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  • 1. Enterprise Architecture as a “Discipline” for Putting Business Strategy into Action Association for Strategic Planning Annual Conference February 27, 2007 Proprietary & Confidential
  • 2. Objectives
    • Discover new insights into the strategy execution dilemma.
    • Discover Enterprise Architecture (EA) as a “discipline” for strategy execution.
    • Learn how to apply EA to solve the strategy execution dilemma.
    • Learn the foundational steps to establishing an effective EA.
  • 3. Agenda
    • The “Strategy Execution” Dilemma
    • Enterprise Architecture 101
    • Applying EA to Solve the Strategy Execution Dilemma
    • Six Steps to Developing an EA
  • 4. The “Strategy Execution” Dilemma: We have an exceptionally well-thought-out strategic plan BUT (shhhh) we still don’t know what to do!!!
  • 5. More on “The Dilemma”
    • Many strategic planning efforts yield plans that are heavy on the financial goals and broad business targets but light on the planning
    • Staff outside the board room find little useful content in the strategic plan and are left without real guidance on how to make the strategy happen
    • Year-end success is determined based on financials since few/no other performance metrics are identified during the strategic planning process
  • 6. Recognize the Signs
    • When asked the same question about corporate priorities, different employees give different answers
    • Operational decisions are difficult to make (e.g., enterprise purchases, project priorities and investments, resource allocation)
    • More dollars go to initiatives that do not directly support the enterprise strategy than to initiatives that do directly support the enterprise strategy .. Remember, you are what you spend your money on!!!
    • Chronic “mark missing”
    • Many goals and objectives are in the plan but no plans are in the plan
    • Support departments (HR, IT, Marketing, etc.) have their own, strategic plan for meeting their own strategic goals
  • 7. The Typical Culprits .. The 3 Ps
    • The Process
      • … the strategic planning process
    • The Plan
      • … the strategic plan itself
    • The “People”
      • … the planners and executors
  • 8. Culprit #1: The Process
    • Does not engage the right people
    • Performed too infrequently (usually annually)
    • Inadequate communication of the plan
    • No (or ill-focused) performance measurements
    • No governance .. no rules, no structure, no accountability
  • 9. Culprit #2: The Plan
    • Is not “actionable” .. no insight into how to make the strategy happen .. no roadmap .. no “how to”
    • Does not make clear what the program priorities should be; too much left to interpretation
    • Does not make allowances for having the right resources focused on the right priorities
    • Does not consider downstream impacts
  • 10. Culprit #3: The People
    • Employees (the “executors of the plan) do not know the corporate strategy
    • Employees do not feel accountable to the plan
    • Employees do not know how their job contributes to the strategy
    • Lack of organizational enablers (e.g., no executive champion, no funds, no resources)
    • Organizational roadblocks .. resistant culture and/or no change management infrastructure
  • 11. The “Strategy Execution” Dilemma Question: How do you make strategy actionable down to the lowest level of an enterprise?
  • 12. Enterprise Architecture 101
  • 13. Where Did EA Come From?
    • In the beginning there was …
      • the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture and Information Systems Architecture (John Zachman, 1987)
      • the Spewak EA Planning Method (Steven Spewak, 1992)
    • Then there was …
      • the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 (formerly the Information Technology Management Reform Act)
        • DODAF (Department of Defense, 2002 formerly C4ISR)
        • TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework)
        • TEAF (Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework)
  • 14. Where Did EA Come From? (con’t)
    • Now we also have …
      • EA 3 (Dr. Scott Bernard, 2004)
      • FEA (Federal Enterprise Architecture, 2002; replaced Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework)
      • EA as Strategy (by Jeanne W. Ross, Peter Weill, David Robertson; Harvard Business School Press, 2006)
    • The discipline and practice of EA is
    • constantly evolving and maturing!
  • 15. Enterprise Architecture Defined
    • The Breakdown
      • “ Enterprise”
        • a business .. encompasses all aspects about the structure, operations and outputs of the organization
      • “ Architecture”
        • a structure or structural description
    • Putting it All Together
      • “ Enterprise Architecture”
        • a structure or structural description of all aspects about the structure, operations and outputs of an organization
    • EA is a description of how a business works!
  • 16. Enterprise Architecture IS …
    • A blueprint of an organization and serves as
      • a communication tool that provides need-to-know information about an enterprise in an easy-to-understand format
      • a management aid that enables resource alignment and promotes governance
      • a decision-making framework that provides a roadmap for what actions are necessary to align with the mission and execute strategy at all levels of an enterprise
      • an operational resource for illustrating how all enterprise pieces contribute to the big picture
  • 17. Enterprise Architecture IS …
    • A process for
      • maintaining “views” of the enterprise
      • validating the data and information captured about an enterprise
      • managing strategic initiatives (budget, schedule, resources, dependencies)
      • ensuring compliance with the enterprise’s target position (strategically, operationally and technically)
  • 18. Why the “Blueprint” Analogy?
    • Like a Blueprint …
      • an Enterprise Architecture provides an actionable illustration of what has been and needs to be built
      • an Enterprise Architecture is comprehensible by all who need to “build” from it
      • an Enterprise Architecture is accessible by all who need to work from it
  • 19. So What’s in the Blueprint?
    • A snapshot of what an organization looks like today .. called an “As-Is” architecture;
      • A design for what an organization should look like in the pre-defined future .. called a “To-Be” architecture AND …
        • A plan that depicts how an organization will move from the “As-Is” state to the “To-Be” state .. called a Transition Plan.
  • 20. To-Be Architecture + Transition Plan = EA Enabled Strategy Execution
  • 21. Simply Stated …
    • An EA presents a logical, executable path to a pre-determined desired state (“To-Be” architecture) from the many viewpoints of “actors” within an enterprise.
    • These “viewpoints” are represented from an integrated strategy, business and technology perspective.
  • 22.
    • Enterprise Architecture is about mission and strategy alignment with enterprise operations and resources .
  • 23. What Does an EA Look Like?
    • An EA illustrates …
      • how critical business processes and rules relate to one another and to the enterprise mission and strategies
      • how information flows to enable the business processes which, in turn, enable mission and strategy execution
      • who the users, actors and stakeholders are
      • what resources are used by whom, for what and when
      • strategic priorities and their impact to the enterprise financially, operationally, technically and strategically
  • 24. What Does an EA Look Like? (con’t)
    • Can be in the form of models, diagrams, text, flows, dashboards or any combination that works!
    • Should have many views
      • for techies, it may be a collection of system diagrams, data models, etc.
      • for management, it may include org charts, conceptual diagrams, an enterprise dashboard, what-if scenarios, etc.
      • for project managers, it may include an enterprise project plan and a portfolio of initiatives
      • for the workforce it should include a combination of all views!
    • EA is tailored to the perspectives of the executors !!!
  • 25. .. For Executive Management
  • 26. .. For the IT Professional Source: Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement www.zifa.org
  • 27. .. For the Project Manager Goals Objectives Strategies Actions Jan 2007 Feb 2007 Mar 2007 Apr 2007 May 2007 Jun 2007 Jul 2007 Aug 2007 Sep 2007 Oct 2007 Nov 2007 Dec 2007 Action #1 Prerequisites : xxx Dependencies : xxx Resources Needed : xxx Owner/Actor : xxx Action #2 Prerequisites : xxx Dependencies : xxx Resources Needed : xxx Owner/ Actor : xxx Strategy #1 Justification: xxx Corrective Measures : xxx Action #3 Prerequisites : xxx Dependencies : xxx Resources Needed : xxx Owner/Actor : xxx Action #1 Prerequisites : xxx Dependencies : xxx Resources Needed : x xx Owner/Actor : xxx Expand Reach Within Existing Customer Base Objective #1 Justification: xxxx Baseline: xxxx Perform ance Metrics: xxx Strategy #2 Justification: xxx Corrective Measures: xxx Action #2 Prerequisites : xxx Dependencies : xxx Resources Needed : xxx Owner/Actor : xxx Decision Point: xxx Considerations: Players: Decision Point: xxx Considerations: Players: Decision Point: xxx Considerations: Players: Decision Point: xxx Considerations: Players:
  • 28. .. For the Workforce Source: “Using the Living Enterprise Design”, Dr. Scott Bernard http://btmg.biz/enterprisearchitecture.htm
  • 29. The Key to an Actionable EA .. .. is to have as many views at as many different levels as is necessary to enable effective operational decision-making throughout the enterprise.
  • 30. Applying Enterprise Architecture to Solve the “Strategy Execution” Dilemma!
  • 31. EA Addresses the “Process” Culprit
    • The Issues:
    • Does not engage the right people
    • Performed too infrequently (usually
    • annually)
    • Inadequate communication of the
    • plan
    • No (or ill-focused) performance
    • measurements
    • No governance .. no rules, no
    • structure, no accountability
    • EA as the Solution:
    • Engages the entire organization in the
    • development and maintenance activities ..
    • promotes ownership and accountability
    • An EA is a “living” resource requiring continuous
    • updates in order to remain current and effective
    • An effective EA is published and accessible to
    • everyone within an organization
    • Metrics by which progress against the To-Be
    • State and the targeted results are captured
    • An embedded governance structure ensures
    • proper maintenance of and compliance with the
    • EA
  • 32. EA Addresses the “Plan” Culprit
    • The Issues:
    • Is not “actionable” .. no insight into how to
    • make the strategy happen.. no roadmap ..
    • no “how to”
    • Does not make clear what the program
    • priorities should be; too much is left to
    • interpretation
    • Does not make allowances for having the
    • right resources focused on the right priorities
    • Does not consider downstream impacts
      • EA as the Solution:
      • Transition Plan provides a decision-making
      • framework that presents a path from the
      • current state to the target
      • “ To-Be” Architecture combined with the
      • Transition Plan clarifies the direction of the
      • organization and provides details about the
      • initiatives required to make the transition a
      • reality
      • Enables focus of the right resources on the
      • right priorities by depicting what needs to
      • occur when and outlining what resources
      • are needed
      • Aligns operations across the organization
      • by identifying the “tentacles” and
      • considering downstream impacts in the plan
  • 33. EA Addresses the “People” Culprit
    • The Issues:
    • Employees (the “executors” of the plan)
    • do not know the corporate strategy
    • Employees do not own or feel accountable
    • to the plan
    • Employees do not know how their job
    • contributes to the strategy
    • Lack of organizational enablers
    • No executive champion, no funds, no
    • resources
    • Organizational roadblocks .. resistant
    • culture and/or no change management
    • infrastructure
      • EA as the Solution:
      • The EA contains tailored “views” for
      • various levels and functions of the
      • enterprise
      • Makes clear who owns/is responsible for
      • what
      • EA must begin with the identification and
      • endorsement of an executive champion and
      • an organizational culture ripe for
      • transformation
  • 34. Six Steps to Developing an EA
    • Obtain Executive Buy-In
    • Select Methodology & Toolset (process and tools for developing & maintaining EA)
    • Design “To-Be” Picture (business, data, systems, technology)
    • Document “As-Is” Picture (business, data, systems, technology)
    • Develop Transition Plan (gaps, close-gap initiatives, implementation plan)
    • Maintain the EA (update “As-Is”, “To-Be” and Transition Plan as initiatives are implemented and business strategies change)
  • 35. Objectives Revisited
    • Discover new insights into the strategy execution dilemma.
      • The Typical Culprits .. the 3Ps.
    • Discover Enterprise Architecture (EA) as a “discipline” for strategy execution.
      • EA is a blueprint for how an enterprise “works” with an embedded process for proactively managing the views of an organization.
    • Learn how to apply EA to solve the strategy execution dilemma.
      • Maintain EA as a “living” resource for depicting where an enterprise is today, where it will be in the future and an actionable plan for making the transition.
    • Learn the foundational steps to establishing an effective EA.
      • Six steps to developing an Enterprise Architecture.
  • 36. Suggested Resources
    • Bernard, Dr. Scott. An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture . Bloomington: AuthorHouse, 2004.
    • Ross, Jeanne W., Peter Weill, David Robertson. Enterprise Architecture as Strategy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006.
    • Association for Enterprise Architecture www.aeajournal.org
    • EA Community www.eacommunity.com
    • The Federal Enterprise Architecture www.egov.gov
    • The Zachman Framework www.zifa.com
  • 37. Questions???
  • 38. Tanaia Parker is President of T. White Parker and the National Capital Area Chapter of the Association for Strategic Planning www. twhiteparker .com [email_address] 703-753-5430
  • 39.  

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