Balutan

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Balutan

  1. 1. PERTOLONGAN CEMAS(FIRST AID) Disediakan oleh; Kpt. (KRS) Rohaidah Bakar Professionally coordinates by: Members and Affiliations: DOLIDIAS Malaysia No. 21, Jalan P9B/10, Presint 9, 62500 Putrajaya Tel/Fax 03 8881 1925 . Cellphone 012 635 3070 . www.mainayaq.com
  2. 2. First Aid Unit
  3. 3. ? PERTOLONGANCEMAS Professionally coordinates by:
  4. 4. (1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS  Rawatan sementara waktu yang diberikan kepada mangsa; sebelum tibanya bantuan perubatan.  Variasi nama: •First Aid •Bantu Mula •Pertolongan CemasProfessionallycoordinates by:
  5. 5. (1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS OBJEKTIF  Menyelamat nyawa  Mengelak mangsa cedera lebih serius  Mengurangkan kesakitan  Menguruskan pemindahan ke hospitalProfessionallycoordinates by:
  6. 6. (1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS APA ITU KECEMASAN?  Sesuatu situasi kritikal yang mengancam nyawa  Jika tidak diberi rawatan segera, kesakitan mangsa menjadi lebih serius, lebih mudarat dan mungkin menyebabkan kematianProfessionallycoordinates by:
  7. 7. (1) PENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS CIRI-CIRI SEORANG PENYELAMAT  Bertanggungjawab  Berjiwa cekal, waras dan tenang  Mengamati prinsip keselamatan diri  Berpengetahuan dan berkeyakinan  TerlatihProfessionallycoordinates by:
  8. 8. (2) PERALATAN PERTOLONGAN CEMAS ISI ‘KOTAK FIRST AID’ 11) Kain Kapas 1) Termometer 12) Pin Semat 2) Mangkuk Enamel 13) Elastoplast 3) Ubat Cium 14) Ubat Luka 4) Asprin 15) Papan Tuap 5) Panadol 16) Kain Segitiga 6) Ubat Melepuh 17) Ubat Cuci Mata 7) Kain Pembalut Luka 18) Pembalut Berelastik 8) Kain Tekap 19) Pembalut Pembebat 9) Kapas 20) Pembalut TerbukaProfessionally 10) Gunting 21) Adesif Lekat Sendiricoordinates by:
  9. 9. (3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT  Pembebatan digunakan untuk menutup luka dan mengawal pendarahan.  Pembalut dilakukan untuk membantu pembebatan.Professionallycoordinates by:
  10. 10. (3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT PEMBEBATANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  11. 11. (3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT JENIS KAIN PEMBALUT  Pembalut Tiga Segi  Pembalut Lebar  Pembalut Kecil  Pembalut GulungProfessionallycoordinates by:
  12. 12. (3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT  Pembalut Tiga SegiProfessionallycoordinates by:
  13. 13. (3) PEMBEBATAN & PEMBALUT  Lipatan Tiga SegiProfessionallycoordinates by:
  14. 14. 4. IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH ? Ikatan ? Balutan ? AnduhProfessionallycoordinates by:
  15. 15. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH IKATAN Simpul SilaProfessionallycoordinates by:
  16. 16. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH JENIS BALUTAN LUKA  Luka Tangan  Luka Dada  Luka Bahu  Luka Peha  Luka Siku  Luka Lengan  Luka Lutut  Luka JariProfessionallycoordinates by:
  17. 17. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH  Balutan Luka Tangan 1 2 3 4Professionallycoordinates by:
  18. 18. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH  Balutan Luka TanganProfessionallycoordinates by:
  19. 19. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Tangan ANDUH 1 2 3 4Professionallycoordinates by:
  20. 20. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Dada ANDUHProfessionallycoordinates by: Luka di bahagian depan
  21. 21. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Dada ANDUHProfessionallycoordinates by: Luka di bahagian belakang
  22. 22. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan ANDUH Luka Bahu 1 2 3Professionallycoordinates by:
  23. 23. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Peha ANDUH 1 2 3Professionallycoordinates by:
  24. 24. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Siku ANDUH 1 2 1 2Professionallycoordinates by:
  25. 25. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Lutut ANDUH 1 2 3Professionallycoordinates by:
  26. 26. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Lengan ANDUH 1 2Professionallycoordinates by:
  27. 27. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Balutan Luka Jari ANDUH 2 1 4 3Professionallycoordinates by:
  28. 28. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & ANDUH JENIS ANDUH  Anduh Besar  Anduh Kecil  Anduh Pergelangan Tangan  Anduh MenaikProfessionallycoordinates by:
  29. 29. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Anduh Besar ANDUH 2 3 1Professionallycoordinates by: 4
  30. 30. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Anduh Menaik ANDUH 1 2 3Professionallycoordinates by:
  31. 31. (4) IKATAN, BALUTAN & Pembalut Cincin ANDUH 1 2 3Professionallycoordinates by:
  32. 32. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & JENIS-JENIS LUKA CARA RAWATAN 1) Luka TerhirisProfessionallycoordinates by:
  33. 33. Professionallycoordinates by:
  34. 34. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 2) Luka TerkoyakProfessionallycoordinates by:
  35. 35. Professionallycoordinates by:
  36. 36. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 3) Luka Tertikam / TembusProfessionallycoordinates by:
  37. 37. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 4) Luka LebamProfessionallycoordinates by:
  38. 38. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 5) Luka Kena TembakProfessionallycoordinates by:
  39. 39. CARA MENAHAN DARAHProfessionallycoordinates by:
  40. 40. CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  41. 41. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & 6) Luka Kecil CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  42. 42. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  43. 43. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 7) Luka di PerutProfessionallycoordinates by:
  44. 44. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & 8) Luka di Dada CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  45. 45. 9) Pendarahan bahagian dalam TelingaProfessionallycoordinates by:
  46. 46. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 4. PATUKAN ULAR  Di Malaysia terdapat 141 spesis ular, di mana 37 daripadanya adalah berbisa.  Terbahagi kepada 21 Ular Laut dan 16 Ular Darat.Professionallycoordinates by:
  47. 47. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN SIMPTOM / TANDA AWAL 1) Sepasang lubang bekas patukkan. 2) Terasa sakit yang amat pada tempat yang kena patuk. 3) Bengkak dan merah di sekeliling patukkan. 4) Pernafasan yang tercungap-cungap 5) Kemungkinan terhenti pernafasan. 6) Berpeluh dan penglihatan berpinar-pinar.Professionallycoordinates by:
  48. 48. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN BAHAYA  Patukan ular berbisa bergantung kepada spesis, amaun racun, kedudukan dan kedalaman patukkan.  Boleh membawa kepada maut.  Mangsa rasa terkejut dan cemas.Professionallycoordinates by:
  49. 49. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN SAIZ PATUKANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  50. 50. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN KESAN PATUKANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  51. 51. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 5. TERKELAR, TERBAKAR DAN MELECUR Terkelar, terbakar dan melecur adalah sama keadaannya. Perbezaannya hanya dari segi tahap kecederaan. Kebiasaan terbakar melibatkan kecederaan yang lebih serius daripada melecur.Professionallycoordinates by:
  52. 52. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  53. 53. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN MELECUR DAN LEBAM Disebabkan terkena: Simptom:  Air panas  Kulit melecur dan  Minyak panas kemerahan  Wap panas  Bahagian terbakar mengelembung dan bengkak dengan cepat  Sakit yang amat sangatProfessionallycoordinates by:
  54. 54. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN 1. Baringkan mangsa di tempat teduh, sejuk dan selesa. 2. Tanggalkan pakaian dan perhiasan pada anggota tercedera seperti; kasut, cincin, jam tangan, dll. 3. Jika serius elakkan beri minuman dan makanan. 4. Hantar ke hospital jika perlu.Professionallycoordinates by:
  55. 55. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN TERBAKAR RINGAN1 2Professionallycoordinates by:
  56. 56. 6. RENJATAN ELEKTRIK  Renjatan elektrik boleh menyebabkan maut, mungkin mereka yang cuba membantu turut menemui maut.Professionallycoordinates by:
  57. 57. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN LANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBIL  Matikan suis atau suis utama dan pastikan elektrik sudah terputus.  Menggunakan penebat untuk menyelamatkan mangsa: 1. Gunakan galah yang panjang dan kering 2. Kerusi kayu 3. Tikar getah 4. Kain sal (tuala yang kering) 5. Plastik tebal 6. Tali atau tali nylon yang keringProfessionallycoordinates by:
  58. 58. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA MENGALIH BAHAYAProfessionallycoordinates by:
  59. 59. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN CARA RAWATAN  Sekiranya mangsa tidak bernafas, pulihkan pernafasan dari mulut ke mulut.  Jika gagal segera lakukan CPR.  Jika ada kesan terbakar beri rawatan terbakar.  Segerakan mangsa ke hospital.Professionallycoordinates by:
  60. 60. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN PATAH & TERSELIUH 7.  Kecederaan tulang meliputi patah atau retak .  Kemungkinan kecederaan boleh berlaku disebabkan pukulan secara langsung atau tidak langsung, terjatuh dari bangunan yang tinggi, tarikan otot anggota yang tertindih, tembakan atau perlanggaran dan sebagainya.Professionallycoordinates by:
  61. 61. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & JENIS-JENIS PATAH CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by: 1 Patah tebu 2 Patah kayu muda
  62. 62. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & JENIS-JENIS PATAH CARA RAWATANProfessionallycoordinates by: 3 Patah riuk 4 Patah melarat
  63. 63. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN SIMPTOM  Lebam dan bengkak  Anggota tidak dapat digerakkan  Terluka atau berubah bentuk  Tajam/berbonjol pada kulit  SakitProfessionallycoordinates by:
  64. 64. CARA RAWATANBLANKET LIFT: PreparationProfessionallycoordinates by:
  65. 65. CARA RAWATANBLANKET LIFT: Rolling OnProfessionallycoordinates by:
  66. 66. CARA RAWATANBLANKET LIFT: LiftingProfessionallycoordinates by:
  67. 67. 8. TERCEKIKProfessionallycoordinates by:
  68. 68. Professionallycoordinates by:
  69. 69. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN 9. LEMAS DI AIRProfessionallycoordinates by:
  70. 70. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN RAWATAN  Lakukan pemeriksaan asas seperti, periksa pernafasan dan nadi.  Periksa tahap kesedaran, buka salur pernafasan.  Jika perlu lakukan CPR.Professionallycoordinates by:
  71. 71. 10. KERACUNAN  Apa-apa bahan jika dimasukkan ke dalam kuantiti yang mencukupi boleh mengakibatkan kemudaratan.Professionallycoordinates by:
  72. 72. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN PUNCA KERACUNAN  Mulut – makan, minum  Paru-paru – sedut gas/asap  Suntikan – gigitan, patukan, jarum  Kulit – semburan racun perosakProfessionallycoordinates by:
  73. 73. (5) JENIS KEMALANGAN & CARA RAWATAN RAWATAN 1. Pastikan persekitaran dan diri anda selamat. 2. Alihkan mangsa ke tempat yang selamat. 3. Kesan melecur pada mulut – beri minum air atau susu sedikit demi sedikit. 4. Jika sesak nafas, baringkan ke posisi koma. 5. Jika tidak sedar – lakukan ‘primary survey’.Professionallycoordinates by:
  74. 74. (6) PEMULIHAN PERNAFASAN TEKNIK-TEKNIK Melalui cara: 3 1. Resusitasi secara hembusan (mulut ke mulut) 2. Resusitasi secara tekanan (kardio-pulmonari) 3. Holger NielsonProfessionallycoordinates by:
  75. 75. PEMULIHAN Holger Neilson (6) 1 PERNAFASANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  76. 76. (6) PEMULIHAN 2 Holger Neilson PERNAFASANProfessionallycoordinates by:
  77. 77. Professionallycoordinates by:
  78. 78. Rescue Breathing Is a way of breathing air into an unconscious victim who is not breathing but has a pulse.
  79. 79. CPR (on adults & large children) (see handout) Giving chest compressions.  Position the heel of the right hand on the lower half of the breast bone, right between the nipples.  Position left hand on top of the right hand.  Position shoulders directly over the hands and push straight down, pushing the breastbone down 1.5 – 2 inches. 15 chest compressions, then 2 breaths.  After 3 sets of 15 and 2 check for signs of circulation.
  80. 80. RICE Treatment Rest  For 24 to 72 hrs. Longer rest may be required for severe injuries. Ice  Apply for 20 min cycles ASAP after injury occurs. Applying cold helps reduce pain, swelling and inflammation. Compression  Wrap the injury to reduce swelling. Make sure it is not too tight! Elevation  Raise the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling and drain blood and fluid from the area.
  81. 81. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) What is an automated external defibrillator (AED)? An AED is a device about the size of a laptop computer that analyzes the hearts rhythm for any abnormalities and, if necessary, directs the rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim. This shock, called defibrillation, may help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of its own.
  82. 82. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) How does an AED work? An AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts to instruct the rescuer. Once the machine is turned on, the rescuer will be prompted to apply two electrodes provided with the AED to the victims chest. Once applied, the AED will begin to monitor the victims heart rhythm. If a "shockable" rhythm is detected, the machine will charge itself and instruct the rescuer to stand clear of the victim and to press the shock button.
  83. 83. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) AED’s are required to be in most large public buildings. Such as malls, schools, and stadiums.
  84. 84. SplintsA material or device used to protect and immobilize a body part. A splint should be used only if it can be applied without hurting the victim. Two Types of Splints  Soft splints are made from blankets, towels, sheets, or bandages.  Rigid splints are made from rolled-up newspapers or boards.
  85. 85. Appling Splints… Attempt to splint the injury in the position you find it. Make sure it is not too tight! On Fractured Bones  Must include the joint above and below the injured bone. On Injured Joints  Must include the bone above and below the injured joint.
  86. 86. Slings Isa wide piece of cloth looped under an inured arm for support. Example: Triangular Bandage
  87. 87. Treatments for Common Injuries
  88. 88. Types Bleeding Wounds Bruise  Isa wound blood vessels cause bleeding under the skin. Incision  Isa cut caused by a sharp-edged object, such a razor, scissors, broken glass. Laceration  Isa cut that causes a jagged or irregular tearing of the skin.
  89. 89. Types Bleeding Wounds Abrasion  AKA a scrape, is a wound caused by rubbing or scraping away the skin. Avulsion  Is a wound in which skin or other body tissue is separated or completely torn away from the body. Puncture  Isa wound produced when a pointed instrument or projectile pierces the skin.  The risk of infection is high with this type of wound.
  90. 90. Controlling Bleeding What is the procedure for controlling bleeding that we covered last class?
  91. 91. Shock Isa dangerous reduction in blood flow to the body tissues. Signs of shock include…rapid, shallow breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness; weakness; and fainting. What is the treatment for shock that we covered last class?
  92. 92. Fractures Isa break or crack in a bone. Two Types  Open Fracture There is also a break in the skin.  Closed Fracture There is no break in the skin. Treatment  Treat for bleeding and shock, splint the injury, apply ice.
  93. 93. Dislocations Isthe movement of a bone away from its joint. Treatment  Splintabove and below the dislocated joint, apply a cold compress.  Never try and set a dislocation!
  94. 94. Sprains and Strains Sprain – is an injury to the ligaments, tendons, and soft tissue around a joint caused by undue stretching. Strain – is an overstretching of muscles and/or tendons. Treatment – Apply the RICE treatment.
  95. 95. Weather Related Injuries HeatCramps – are painful muscle spasms in the legs and arms due to excessive fluid loss through sweating.  Treatment – have victim rest in a cool, shaded area; drink cool water; and stretch stiff muscles. HeatExhaustion – is extreme tiredness due to the body’s inability to regulate its temperature.  Treatment – have victim lie down with feet elevated in a cool, shaded area; give cool water to drink.
  96. 96. Weather Related Injuries Heat Stroke – is an overheating of the body that is life-threatening. Sweating ceases, so that the body cannot regulate its temperature.  Treatment – have victim lie in cool, wet towels or sheets; place ice backs near the neck, armpits, and groin.
  97. 97. Weather Related Injuries Frostbite– is the freezing of body parts, often the tissues of the extremities.  Treatment – do not attempt rewarming; handle the affected area carefully and try to keep it warm. Hypothermia – is a reduction of the body temperature so that it is lower than normal.  Treatment – move the victim to a warm environment; remove any wet clothing; cover their head with blankets.

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