page.) ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 16. 14 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE USING BUSINESS VALUE MAPS (continued) This is quite useful for those in the government sphere using the FEA framework. As you can see in Figure A, BRM is broken down into the following four major areas that have been developed to categorize the various business processes that go on within the public government sector: 1. Services for citizens 2. Mode of delivery 3. Support structure for delivery of services 4. Management of government resources Based on the underlying business value concepts of primary activities and supporting activities, it was a straightforward exercise to identify “services for citizens” and “mode of delivery” as primary activities, and “support delivery of services” and “management of government resources” as support activities. This in turn allows us to provide an even stronger linkage between the BEAM and the FEA frameworks. By bringing the BEAM and FEA PRM/BRM frameworks together, it has been possible to go even further and to map the major components within FEA’s BRM into the appropriate spots. There is a strong need to move BRM from a taxonomy to a set of solution templates. Government General Relations Legislative Public Affairs Development Regulatory Collection Revenue Resource Planning and Management Risk Oversight Controls and Administrative Management IT Management HR Management t Management of Government Budget Su por Structure Suppor t st ructure for Delivery of Services Support Deliv y of Services Delivery Resources (Support Activities) (Delivery of Services — Supporting Activities) (Delivery of –Supporting Ac tivities) Support Structure for Delivery of Services Financial Assets/Supply Chain (Delivery Services —Supporting Activities) Reporting Federal Regulatory and Compliance Federal Pass thru- Regulatory Compliance Public Goods Creation and Delivery Knowledge Creation and Delivery Direct Service to Citizen Credit and Insurance Financial Assistance Infrastructure Economic Resources Workforce Support Education Services Ser ices itiz ns CCitizens e End End Results Re lts s Community and Social Services Health Natural Resources Environmental Services of Citizens Corrections (Primary Activities) Mode of Delivery Judicial Legal (Delivery of Services — Law Enforcement Primary Activities) Inputs Outputs Ou tcomes Outcomes BRM PRM Figure A — Integrating BRM components into the business value map. rethink major business processes. architecture, which starts with business processes — canonical One of the ways that enterprise business processes. business processes. This section architecture can have the biggest is more about modeling detailed immediate impact is by focusing As you probably noticed, much of business processes. What we are more attention on the business the discussion in the section on going to do here is talk about business value maps centered on something called “swimlane VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 17. EXECUTIVE REPORT 15 Customer shipment Accept invoice Goods Order Entry preapproved? Order Entry Yes preapproved credit No Credit Manager entered order Check approved order Credit Sales Manager shipping notice Allocate Shop Ship Goods Accounting billing notice Bill payment Accept Customer Payment Customer Service Product Management Figure 7 — Swimlane diagram of a sales order fulfillment process. diagrams,” a form of documenting is most important about a busi- as their standard approach. This business processes first publicized ness process diagram is that the diagramming form has become by Rummler and Brache [11]. general activities and the value something of a standard in the Figure 7 shows a swimlane chain are captured. business-process world, and diagram of a straightforward sales there are many tools that support order fulfillment process. All large organizations, and many developing and maintaining small and medium-sized ones, them. We have also found that These swimlane diagrams capture have considerable business using swimlane diagrams helps several essential business process process documentation that has people think more creatively components: roles, activities, deci- accumulated over the years. about how work gets done in their sions, and workflow. In a sense, Procedures, regulations, and organizations. these business process diagrams work rules exist everywhere. are simply augmented flowcharts Unfortunately, in most organiza- In context diagrams, the actors — exactly like those flowcharts tions there is no common form of are normally the ones that users used in programming but with a business process documentation. come up with in our dialogue. For few additions. These additions, it Some business process documen- example, when developing con- turns out, are extremely impor- tation exists in the form of tradi- text diagrams, most participants tant. Within business process tional flowcharts, some exists in in BEAM sessions usually refer to modeling, it is extremely impor- the form of structured text, and the organizational units or the job tant to identify who does the work some exists in the form of deci- positions that they are most famil- and when. That is where the con- sion tables. iar with, so that is what we use cept of “role” comes into play. on the initial context diagrams. While there are obviously a num- But by the time we get to creating Roles represent the key logical ber of ways that organizations swimlane diagrams, we frequently actors in a business process. As have documented business segue from the actors that users in the case of context diagrams, processes in the past, we know to roles that more correctly roles can be individuals, while suggest that organizations con- organizations are systems. What sider using swimlane diagrams (Text continues on page 18.) ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 18. 16 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE ENTERPRISE DATA ARCHITECTURE MODELS AND BUSINESS SEMANTICS For some time, we have been basing our systems development on a set of basic business semantic categories that come out of our business context and business process modeling. The primary categories are actors/roles, messages, objects/subjects, and events. Armed with an understanding of these categories, a skilled modeler can in fact read the various data character- istics directly from a context diagram. To make this clearer, in Figure A we have taken a business context diagram and made the actors gray, the messages black lines, and the objects/subjects black. We have found that, for the most part, these same semantics carry over into our enterprise data models. Figure B, for exam- ple, shows an entity-relationship diagram for the same business domain. One thing that has gone somewhat unnoticed and unremarked is that enterprise modeling and application modeling are not the same thing. Most of the tools that we have for enterprise modeling were adapted from application modeling, but the size and scope of enterprise modeling require diagramming techniques and tools that are more flexible, capable of much more sophisticated leveling, and able to show time-related change. Suppliers Business Domain Customers values to other counties Other Counties values from other counties boundary information Division of Taxing Entities distributed funds state abstract 2 tax entity budget Property Valuation state abstract 1 tax valuations by tax entity initial state assessed values mill levy real estate value Deed transfer request Title/Mortgage County Clerk real estate tax unit tax notice Owner/Taxpayer Treasurer Company Deed transfer approval fees tax warrent certified values tax bill changes approved plat plat proposal plat proposal proposal owner info tax unit info tax appeal decision building permit Approved deed transfer tax appeal Register of Appraiser sales questionnaire (aka Cert of Value) notice of assessed value (NOAV) lien Deeds deed or changes Lienholders deed or changes deed or changes permit application permits Planning and Development plat changes Developer Public Works permit inspection Competitors Personal Real inspection Division of Motor Property Estate checklist Vehicles (DMV) Parcel Figure A — Enterprise business context diagram with semantic categories highlighted. (Sidebar continues on next page.) VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 19. EXECUTIVE REPORT 17 ENTERPRISE DATA ARCHITECTURE MODELS AND BUSINESS SEMANTICS (continued) Our feeling is that, over time, enterprise architecture will evolve new classes of diagramming and documenting techniques that are more appropriate for architectural work. Historically, all of the diagramming techniques in common use across IT, such as classic business modeling techniques (context, workflow, ERD, and data structure models), as well as OO tech- niques, such as UML versions 1.0 and 2.0, were adapted from systems and programming uses. For the most part, BEAM uses modified classic business modeling diagrams because they have proved better suited to communicating directly with business management and users, whereas many UML techniques seem aimed at communicating with technical people, particularly developers. But even the best classic business modeling techniques still leave a great deal to be desired with respect to enterprise mod- eling. Our expectation is that over the next decade, there will be enormous developments in this area as enterprise archi- tects and EA tool vendors work to model the entire enterprise. Address Note is contained in County is a contains refers to contains refers to Tax Payer Improvement History Parcel have may has History refers to refers to is referenced by is contained in Taxing refers to Parcel receive contains Entity may have has has has associated with may have Deed refers to owns Party Responsible Assessed submits defines identified by owned by for Tax Payments may be part of ownership is assigned Value is submitted by defines refers to relates to Property establishes maintains is defined by Intere st calc from Tax Payer/ used to calc Owner submit Mill calc from Tax Entity Special State used to set Certified Levy used to set Budget Assessments Assessment calc from has loan from Value used to set specific to submitted by receive is established by NOAV associated with used to calc has loaned sent has Appeal resolution Mortgage calc from resolves Company has calc from relates to Tax Bill Tax Year based on may trigger used in Tax Appeal may trigger triggered by has Decision triggered by refers to may trigger receives may be triggered by sent to may be triggered by makes Tax Payment Tax Notice Tax Warrent Tax Sale receives from may trigger may be triggered by mad goe may trigger Tax made up of Collection goes into goes into is made up of Tax distributed to Distribution Figure B — Enterprise data architecture (entity-relationship) model with semantic categories highlighted. ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 20. 18 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE (Text continued from page 15.) waste of valuable time, money, architecture. Starting in the 1960s, capture the functional represen- and, most importantly, knowl- developers became aware that tation that is taking place. Often- edge. Due to the aging workforce, the same data was being used times, we will find the same role a large percentage of current in multiple applications. Order being performed by two different employees will be retiring within entry, shipping, and billing sys- actors in a business scenario. In a short time period; having a tems all relied on the same a large organization, for example, central repository of understand- customer and product data. This a role often will be significant able, up-to-date business process recognition led to the first data- enough that a full-time position documentation is an enormous base management systems will be associated with it; whereas business asset. (DBMSs). If organizations could in a small organization, the same reduce the data redundancy, then Data/Information Architecture many systems problems could be position (e.g., Accounting Clerk III) may handle three or four The fundamental value of a eliminated and new applications different roles. legacy IS (system) is buried could be built more rapidly. in its data, not in its functions or code. DBMSs have been one of the great In business-process analysis, there are typically several different success stories of IT. They allow — Michael Brodie and kinds of business process models: Michael Stonebraker, programmers to focus on pro- “as is” models, which describe, as Migrating Legacy gramming and to leave the physi- closely as possible, how the busi- Systems [2, p. 89] cal storage, indexing, and retrieval ness operates today; and “to be” of information to the database Data6 is the crown jewel of our IT management software. But even models, which describe alterna- assets. Our organization’s data is as powerful and successful as tive approaches. also the most stable infrastructure. DBMSs have been, different sys- As a result of our work in enter- While hardware and programs tems in different organizations, prise architecture during the past change, data tends to persist. In even those that use the same few years, we’ve come to believe many cases, our data structures fundamental data, have had a ten- that a major role of an enterprise still look much the same as they dency to drift apart. Moreover, cer- architecture group is to encourage did 10 or 20 years ago. This is tain systems focused on different the creation of business process especially true in stable organiza- data, which meant that integration models for all portions of the tions that sell the same product of data across the enterprise was enterprise. In addition, it is impor- year after year or do the same at best a difficult undertaking. tant to create an enterprise archi- function/job year after year. Even tecture repository that serves as a after we convert one system to Looking back, it is clear now that library for future business process another, if the function remains data warehousing was one of the analysis, since every time a large the same, much of the data is first true “enterprise architectural organization starts a new initiative, carried over from one system to solutions.” Data warehousing was each new team invariably goes the next. an enterprise solution because back and studies what the organi- its function was to bring together Data is also the most flexible data from disparate data sources zation currently does. Document- component of our enterprise across the enterprise to produce ing these processes takes a great deal of time and creates a body of a unique enterprise view of knowledge that is extremely use- 6Throughout this section, we use “data” to information that was unavailable include all the sorts of information, content, at any other level [4]. ful but is often thrown away after and multimedia that are stored in a modern the project is completed. This is a organization. VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 21. EXECUTIVE REPORT 19 Data warehousing also made it whole new class of product [9]. interest in three-tier applications, possible to create integrated sets So instead of just focusing on Web services, and SOAs. But, like of data from a variety of data data management, people are most things, application architec- sources without disturbing the starting to build views of data/ ture is far bigger than any current sources themselves. The data information/content architectures. technology strategy, even one warehousing infrastructure was as promising as SOA. Indeed, a template that could be used in However, the data/information/ there is no end to technology a number of different situations. content we see internally is but a architectures. Already, as SOA Today, data warehousing and data small piece of the information that implementations are becoming mart environments are utilized in people are utilizing to do their more common, people are tens of thousands of business work today. With search engines beginning to talk about grid intelligence applications across like Google and Yahoo, managers architectures. all business markets. and workers in organizations everywhere have access to While it’s true that application Over the past 10 or 15 years, the literally billions of data sources. architecture is bigger than any amount of different types of infor- Indeed, the next generation of one of these individual architec- mation that needs to be managed Web applications and Web ser- tural styles, a great deal can be has grown significantly. Instead vices seems to depend heavily on learned from our recent experi- of just managing the “structured new and more powerful search ences with, in this case, three-tier data” in their mainline applica- capabilities and semantics to help architectures. Perhaps the best tions, IT organizations everywhere them locate what they need. book on application architecture are involved in managing COTS is Brodie and Stonebraker’s data, data warehouses, GIS data, Finally, data architecture plays a Migrating Legacy Systems [2]. In CADD drawings, documents/ large role in fashioning the next this book, the authors address images, photographs, e-mail, generation of service-oriented what we believe to be the most attachments, Web content, and architecture (SOA) applications. important problem in application multimedia. In this new environment, presen- architecture — maintaining and tation, business logic, and data migrating large systems over long Just as we learned how to inte- exist in different layers. Over the periods of time. This is perhaps grate structured data from different next few years, we predict an not so surprising, given that Brodie sources during the late 1980s and increasing emphasis on simplify- has spent the better part of his early 1990s to create data ware- ing and rationalizing corporate career working in an industry that houses, new classes of applica- data into a smaller number of prides itself on seamless upgrad- tions are being built today that “systems of record” that become ing of one of the world’s most integrate data of different types. the corporate repositories for key complex networks — the tele- Two major classes of these data assets. We will discuss this phone network. applications stand out: Web-based idea further in the next section on portals and GIS applications. application architecture. The following quotes from Brodie Organizations are now beginning and Stonebraker about legacy sys- to think of the total set of infor- Application Architecture tems are particularly relevant: mation on computers as an During the past decade, applica- enterprise asset that can be “A legacy information system is tion architecture has probably any information system that sig- integrated in ways that not only been the most discussed of all change the way people work but nificantly resists modification the four major architectures. This and evolution.” [2, p. 3] also, in many cases, create a has been in part because of the ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 22. 20 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE “Your legacy systems keep run, to bring the key or core sys- business rule/application, your business from staying tems of an organization under a and data layers. on top.” [2, p. 3] common and maintainable struc- 2. Semi-decomposable — ture (i.e., to have a “migration “Legacy systems maintenance those where only the strategy” for every mission-critical monopolizes your time and presentation/interface layer IT application). In the end, archi- money.” [2, p. 4] is truly separable. In practice, tectural investments are about the this means that the application The reason these ideas are so big things, and, as far as applica- and database layers are tightly important for application archi- tion architecture is concerned, coupled. tecture in the 21st century is that the biggest things are the major legacy systems represent such a systems. From our standpoint, 3. Non-decomposable — those huge portion of an organization’s anything that runs is legacy. in which none of the major IT assets as well as its invest- components can be cleanly Much of what Brodie and decoupled from one another. ments. Therefore, the long-term Stonebraker lay down as their goal of a well-formed application fundamental concepts mirror Of these three types of legacy architecture is not just to use the what others have been suggesting systems, the decomposable ones latest architectural ideas on our for some time in terms of dividing are the easiest to migrate (replat- new systems but, over the long applications into three layers: the form). We don’t really recom- presentation layer, the business mend migrating legacy systems to rule layer, and the data layer. anyone who’s charged with think- ing about application architecture Brodie and Stonebraker’s inter- for the future. Too often, in an faces, applications, and database attempt to solve a major problem, Foreign ISs End Users services (see Figure 8) described people become enamored of a in the following quote correspond new style of development that directly to the three-tier presenta- will suddenly free them from tion, business rule, and data layers: having to worry about long-term maintenance and long-term evolu- System Interfaces User Interfaces The best architecture for tion of their applications. Reading migration purposes is a decomposable structure, in Brodie and Stonebraker’s book which the interfaces, appli- will provide you with a great deal cations, and database ser- of insight into how your organiza- vices can be considered as tion ought to be thinking about Application Modules the state components with building truly decomposable well-defined interfaces. [2, p. 15] applications. Database Services Brodie and Stonebraker found In the development of large-scale that legacy systems fall into the applications, critical design deci- following three categories: sions involve interfaces. We feel that good systems have a com- 1. Decomposable — those mon anatomy (i.e., they come Databases that come apart at the apart at the same places). If our presentation/interface, organizations are going to take Figure 8 — Brodie and Stonebraker’s advantage of new technologies, decomposable applications [2]. VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 23. EXECUTIVE REPORT 21 they need to pay attention to this make decisions now that would Good technology architecture anatomy, they need to have their be good for all time — but that should closely reflect the busi- best people working on modular never happens. For instance, ness, data, and application archi- design, and they need to enforce market leaders change over time. tectures that have already been that modularity through their Some of them fail to keep up with discussed. In the real world, tech- architecture standards and review. technology; some of them fail to nology architectures should also keep up with business trends. reflect the migration of technolo- SOA is a good thing. It attempts No one prevails forever. gies. Since no technology lasts to build systems out of cleanly forever, enterprise architects defined modules with cleanly Industry standards reflect a desire must plan for the day that various defined interfaces. But it is not of businesses and their vendors technologies disappear. magic. SOA only works when peo- to lay out the basic interfaces ple pay attention not only to the between products in ways that Technology architecture requires rules but also to the reasons for will minimize obsolescence. planning. Unless IT management their existence. Like a good data- Unfortunately, industry standards takes an active role in deciding base design, good application often lag technology and in many which technologies to invest in design follows patterns, and cases reflect either unrealized and which to eliminate, the result those patterns are ultimately a wishes or a means of protecting will be chaos. Technologies tend reflection of the business that is existing product investments into to accumulate. Even if there’s being automated. the future. only one application in an entire IT organization that uses some Technology Architecture Organizational strategies change 30-year-old technology, if it is a as market leaders and industry mission-critical application, it will On one hand, technology architec- standards change. They also not go into retirement easily. ture is the most complicated of all change as market conditions in the architectures; on the other their business arena shift. The BEAM has several techniques for hand, it is the simplest. It is com- technology architectures that managing technology change plicated because there are so make the most sense then are along with business change, many products — both hardware those that reflect the system’s including “weather radar charts.” and software — that can go into a anatomy (introduced in the previ- Real weather radars in the US given application. It is vastly sim- ous section). During the past 20 Midwest show that new things plified because in a given environ- years, IT has moved from main- (fronts, storms, etc.) generally ment, the choices are always frames to client-server to the come in from the West and leave limited. There are no perfect tech- Internet/three-tier applications. toward the East. One day when nologies, and there are no tech- Companies such as Google we were trying to get people to nologies that are done evolving. are pioneering a whole new range think about long-term technology Large organizations seek safety of technology based on massively planning, we came up with the in a variety of strategies: market parallel grid computing. In addi- idea of a weather radar chart that leaders, industry standards, and tion, IT is about to undergo a extended out in time as opposed organizational strategies. All of massive sea change based on to space. What would happen if these are subject to change. It converting an increasing number we laid out our technology plans would be wonderful if, somehow, of applications to wireless devices over multiple years (0-10) for it were possible to “futureproof ” and wireless networks. new things, as well as for retiring our technology decisions — to things? This would help people to ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 24. 22 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE think further into the future. Figure garage or attic. Unless someone Since enterprise architecture 9 shows such a chart containing consciously starts thinking about touches nearly every part of the both technology (data warehous- how to get rid of them, technolo- organization and every kind of ing, wireless, telematics, etc.) and gies, like rarely used applications, technology, the possible value demographic (aging workforce) stick around. categories are broad. However, issues. enterprise architecture is espe- ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE cially important for a number of While these charts are fairly sim- VALUE CATEGORIES major value categories, including: ple, they are effective in helping Enterprise architecture is new, Business-IT alignment people think about the future. In and some people question the most organizations, three years Support for business initiatives value of anything new. Common is a long way out, but in IT, questions include: Why do we Strategic IT planning three years comes before you need to do this now; after all, know it. We consider these IT project management we’ve been getting along fine charts early-warning devices that without it all these years, haven’t IT asset management help people think out loud about we? Why are we spending so things that they would rather, for much time thinking about the This section discusses each of one reason or another, ignore. future; why don’t we just do these categories in detail. what everybody else is doing? Equally important are the things These are questions that need to Improved Business-IT Alignment that we are trying to make go be answered, so we thought it The overriding goal of IT is to away. We have found in organiza- would be useful to address the support business uses and users. tion after organization that tech- values associated with enterprise Historically, IT applications nologies pile up, like stuff in your architecture. focused on supporting individual business areas. Over time, these individual, localized systems have been interfaced with dozens incoming issues outgoing issues (sometimes hundreds) of other 5-10 3-5 0-3 0-3 0-3 3-5 5-10 systems. This has made systems Data Warehousing Data Warehousing Wareho sing more powerful and allowed orga- nizations to combine information GIS/GPS GIS/GPS from multiple operations. As the Wireless x Server x Server telecommunications infrastructure Workflow Workflow has evolved, the number of peo- Mainframe Mainframe ple using computers routinely Doc Mgmt Document Management has dramatically increased. In the future, with the introduction Telematics Telematics of wireless connections, nearly Aging Workforce retire nt aging workforce Retirement everyone within an organiza- tion will be connected to these systems. While this constantly enhances an organization’s effi- ciency and effectiveness, it makes Figure 9 — A weather radar chart with both technology and demographic issues. the job of business-IT alignment VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 25. EXECUTIVE REPORT 23 increasingly complex. Enterprise Elimination of redundancies Cycle Time Reduction architecture makes the alignment Cycle time reduction Organizations are under pressure of business and IT easier by pro- to work smarter and faster. This viding both business and IT plan- Improved reuse of existing is especially true today when ners with a “base map” of how IT assets there are fewer resources in the current business-IT infrastruc- Leveraging technology through terms of dollars and people and ture fits together, as well as the new business initiatives as the benefit-cost ratio of tech- impact of one system on another. nology continues to increase at Increased Focus on Business an accelerated rate. Enterprise One thing is clear: IT plays a key Strategies/Needs architecture provides a framework role within the organization. A few in which whole business proc- decades ago, computers were One of the issues expressed in a esses can be reviewed and employed in only a few highly number of interviews and meet- redesigned. Within the organiza- specialized areas. Today, IT sys- ings with top managers is the tion today, workflow management tems play a critical role in almost difficulty of getting management has already cut the time for spe- all aspects of the organization’s strategies translated into informa- cific business processes from as operations. In many respects, IT tion systems support. Enterprise much as 30 days to less than planning contains many of the architecture makes this much three. Combining electronic issues that are encountered in easier by providing a standardized forms/data with workflow man- planning the highway infrastruc- picture of what processes, data, agement technology allows ture. Like highways, IT networks systems, and technology are information to flow across organi- require considerable advanced involved in supporting the cur- zations and across the world at planning, even with the most rent business operations so electronic speeds. Things don’t advanced IT development that planners can lay out the get lost, and advanced work- resources. And, like highways, differences between the future flow technologies, for example, all the pieces are interconnected (to be) and the current (as is) support much more agile and need to be reviewed and environment. organizations. replaced on an ongoing basis. Elimination of Redundancies By collecting and maintaining Improved Reuse of Existing IT Assets the underlying data relating to Within any large organization, Another major advantage of business processes, data needs, there is a certain amount of enterprise architecture is the abil- application programs, and tech- redundancy. Over time, this ity to focus on the reuse of a wide nologies, enterprise architecture redundancy can become a large variety of components, from indi- provides a baseline of information factor. Enterprise architecture vidual computer procedures to that can speed the development allows planners to view just how the installation of complete off- of new systems to support new many times the same data is the-shelf suites of applications for business functions and at the stored throughout all the systems well-defined business processes. same time make it easier for sys- within the organization. It also Because enterprise architecture tems to support revised/modified allows planners to see how many looks across the entire organiza- business functions. The immedi- times the same business rules tion, it becomes clear just how ate advantages of this include are coded in all of the thousands much reuse is possible. the following: of programs the organization supports. Increased focus on business Data is perhaps the place where strategies/needs the reuse of IT assets plays the ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 26. 24 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE biggest part. Keeping track of all A well-organized enterprise fundamental business processes the projects, documents, and architecture environment should and business rules are docu- activities within a large organiza- contain several key information mented and constantly updated tion is an extremely complex resources critical to business as changes are made to them and process. Enterprise architecture initiatives, including: to the systems that are supposed makes it possible for IT planners to execute them. to know exactly where critical Providing a central repository data on projects or contracts of integrated management Providing Baseline Business-IT exists and where possible information Documentation inconsistencies may arise. Providing baseline business-IT Whenever a new management documentation project begins, there is a need to Leveraging Technology Through capture the set of information (the New Business Initiatives Allowing easier access to management information baseline) about the organizational Every day, new technologies units involved. A serious enter- make new business usages pos- Providing easier user prise architecture keeps this infor- sible. While no organization is training/reference mation for the entire organization equipped to take advantage of all and can save a considerable the technologies that exist, organi- Providing a Central Repository amount of time. Additionally, zations that capitalize on the right The average large enterprise will because the enterprise architec- technologies can reduce costs normally maintain hundreds of ture is an ongoing activity, most and increase productivity signifi- documents across the organiza- of this information is up to the cantly. In some cases, this repre- tion that detail the organization’s minute. sents state-of-the-art technologies; strategies, goals, objectives, and it may also represent finding procedures. Historically, this docu- Allowing Easier Access to new ways to exploit well-known mentation exists in the form of Management Information technologies. independent documents made up Managers at all levels struggle of text, organizational structures, with finding and structuring man- Improved Support for and tables. While enormous effort agement information about a Business Initiatives is normally expended in creating, whole range of topics. Because One of the hardest things for updating, and disseminating these enterprise architecture contains business or government execu- various organizational strategies, a directory of all the data for the tives to do is to put new business they are often not communicated enterprise, it can be a resource in initiatives into practice. Every new to the people who need to know a wide variety of situations. Over management or administration about them. the past 15 or 20 years, data ware- tries to communicate its basic housing has emerged across the priorities and often has trouble EA tools make it possible to world in response to the need not putting those priorities into prac- document goals, objectives, only to access individual sets of tice. Because enterprise architec- roles, responsibilities, and meas- data in specific applications but ture focuses on tying the business ures in a way that allows them to also to combine information from strategies to the business systems be tied back to the various appli- different parts of the organization and technologies, those charged cations, views, and reports that in ways that allow managers to with implementing new business need to reflect them. Equally see the organization as a whole. initiatives can get a quick start. important, the enterprise archi- Many people see data warehous- tecture provides a place where ing as one of the first enterprise VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 27. EXECUTIVE REPORT 25 architecture applications of any to their customers: (1) telecom- An improved framework for magnitude. munications infrastructure, (2) long-range business-technology data, (3) applications, (4) support, planning Enterprise data architecture is a and (5) expertise. Each of these major component of the enter- A better portfolio of projects areas requires an understanding prise architecture. Enterprise of the ways that these functions Increased leveraging of the data architecture involves build- relate to business goals and business-IT infrastructure ing enterprise data models and strategies. Over time, the existing understanding the data not just in IT asset network of business An Improved Framework for Long- specific applications but in all the processes, data, applications, Range Business-Technology Planning applications that span the organi- and technologies must be docu- Planning any complex area is a zation. The enterprise data archi- mented, updated, and ultimately significant challenge, but it is tecture is one of the most valuable replaced. At the same time, new made even more difficult in IT components of the enterprise business needs and technologies because of the extremely rapid architecture. must be brought into this same IT rate at which new technologies asset network while other ele- are brought onstream and made Providing Easier User ments are being retired. obsolete. Because IT is so central Training/Reference to the operation of the modern For decades, areas like the trans- Over the next decade, an increas- real-time organization and to the portation network have used ing number of key management time it takes to develop and install maps, engineering drawings, and and professional employees will quality systems, strategic IT plan- videos to aid in the process of be retiring as the baby boomers ning is a particularly challenging deciding which projects to do and come of age. Over a relatively activity. in which sequence to do them. short period, organizations around Until the advent of enterprise Enterprise architecture makes this the world will have to transfer the architecture, however, IT has not process significantly easier by pro- knowledge from one generation had a similar set of high-level viding maps of how the various to the next. In an increasing num- maps, drawings, pictures, or components (business processes, ber of companies, the enterprise videos of the IT landscape. So data, applications, and technolo- architecture is becoming the cen- one of the most important initial gies) fit together. In addition, the tral repository for business and values of an enterprise architec- latest forms of enterprise architec- technology detailing how the ture has been to provide IT and ture have evolved new ways of enterprise operates. Nothing will business planners with a better talking about the long term in replace face-to-face contact for set of maps and schematics of the which IT needs to be planned. transferring knowledge, but hav- business-IT landscape. The evolution has come about ing a central repository can be a great aid. as those “doing EA” have come With this improved set of pictures, to recognize that they are funda- business and IT planners have Improved Strategic IT Planning mentally in the same business as a better framework in which to those engineers and professionals Perhaps the most important, and lay out their plans. Equally impor- charged with planning electrical, earliest, place where enterprise tant, they can look across the telephone, and transportation architecture provides significant organization and further into the networks. In each of these cases, value is in the area of strategic IT future when considering business because planning affects so many planning. By and large, IT organi- strategies. Enterprise architecture interconnected components, it zations provide five basic services provides: ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 28. 26 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE must be done carefully with con- the overall cost of IT by better (three-to-six-month) period and siderable attention to flawless leveraging the business-IT infra- are far less risky than a three-to- execution. Enterprise architecture structure (i.e., the whole set of six-year project. makes this process easier. business, data, application, and technology assets). This means EA accomplishes this by provid- A Better Portfolio of Projects looking at each business-IT initia- ing the information to do the tive and asking, how can we use following: Projects are the way things what we or someone else has get done in IT. The quality of Get the project off to a already done? Many critical appli- strategic IT planning is reflected faster start cations for large organizations in the quality of projects proposed were not available 20 or 30 years Break the VLP into a set of for management approval and in ago. Today, however, most critical smaller projects the care that goes into the selec- application areas have either tion of the projects that are ulti- Employ a mechanism for inte- commercial or inhouse solutions mately approved. The better the gration and change control of that can be adapted to do what information that business and IT the small projects is required at a much lower cost management has with respect to than by starting from scratch. By Plan legacy renovation/ the important projects underway, modeling the EA process after replacement projects the better the resulting decisions best-practice methods such as will be. Plan IT technology initiative FEA, SCOR, and others, it is pos- projects sible to provide value at a much Because enterprise architecture faster pace. provides a continuous view of the Get the Project Off to a Faster Start existing and planned IT environ- Improved IT Project Management Most VLPs have a long startup ment, everyone (users, user man- IT projects are notoriously difficult cycle because of the amount of agement, top management, IT to manage, especially very large information that needs to be col- management, and IT developers) projects (VLPs). Replacing very lected, organized, and digested. has a better understanding of large legacy applications and EA helps this process by providing how things fit together. Enterprise bringing in new technologies are a single source to key business-IT architecture enhances the port- particularly difficult. Enterprise information for specific business folio management process by architecture provides a great deal areas. Moreover, this information providing a broader vision of busi- of useful information that makes it has been collected using uniform ness-IT alignment and a focus on much easier for organizations to standards and integrated. As a a longer time frame, which are attack the troublesome projects. result, project teams don’t need to both particularly significant. In this spend as much time getting their way, enterprise architecture low- As many as 60% of VLPs are never feet on the ground. ers the business-IT risk and cost; completed. VLPs are the Bermuda by focusing on developing incre- Triangle of IT management. For Break the VLP into a Set mental plans, EA also provides this reason, most IT managers of Smaller Projects users with value faster. will go to almost any length to IT executives have known for avoid engaging in such projects. Increased Leveraging of the decades that small projects are One of the goals of enterprise Business-IT Infrastructure much less expensive and much architecture is to break VLPs less risky than VLPs. But managing One of enterprise architecture’s into small, doable projects, a whole set of incremental proj- fundamental goals is to reduce which can be executed in a short ects has been difficult — as hard VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 29. EXECUTIVE REPORT 27 to carry off as managing one big without a complete understand- redefined and repaired. This project. There are numerous rea- ing of what this means in terms requires a new level of planning. sons for this, one of which is a of long-term costs, benefits, and lack of mechanisms for breaking risks. Enterprise architecture helps big projects into smaller ones. And business-IT management look at even if you have broken down Plan Legacy Renovation/ the entire systems environment a VLP into several architected Replacement Projects and spot areas that have to be smaller projects, coordinating and upgraded before they become The most expensive element in keeping control of the changes in points of failure. many IT organizations is maintain- these pieces becomes exceed- ing and upgrading major legacy ingly difficult. Plan IT Technology Initiative Projects systems. Historically, this repre- sents 50%-60% of most software Finally, enterprise architecture Employ a Mechanism for Integration development budgets. Most of that also provides a framework for and Change Control maintenance, however, is allo- addressing IT technology initiative A historic problem in breaking cated to changes in business projects, which are intended to VLPs into a set of cumulative rules, new outputs, and certain test out projects for emerging incremental projects has been interfaces with other systems. technologies or major new uses integration and change control. However, there is a strong reluc- of existing technologies. Because In most cases, not enough effort tance to invest in major changes of its focus on the careful imple- was expended in the architecture to legacy systems on a regular mentation of new technologies, of the individual incremental basis. Enterprise architecture enterprise architecture provides projects to ensure they would treats all legacy systems (espe- a framework for identifying fit together when completed. cially major ones) as IT assets that important new technologies and Enterprise architecture addresses must be regularly updated. This setting up low-cost, small-scale this problem by providing a mech- means that going forward, plans implementations. This enhances anism for doing this architectural must be in place for keeping all the organization’s ability to pilot work on VLPs. systems up to current standards. new technologies and to develop basic skills for larger projects Change control is the second criti- Ultimately, as an increasing using the same technologies. cal aspect of breaking large high- number of major parts (business risk projects into a set of much areas) of the enterprise are auto- Increased Focus on smaller incremental projects. mated and integrated with other IT Asset Management Even if there is a serious, con- parts, the constant renewal/ Over the years, most large organi- sistent architecture developed replacement of legacy systems zations have invested hundreds before incremental projects are will need to be considered. of millions of dollars in their IT launched, as projects progress, This process is ongoing and will assets. Many of these organiza- there are always significant become more critical every year. tions are now recognizing that in changes that need to be made in The network of IT applications the case of the enterprise’s IT terms of the interfaces between makes it possible for organizations assets, the whole is considerably the incremental pieces. A role of to be more efficient and to get by greater than the sum of its parts. enterprise architecture is to man- with fewer people. But there is no Today, organizations operate faster age those changes and make sure free lunch; the core application with far fewer people than they that major changes in the imple- systems have to be constantly did just a few years ago, not just mentation are not approved because of one or two so-called ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 30. 28 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE ADVISORY SERVICE killer apps but rather as a result interesting to consider what we BEAM is the result of solving of streamlining entire business could be doing today if we were dozens, maybe hundreds, of prac- processes and integrating whole able to truly leverage technology tical problems over many years. It sets of systems end to end. to the max. has proven useful and teachable, which are good signs. Enterprise Enterprise architecture is moving Historically, our organizations architecture is no longer of inter- to make this process more have put our IT infrastructure and est only to researchers and acade- explicit. EA allows business-IT environment together a little at a mics. Big, complex systems are management to see how the time over a period of decades, common, as are big failures. entire business-IT network of not unlike the way countries built Organizations have to be better applications and data fits together their high-speed auto routes. prepared to deal with all the ele- and to make sure that future proj- Then, all of a sudden, we discov- ments of enterprise architecture, ects extend and enhance the ered that everybody, or nearly especially the business and data existing investment. This change everybody, in the organization that architectures. Our organizations in orientation is shown in the had an office had a computer are moving faster, and they need increased management of all the and that those computers were systems that are more flexible and IT assets over an extended period. hooked to networks that were more directly related to the busi- These assets include: hooked to everyone else’s com- ness environment — that is what puters. We found that our people enterprise architecture is all Data assets were using computers more and about. Application assets more, not just for the applications that supported their business REFERENCES Core applications functions but for everything they did — letters, spreadsheets, 1. Benson, Robert J., and Marilyn Purchased applications memos, presentations, collab- M. Parker, with H.E. Trainor. Technology assets Information Economics: Linking oration — everything! Business Performance to Anticipating the future This new era of the “digital enter- Information Technology. Constant scanning of business- prise” that runs on its IT infrastruc- Prentice Hall, 1988. technology changes ture brings new responsibilities for IT asset management. Today, our 2. Brodie, Michael L., and Michael Forecasting effect of new IT systems are so important that Stonebraker. Migrating Legacy technologies on strategic if they are down even for a short Systems. Morgan Kaufmann IT plan time, everybody in the organiza- Publishers, 1995. Forecasting effect of new tion notices. We’ve reached a business changes on strategic 3. Davis, Steven P “The Walt . stage like that of other utility func- IT plan Disney Company Enterprise tions: people are only aware of IT Architecture Overview.” Presented when something fails. This means CONCLUSION at Enterprise Architecture Summit that those involved in IT asset 2004, Rancho Mirage, California, IT has reached a new stage. If the management have to plan, design, USA, June 2004. whole is greater than the sum of and architect everything to new its parts, and if it is possible to standards of performance, secu- 4. “Enterprise Data Flow rethink the way organizations rity, and reliability. Architecture.” The Ken Orr everywhere do business, then it is Institute, 1988. VOL. 8, NO. 3 www.cutter.com
  • 31. EXECUTIVE REPORT 29 5. Helland, Pat. “Metropolis: The 10. Porter, Michael. Competitive architecture, and data warehous- Evolution of the IT Shop into the Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing ing. Mr. Orr has more than 30 World of Services.” Presented at Industries and Competitors. Free years’ experience in analysis, Enterprise Architecture Summit Press, 1980. design, project management, 2004, Rancho Mirage, California, technology planning, and manage- USA, June 2004. 11. Rummler, Geary A., and Alan ment consulting. He is the author P Brache. Improving Performance: . of Structured Systems 6. Orr, Ken. “Extending Zachman: How to Manage the White Space Development, Structured Enterprise Architecture and in the Organization Chart. 2nd Requirements Definition, and The Strategic IT Planning.” Cutter edition. Jossey-Bass,1995. One Minute Methodology. He can Consortium Business-IT Strategies be reached korr@cutter.com. Advisory Service Executive Report, ABOUT THE AUTHORS Vol. 7, No. 4, April 2004. Bill Roth is the Chief Enterprise Ken Orr is a Fellow of the Architecture for the Kansas 7. Orr, Ken. “Pushing the Cutter Business Technology Department of Transportation Envelope: Managing Very Council and a Senior Consultant (KDOT) and Chief IT Architect for Large Projects.” Cutter with Cutter Consortium’s Agile the state of Kansas. Mr. Roth has Consortium Agile Software Software Development and been involved for more than 20 Development and Project Project Management, Business years in developing and managing Management Advisory Service Intelligence, Business-IT major application systems and has Executive Report, Vol. 5, No. 7, Strategies, and Enterprise been involved directly in EA at July 2004. Architecture Practices. He is KDOT since its inception. also a regular speaker at Cutter 8. Orr, Ken. “The Three Faces Summits and symposia. Mr. Orr Ben Nelson is the CIO for of Enterprise Architecture.” is founder and Chief Researcher the Kansas Department of Cutter Consortium Enterprise for The Ken Orr Institute, a Transportation. He has held this Architecture Advisory Service business-technology research position for the past 18 years. Executive Report, Vol. 7, No. 1, organization. Previously, he was Prior to that, Mr. Nelson held a January 2004. an Affiliate Professor and Director series of positions in the US Navy. of the Center for the Innovative Mr. Nelson is also Cochairman of 9. Orr, Ken, and Andy Maher. Application of Technology with the Computer and Information “The Digital Age: Managing Digital the School of Technology and Technology Committee of the Assets.” Cutter Consortium Information Management at Transportation Research Board Business Intelligence Advisory Washington University. He is and is involved in a wide variety Service Executive Report, Vol. 4, an internationally recognized of IT and transportation manage- No. 11, November 2004. expert on technology transfer, ment activities. software engineering, information ©2005 CUTTER CONSORTIUM VOL. 8, NO. 3
  • 32. Enterprise Architecture Senior Consultant About the Practice Team Practice Our team of internationally recognized specialists offers expertise in security issues, Today the demands on corporate IT have never been greater. Cutting costs and e-business implementation, XML, e-business accelerating time to market for individual line-of-business projects are still priorities, methodologies, agents, Web services, J2EE, but even that’s not nearly enough anymore. Companies are now looking for .NET, high-level architecture and systems strategies to better leverage their entire IT infrastructure. They want IT to deliver integration planning, managing distributed sophisticated enterprise applications that can provide value across many lines of systems, performing architecture assessments, business and provide marked differentiation from their competitors. The Enterprise providing mentoring and training, overseeing Architecture Practice provides the information, analysis, and strategic advice to help or executing pilot projects, and more. The organizations commit to and develop an overarching plan that ensures their whole team includes: system fits together and performs seamlessly. • Scott W. Ambler The subscription-based services within this practice — Enterprise Architecture • Douglas Barry Advisory Service and Web Services Strategies journal — offer continuous research • Don Estes into the latest developments in this area, including Web services, enterprise • Michael Guttman application integration, XML, security, emerging and established methodologies, • Paul Harmon Model Driven Architecture, how to build an enterprise architecture, plus unbiased • Ian S. Hayes reports on the vendors and products in this market. Consulting and training • Tushar Hazra offerings, which are customized, can range from mapping an infrastructure • Peter Herzum architecture to transitioning to a distributed computing environment. • J. Bradford Kain Products and Services Available from the Enterprise Architecture Practice • Bartosz Kiepuszewski • André LeClerc • The Enterprise Architecture Advisory Service • Arun Majumdar • Web Services Strategies • Jason Matthews • Consulting • Tom Marzolf • Inhouse Workshops • Terry Merriman • Mentoring • James Odell • Research Reports • Ken Orr Other Cutter Consortium Practices • Wojciech Ozimek Cutter Consortium aligns its products and services into the nine practice areas • Michael Rosen below. Each of these practices includes a subscription-based periodical service, • Rob Shelton plus consulting and training services. • Oliver Sims • Agile Software Development and Project Management • Borys Stokalski • Business Intelligence • William Ulrich • Business-IT Strategies • Tom Welsh • Business Technology Trends and Impacts • Enterprise Architecture • IT Management • Measurement and Benchmarking Strategies • Enterprise Risk Management and Governance • Sourcing and Vendor Relationships

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