5-1 CHAPTER 5 IT ARCHITECTURES

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  • Technical architecture refers to the structured process of designing and building software architecture, with focus on interaction with software and hardware developers. Technical architecture is a part of software architecture, which focuses on how to deal with certain aspects of the software engineering process. It allows us to design better systems by: Meeting system requirements and objectives: Both functional and non-functional requirements can be prioritized as "must have", "should have" or "want", where "must have" identifies properties that the system must have in order to be acceptable. An architecture allows us to evaluate and make tradeoffs among requirements of differing priority. Though system qualities (also known as non-functional requirements) can be compromised later in the development process, many will not be met if not explicitly taken into account at the architectural level. Enabling flexible partitioning of the system: A good architecture enables flexible distribution of the system by allowing the system and its constituent applications to be partitioned among processors in many different ways without having to redesign the distributable component parts. This requires careful attention to the distribution potential of components early in the architectural design process. Reducing cost of maintenance and evolution: Architecture can help minimize the costs of maintaining and evolving a given system over its entire lifetime by anticipating the main kinds of changes that will occur in the system, ensuring that the system's overall design will facilitate such changes, and localizing as far as possible the effects of such changes on design documents, code, and other system work products. This can be achieved by the minimization and control of subsystem interdependencies. Increasing reuse and integration with legacy and third party software: An architecture may be designed to enable and facilitate the (re)use of certain existing components, frameworks, class libraries, legacy or third-party applications, etc..
  • CLASSROOM EXERCISE Web-Enabled Cell Phones and Web Computers When categorizing computers by size for personal needs, the focus is typically on PDAs, tablet computers, notebook computers, and desktop computers. There are several other variations including smartphones (or Web-enabled cell phones) that include instant text messaging and Web browsing capabilities. Split students into groups of four people and have them research smartphone capabilities and costs. Have each group make a purchase recommendation based on their research. Ask students what their vision of the future is for cell phone telephony. Will we ever get rid of notebooks and clunky desktops in favor of more portable and cheaper devices such as smartphones? Why or why not?
  • Six Hardware Components Central processing unit (CPU) The actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together. Primary storage The computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU). Secondary storage Equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage (e.g., diskette, hard drive, memory card, CD). Input devices Equipment used to capture information and commands (e.g., keyboard, scanner). Output devices Equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests (e.g., monitor, printer). Communication devices Equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another (e.g., modem).
  • Apple’s 1984 video (and others) Makes for an excellent discussion on how far we have come with hardware and software http://www.esm.psu.edu/Faculty/Gray/movies.html
  • OBrien (ch03&04) A typical computer system has the following components: Input . The input devices of a computer system include keyboards, touch screens, pens, electronic "mice," optical scanners, and other peripheral hardware components that convert data into electronic machine-readable form. Input may be direct entry (by the end user) or through telecommunications links. Processing . The central processing unit (CPU) is the main processing component of a computer system. The CPU is divided into two major components: the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) , which performs the arithmetic and logic functions required in computer processing, and the control unit , which interprets computer program instructions and transmits directions to the other components of the computer system. The CPU also contains circuitry for devices such as registers and cache memory, used for high speed temporary storage of data and instructions. Output . Output devices convert the electronic information produced by the computer system (binary or digital information) into human-intelligible form for presentation to end users. Output devices include video display units, printers, audio response units, and other peripheral hardware components specialized in this function. Storage . Storage devices store data and program instructions needed for processing. A computer's primary storage or memory is used to hold key information needed to run the computer while secondary storage (such as magnetic disks and tape units) hold larger parts of programs used less frequently and the content files created by end users. Teaching Tips This slide corresponds to Figure 3.13 on p. 105 and relates to the material on pp.104-105.
  • Do you use primary storage? If so, when and how?
  • Volatility - refers to RAM’s complete loss of stored information if power is interrupted Cache memory - a small unit of ultra-fast memory that is used to store recently accessed or frequently accessed data so that the CPU does not have to retrieve this data from slower memory circuits such as RAM What types of files are typically stored in cache memory? Internet sites
  • Flash memory - a special type of rewriteable read-only memory (ROM) that is compact and portable Memory card - contain high-capacity storage that holds data such as captured images, music, or text files Memory stick - provide nonvolatile memory for a range of portable devices including computers, digital cameras, MP3 players, and PDAs Memory sticks are extremely useful devices for storing and transferring files For students who have not yet been introduced to a memory stick demonstrate to the classroom how you store and transfer files to and from the device
  • A computer with 256 MB of RAM translates into the RAM being able to hold roughly 256 million characters of data and software instructions Do you know the storage size on your computer?
  • Which type of communication device do you use most frequently? Different forms of communication devices include: Dial-up Access - On demand access using a modem and regular telephone line (POT). Cable - Special cable modem and cable line required. DSL Digital Subscriber Line - This technology uses the unused digital portion of a regular copper telephone line to transmit and receive information. A special modem and adapter card are required. Wireless (LMCS) - Access is gained by connection to a high-speed cellular like local multipoint communications system (LMCS) network via wireless transmitter/receiver. Satellite - Newer versions have two-way satellite access, removing need for phone line.
  • Can you rank the above in order of importance to a computer? Operating system; Application; Utility Operating system software - controls the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together Utility software - provides additional functionality to the operating system Crash-proof - Helps save information if a computer crashes Disk image for data recovery - Relieves the burden of reinstalling and tweaking scores of applications if a hard drive crashes or becomes irretrievably corrupted Disk optimization - Organizes information on a hard disk in the most efficient way Encrypt data - Protects confidential information from unauthorized eyes. Programs such as BestCrypt simply and effectively apply one of several powerful encryption schemes to hard drive information. Users unlock the information by entering a password in the BestCrypt control panel. The program can also secure information on rewritable optical disks or any other storage media that is assigned a drive letter. File and data recovery - Retrieves accidental deletion of photos or documents in Windows XP by utilities such as Free Undelete, which searches designated hard drive deletion areas for recognizable data. Spyware - Removes any software that employs a user’s Internet connection in the background without the user’s knowledge or explicit permission. Uninstaller - Can remove software that is no longer needed. Application software - used for specific information processing needs, including payroll, customer relationship management, project management, training, and many others Browser, E-mail Data management - Provides the tools for data retrieval, modification, deletion, and insertion; for example, Access, MySQL, and Oracle Desktop publishing - Transforms a computer into a desktop publishing workstation. Leading packages include Adobe FrameMaker, Adobe PageMaker, and QuarkXpress Groupware - Increases the cooperation and joint productivity of small groups of co-workers Presentation graphics (Powerpoint) and Spreadsheet Programming - Leading programming languages include Java, C++, C#,
  • OBrien (ch03&04) Let’s take a moment to examine a couple of other important types of application software in some more detail. Web Browser : The most important software component for many computer users today is the powerful and feature-rich web browser. A browser is a key software interface you use to point and click your way through the hyperlinked resources of the World Wide Web and the rest of the Internet, as well as corporate intranets and extranets. Two popular browsers include: Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Explorer. Web Browser as the Universal Client : Industry experts are predicting that the web browser will be the model for how most people will use networked computers into the next century. Browsers are being called the universal client, that is, the software component installed on the workstation of all the clients (users) in client/server networks throughout an enterprise. Web browsers have evolved into suites of communication and collaboration software including: discussion forums, databases, audio and data conferencing, chat, Internet telephone, group scheduling, calendaring, and web page editor. Teaching Tips This slide relates to the material on pp. 137-138.
  • OBrien (ch03&04) Multimedia refers to computer-based integration of a large amount of high-quality data and information sources focused on providing end users alternatives in the way they acquire, use, and take advantage of the information products or content of the multimedia package. Multimedia can be used to enhance and accelerate learning and is becoming the area of first choice in developing new business training packages. Key technologies include: Authoring Language : This is a high-level programming facility with English language commands. Compact Disk Interactive : This is a standard proposed by Philips Corp. for reading data from a CD-ROM disk. Compressed Audio : This is designed to increase the storage capacity of disk systems. Computer Edit System : This is a video editing system controlled by computer to enhance accuracy and quality in frame-by-frame editing. Digital Audio : This is a technique for storing analog audio as a series of numbers. Digital Video Interactive : This compresses video images up to 160 to 1, necessary due to the very large sizes of digitized video data. Interactive Video : This allows the user to control the sequence of events unfolding on a video screen through manipulation of computer-based commands. Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) : This is the serial data transmission protocol for transporting musical information between compatible electronic musical devices. Sound Board : This is a circuit board and software that captures and plays back a sound on a PC. Storyboard : This is a visualization of a piece of multimedia “code” representing how the program will proceed, using frames from a sequence to show a visual skeleton of the piece. Video Capture Card : This circuit board and software allows end users to digitize analog video from a number of external devices such as TVs, VCRs, 8mm cameras, or still cameras. Teaching Tips This slide relates to the material pp. 143-144.
  • 1. Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category Central processing unit (CPU) The actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together (e.g., Intel processor) (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player) Primary storage The computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU) (e.g., RAM) (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player) Secondary storage Equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage (e.g., diskette, hard drive, memory card, CD). (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player, Memory Stick, Memory Card) Input devices Equipment used to capture information and commands (e.g., keyboard, scanner). (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player) Output devices Equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests (e.g., monitor, printer). (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player) Communication devices Equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another (e.g., modem). (Smart Phone) 2. Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU. Central processing unit (CPU) - The actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together. A laptop, smart p hone, and MP3 Player would use a CPU. 3. Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? Memory sticks offer another form of memory for a laptop. A user can use a memory stick to store information from his/her laptop. 4. What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use? Operating system software controls the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together, whereas utility software provides additional functionality to the operating system. (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player, Memory Stick, Memory Card) Utility software includes antivirus software, screen savers, disk optimization software, and anti-spam software. (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player) Application software is used for specific information processing needs, including payroll, customer relationship management, project management, training, and many others. (Laptop, Smart Phone, MP3 Player)
  • Information architecture has somewhat different meanings in these different branches of what might be called IS and/or IT architecture. Most definitions have common qualities: a structural design of shared environments, methods of organizing and labeling websites , intranets , and online communities , and ways of bringing the principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape Information architecture is defined by the Information Architecture Institute as: The structural design of shared information environments. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities and software to support findability and usability . An emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. The term Information Infrastructure (II) is useful as a collective term for present networks (including the Internet, and the underlying long-distance and short-distance communications technologies) and likely future facilities
  • CLASSROOM OPENER Top Ten Data Failure Stories 10. PhD Almost an F -- A PhD candidate lost his entire dissertation when a bad power supply suddenly zapped his computer and damaged the USB Flash drive that stored the document. Had the data not been recovered, the student would not have graduated. 9. Suffering from Art -- While rearranging her home office, a woman accidentally dropped a five pound piece of clay pottery on her laptop, directly onto the hard drive area that contained a book she'd been working on for five years and 150 year-old genealogy pictures that had not yet been printed. 8. Domestic Dilemma -- A husband deleted all of his child's baby pictures when he accidentally hit the wrong button on his computer. His wife hinted at divorce if he did not get the pictures back. 7. Bite Worse than Bark -- A customer left his memory stick lying out and his dog mistook it for a chew toy. 6. Don't Try this at Home -- A man attempting to recover data from his computer on his own found the job too challenging mid-way through and ended up sending Ontrack his completely disassembled drive -- with each of its parts in a separate baggie. 5. Out of Time -- A clockmaker suffered a system meltdown, losing the digital designs for all of its clocks. Ontrack literally beat the clock recovering all their data just in time for an important international tradeshow. 4. Drilling for Data -- During a multi-drive RAID recovery, engineers discovered one drive belonging in the set was missing. The customer found the missing drive in a dumpster, but in compliance with company policy for disposing of old drives, it had a hole drilled through it. 3. Safe at Home -- After one of their executives experienced a laptop crash, the Minnesota Twins professional baseball team called on Ontrack to rescue crucial scouting information about their latest prospects. The team now relies on Ontrack for all data recoveries within its scouting and coaching ranks. 2. Hardware Problems -- A frustrated writer attacked her computer with a hammer. When the engineers received the computer, the hammer imprint was clearly visible on the top cover. 1. La Cucaracha -- In hopes of rescuing valuable company information, a customer pulled an old laptop out of a warehouse where it had been sitting unused for 10 years. When engineers opened the computer, it contained hundreds of husks of dead and decaying cockroaches.
  • Enterprise architecture Information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured Infrastructure architecture includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provide the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals Application architecture determines how applications integrate and relate to each other
  • The three primary components of an information architecture include: Backup and recovery A single backup or restore failure can cost an organization more than time and money; some data cannot be re-created, and the BI lost from that data can be tremendous Chief information officers should have enough confidence that they could walk around and randomly pull out cables to prove that the systems are safe. The CIO should also be secure enough to perform this test during peak business hours. If the thought of this test makes the CIO cringe then the organization's customers should also cringe. 2. Disaster recovery Recovery - the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup Fault tolerance - a computer system designed that in the event a component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service Failover - a backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component (such as a processor, server, network, or database) is assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time. 3. Information security A good information architecture includes: a) A strong information security plan, b) Managing user access, c) Up-to-date antivirus software and patches Passwords may still be the weakest link in the security chain. There is little doubt that security is a top priority for business managers, regardless of the size of their company. Among Fortune 500 companies, more than 80 percent of those surveyed described updating security procedures, tools, and services as a key business priority. That desire holds true for small, midsize, or large companies and for IT managers and corporate managers.
  • Encourage your students to create a backup strategy.
  • Explain to your students that the optimal recovery plan in terms of costs and time is where the two lines intersect
  • Five characteristics of adaptable systems: Flexibility – systems must meet all types of business changes Scalability – refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands Reliability – ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information Availability – addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners Performance – measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput
  • These are commonly known as the ilities Flexibility – a flexible system is designed to include the ability to handle multiple currencies and languages, even if the company is not yet operating abroad Scalability refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands Capacity planning determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity Reliability ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information Availability (an efficiency IT metric) addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners High availability refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time Performance measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput
  • OBrien (ch07) Intranets and other Internet-like networks within organizations are not without their costs. Companies must invest in technologies to support the telecommunications infrastructure needed to support these networks. They must invest in the software tools like authoring software, needed to develop web-based content, and the security devices, like fire walls, and encryption software needed to protect information assets. Lastly, these data resources must be managed. This includes developing the policies and standards needed to guide development and publication of web content, and determining who may gain access to specific content. Management also includes management of network resources, including such functions as monitoring input and output activities, assigning priorities to data communication requests, planning for new business needs, detecting and correcting transmission errors and handling other network problems.
  • 5. How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case? An information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured. Three primary areas an enterprise information architecture should focus on are: Backup and recovery Disaster recovery Information security Information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured. A single backup or restore failure can cost an organization more than time and money; some data cannot be re-created, and the business intelligence lost from that data can be tremendous. A backup is an exact copy of a system’s information. Recovery is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup. Using a proper backup and recovery and disaster recovery strategy will safe guard a company from losing any of the devices mentioned in the case – especially a laptop. 6. How can an organization use the devices mentioned in the case to protect information security? Memory sticks are great devices for storing (backing up) small amounts of information. If a employee is traveling or working remotely they can quickly backup their information to a memory stick for safe keeping. Backing up corporate data onto a laptop can be useful if the company is small and wants to keep information offsite. This is also dangerous, because of the security surrounding the information on the laptop. 7. Identify the five ilites and rank them in order of importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest). The following are the five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: Flexibility Scalability Reliability Availability Performance Student rankings will vary. The important part of the answer is their justification for the ranking. Makes for an excellent classroom debate. 8. Describe how a “Customer Phone Number” Web service could be used by one of the products outlined in the case. A customer phone number Web service could track the phone number of any incoming call and place it in a CRM database. For example, if the customer calls my smart phone or my laptop over VoIP, the web service could automatically make an entry in a CRM system logging the incoming phone number, the time, and the duration of the call.
  • 1. Do you think UPS’s entrance into the laptop repair business was a good business decision? Why or why not? Yes. UPS is now entering many businesses where it is taking over the logistics of the company including Papa John’s pizza and Nike. Outsourcing logistics to UPS is a highly successful business and has provided UPS with a new revenue stream. 2. Identify the different types of hardware UPS technicians might be working on when fixing laptops. Hardware consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system. The six major categories of hardware include: Central processing unit (CPU) The actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together (e.g., Intel processor) Primary storage The computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU) (e.g., RAM) Secondary storage Equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage (e.g., diskette, hard drive, memory card, CD). Input devices Equipment used to capture information and commands (e.g., keyboard, scanner). Output devices Equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests (e.g., monitor, printer). Communication devices Equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another (e.g., modem). 3. Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of memory and why only certain types of data are lost during a computer failure. Also identify a potential backup strategy you can suggest to the customer. Primary storage - The computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU). Secondary storage - Equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage (e.g., diskette, hard drive, memory card, CD). Many different things can occur during a computer crash. The first type of memory to be erased is the primary storage. If your computer shuts down or crashes without saving you will have lost all of your work that is stored in primary storage. The secondary storage can usually be saved if there is not any damage to the hard disk. Removing the hard disk and placing it in a working computer can allow you to access all of your hard disk information. If your entire laptop is stolen the you will have lost all primary and secondary storage. Backing up your hard disk to a CD, DVD, alternate hard drive, online storage, etc. is a good idea to prevent data loss. 4. Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of software found in a typical laptop. Laptops contain three types of software – operating system software, utility software, and application software. Operating system software controls the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together, whereas utility software provides additional functionality to the operating system. Utility software includes antivirus software, screen savers, disk optimization software, and anti-spam software Application software is used for specific information processing needs, including payroll, customer relationship management, project management, training, and many others. Application software is used to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks. From an organizational perspective, payroll software, collaborative software such as videoconferencing (within groupware), and inventory management software are all examples of application software.

Transcript

  • 1.
    • Jason C. H. Chen, Ph.D.
    • Professor of MIS
    • School of Business Administration
    • Gonzaga University
    • Spokane, WA 99223
    • [email_address]
    CHAPTER 5 IT ARCHITECTURES Opening Case Electronic Breaking Points
  • 2. Chapter Five Overview
    • SECTION 5.1 - HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE BASICS
      • Hardware Basics
      • Computer Categories
      • Software Basics
    • SECTION 5.2 – MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
      • Enterprise Architectures
      • Information Architecture
      • Infrastructure Architecture
      • Application Architecture
  • 3. SECTION 5.1 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
  • 4. INTRODUCTION
    • Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization
      • Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system
      • Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
  • 5. HARDWARE BASICS
    • Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data
    • Hardware components include:
      • Central processing unit (CPU)
      • Primary storage
      • Secondary storage
      • Input device
      • Output device
      • Communication device
    Is hard drive a primary storage? How about flash memory?
  • 6. HARDWARE BASICS
  • 7. Computer System Components Primary Storage Which component listed above is the most important for a computer? Which component listed above is the least important for a computer? Central Processing Unit Output Devices Cache Memory Primary Storage Secondary Storage Devices Control Unit ALU Special Purpose Processors Output Devices Input Devices
  • 8. Primary Storage
    • Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU
  • 9. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus
      • Volatility
      • Cache memory
  • 10. Read-Only Memory (ROM)
    • Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power
      • Flash memory
      • Memory card
      • Memory stick
      • (secondary storage or primary storage)?
  • 11. Secondary Storage
    • Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage
      • Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes
      • Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes
      • Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes
  • 12. Communication Devices
    • Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another
      • Dial-up access
      • Cable
      • Digital subscriber line
      • Wireless
      • Satellite
  • 13. SOFTWARE BASICS
    • System software - controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software
      • Operating system software
      • Utility software
    • Application software - solve specific problems or perform specific tasks
      • General purpose (e.g. Java)
      • Specific purpose
  • 14. Database Management Packages Database Development Database Maintenance Database Interrogation Application Development Primary Tasks of Database Management Packages
  • 15. Business Enterprise Application Software Customer Relationship Management Human Resource Management Accounting and Financial Management Supply Chain Management Enterprise Resource Planning Business Decision Support
  • 16. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points
    • Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category
    • Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU
    • Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other?
    • What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use?
  • 17. SECTION 5.2 Enterprise Architecture
  • 18. Information Architecture and Infrastructure
    • Information architecture ( IA ) is the art and science of expressing a model or concept for information. Information architecture is used in web development, database development, programming, enterprise architecture, critical system software design, library systems and other activities that require expressions of complex systems.
    • The term ‘ Information Infrastructure ' (II) refers to the communications networks and associated software that support interaction among people and organizations . The Internet is the phenomenon that has driven the debate to date.
  • 19. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    • Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets
    • Enterprise architect (EA) - a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business
  • 20. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    • Primary goals of enterprise architectures
  • 21. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
  • 22. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
  • 23. CLASSROOM EXERCISE
    • Backup and Recovery (A nswer the following questions)
      • Do you have a backup strategy for your computer?
      • How often do you backup?
      • What do you backup?
      • What type of format do you use for your backup?
      • Where do you save the backup?
      • How long do you save the backup?
      • Now ask your students that if you stole their computer or spilled a hot cup of coffee on their computer right now how much information would they lose?
      • Create a backup strategy.
  • 24. Disaster Recovery Cost Curve
  • 25. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
  • 26. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
    • Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture:
      • Flexibility
      • Scalability
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Performance
  • 27. Internet Enabled Technology Architectures Management Security Software Tools Content and Data Infrastructure TCP/IP Network Hypermedia Databases Servers Browsers Network Management Software Authoring Tools Policies and Standards Firewalls Passwords Encryption
  • 28. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points
    • How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case?
    • How can an organization use the devices mentioned in the case to protect information security?
    • Identify the five ilites (in enterprise infrastructure architecture ) and rank them in order of importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest)
    • Describe how a “Customer Phone Number” Web service could be used by one of the products outlined in the case
  • 29. CLOSING CASE TWO UPS in the Computer Repair Business
    • Do you think UPS’s entrance into the laptop repair business was a good business decision? Why or why not?
    • Identify the different types of hardware UPS technicians might be working on when fixing laptops
    • Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of memory and why only certain types of data are lost during a computer failure. Also identify a potential backup strategy you can suggest to the customer
    • Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of software found in a typical laptop
  • 30. End of Chapter 2