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Chinese gardens

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  • 1. General Information Classical Chinese garden also can be called traditional Chinese garden. With its long history, rich cultural significance, special characteristics, and charming artistic enchantment, it has been regarded the most important and leading gardening system among the gardening systems in the world.
  • 2. General Information    The Chinese consider gardens a serious art form and as with painting, sculpture and poetry aim to attain in their design the balance, harmony, proportion and variety that are considered essential. The art of the Chinese garden is closely related to Chinese landscape painting - it is not a literal imitation of a natural landscape, but the capturing of its essence and spirit. It is a landscape painting in three dimensions The garden is created by the human hand, but should appear as if created by heaven.
  • 3. General Information  Now China has about 1,000 classical gardens. The most important examples of Chinese landscape gardens are located in Beijing, Chengde and cities south of the Yangtze river such as Suzhou and Wuxi.
  • 4. History of classical Chinese garden The art of Chinese garden has a history of more than 3,000 years. The Records of the Historian, tells that in the Shang Dynasty, there were special places, called “You” ,for the rulers to enjoy the beauty of nature. After Emperor Qin Shihuang of the Qin Dynasty(221BC-206BC) unified China, Shanglin Garden was built. It shows that the garden was called „yuan‟.Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty followed the scale of the Shanglin Garden to build the Taiye Pond in the Shanglin Garden.
  • 5. History of classical Chinese garden In the Western Han Dynasty people begun to build private gardens. The development of classical Chinese garden during the 400 years in the Han Dynasty laid the foundation for the art of Chinese gardens.  In the Tang and Song Dynasties, the art of Chinese garden matured. Private gardens in the Song Dynasty also developed rapidly. The private gardens were mainly built with streams or hills or all kinds of plants and flowers or halls and pavilions. 
  • 6. History of classical Chinese garden The Ming and Qing Dynasties were the golden age of garden building. In the middle and the late Ming Dynasty, the artists summed up their experience in designing gardens by writing articles about gardens, which laid the foundation, in theory, as well as in practice. Chinese garden culture matured as a comprehensive school of its own during the this period of time, after the practice of many preceding dynastic periods, and rose to become one of three garden construction schools along with Western Asia and Europe.
  • 7. The characteristics  The creation of classical Chinese gardens depended on mountains, rivers, buildings,plants, animals and even the weather. In these gardens usually the ground is like that of a mountain area. This kind of garden layout imitates real terrain. The hills in classical gardens provide natural surroundings for visitors. Looking at the hills, people feel as if they live in a mountains area and enjoy the beauty and stillness of nature.
  • 8. Elements for creating the garden ——Rocks Decorative rocks, sometimes termed Chinese scholar‟s rocks, are used both for structural and sculptural purposes. The sculptural Taihu rock is especially prized because it represents wisdom and immortality, and is only procurable from Tai Lake, just west of Suzhou. During the Song dynasty, they were the most expensive objects in the empire. Such rocks, combined with streams and pools, form the basis of a garden's plan. The Chinese word for landscape, shan shui, literally means "mountains and waters" while a common phrase for making a garden means "digging ponds and piling mountains".
  • 9. Elements for creating the garden-Water  Water is the blood of a traditional Chinese garden. The most important element of a garden is water, in any form: ponds, lakes, streams, rivers and water-falls. The movement of flowing water gives pulsating life to the garden’s cliff, stones, bushes and flowers.
  • 10. Elements for creating the garden Trees and flowers, especially in private gardens, Plants are carefully selected for the overall layout of the gardens, because of the limited space. Plants and flowers reflecting the beauty of the four seasons are planted. In spring, peach trees blossom; in summer, lotuses blossom; in autumn, the maple leaves change color; and in winter, the evergreen, bamboo and plum trees provide greenery.  Among the most popular flowers are lotuses, peonies, chrysanthemums and orchids. Special flowers are planted to attract bees and butterflies. These small insets make the gardens more lively.
  • 11. plum peony lotuse Azalea
  • 12. Elements for creating the gardenStructures important structures of garden  Among the most ground are walkways, pavilions and bridges. Timber frame construction plays a decisive role here. Pavilion-like houses have neither a harsh nor dominant effect, but rather bend effortlessly into their general surroundings.  More specificly, we can divide the structures in classical Chinese gardens into the following : Lobby, Corridor ,Parlour, Waterside Kiosk ,Storied Chamber , Bridge ,Storied Pavilion , Pagoda, Kiosk , Wall .
  • 13. Categories of classical Chinese garden There are two major ways to classify Chinese gardens. First, they can be classified into imperial gardens and private gardens according the ownerships of the gardens. Second, in terms of geographical location, there are northern garden, which are mostly found in Luoyang, Kaifeng, and Beijing, with those in Beijing as representatives; gardens in the lower Yangtze River valley, which are mostly found in Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou and Hangzhou, with those in Suzhou as the most representative; and the Lingnan school of gardens, which are found in Guangzhou, Dongguan and Shunde.
  • 14. The Humble Administrator's Garden  Covering 51,950 sq.m,the Humble Administrator's Garden is the largest of all classical gardens in Suzhou .It is centered upon the broad expanse of a lake,making up about one fifth of the total area. With well spaced buildings,the garden landscape and water scape are simple,extensive and natural,possessing the traditional appearances of the Ming Dynasty.It is divided into three parts;the eastern,middle and western parts. The house lies in the south of the garden.
  • 15. The Lion Forest Garden  Compactly yet harmoniously spaced,the Lion Forest Garden has a prominent part for series of man-made mountains with various buildings around the lake ,and an artificial waterfall and cliffs at the edge of the lake on the west. Remains of the 14th century man-made mountains,covering 1,152 sq.m.and being the largest of all at Suzhou,can be still seen today.Noted for its labyrinthine mountains with winding pathways and caverns,old pines and cypress trees,awesome peaks and jogged rocks of grotesque shapes resembling dancing lions with striking and unusral poses,it possesses with pride the true delights of mountain and forest scenery in limited space with a flavor of Zen Buddhism.
  • 16. Imperial garden The earliest imperial garden dates back to the late Shang dynasty (c. 1600-1027 BC) with the construction of an imperial hunting ground, followed by the Shanglin garden built by the Emperor Qinshihuangdi in his capital at Xianyang. The latter was completed by the Han Emperor Wudi (r. 140-87 BC) and is thought to have been the basis upon which the Summer Palace was designed.  The represants of the imperial gardens: the Summer Palace and Yuanmingyuan 
  • 17. The Summer Palace  The summer Palace, located approximately twelve kilometers to the northwest of Beijing's city proper, was first built in 1750 and rebuilt in 1886. An outstanding example of imperial gardens in classical Chinese style, the Summer Palace spreads on an area of 2.9 million square metres, three fourths of which are water surfaces. Its major attractions are the Wanshou (longevity) Hill and the Kunming (Jade Spring)Lake. The garden is a showcase of pavilions in diversified, exotic designs which are strung together by a corridor more than seven hundred metres in length and a seemingly unending chain of balustrades of snow-white marble. With western hills simmering in the background, the Summer Palace is strewn with postcard perfect sceneries, including the Yuquan(Jade Spring)Pagoda, the Kunming Lake, and the bridge with seventeen arches. The huge garden's artistic style, which is at once kaleidoscopic and harmonious, is attributable to the unknown designers' ingenious landscaping skills.
  • 18. Ways of creating the garden’s View  Generally speaking, the Chinese architectuers often use the following ways to creat a garden and recreate the nature. obstructive scenery( blocking view ) , adding the view, vista line (vista) , opposite scenery (view in opposite place) , enframed scenery , leaking through scenery , borrowed scenery, view borrowing .
  • 19. Japanese gardens
  • 20. Introduction    Japanese gardens are a combination of many complex factors like history , social structure and religion. The Japanese people were relatively late developers in the field of horticulture and creating gardens when compared with other civilizations. Core values of Japanese gardening have been largely shaped by Chinese culture and tradition.
  • 21.     Religion ,in particular Buddhism ,also had a major influence on Japanese gardening. According to Shintoism ,the native religion of Japan everything in nature is sacred; trees, plants, and rocks. They used white gravel in temples as to keep areas clean and white as a means of enticing the spirits and gods to visit these places. Shintoism is not much the worship of rocks ,but the veneration of the spirit that created those objects.
  • 22. Types of Japanese Gardens  1. The large park or stroll gardens (which are in effect public parks with ponds and lakes).  2. The Zen temple gardens (which are usually dry landscape gardens).  3. Tea gardens.  4. Courtyard gardens.
  • 23. Stroll Gardens
  • 24. Legacy of ancient Chinese imperial park tradition .  The Chinese imperial hunting parks complete with vast man-made lakes and miniature mountains and islands. 
  • 25.  The imperial gardens were created on a massive scale and filled with all manner of choice indigenous plants, shrubs, and trees.
  • 26.  China has one of most diverse collection of temperate and semi tropical plants in the world .  Much of inventory ornamental plants in western gardens today comes from china.  Stroll gardens are by definition gardens for walking in. here visitors can enjoy a leisurely stroll taking in all beautiful scenery. All the ingredients that make a Japanese garden are here- rocks, plants, and water.
  • 27. Zen Gardens
  • 28. Also described as “gardens of emptiness”, Not gardens in conventional sense of word, but sublime works of art.  Generally, a garden that has nothing but a few bare rocks in patch of sand. 
  • 29. Their gardens were uncluttered and reduced to the bare minimum.  Some refer to them as mini-malsit gardens also.  Also called “Kare-sansui” which means empty land scape. 
  • 30.  Zen warriors(highly educated) developed a very sophisticated and refined sense of artistic taste and that combined with their very simple and frugal life style evolved into the characteristic Zen style that we know today.
  • 31. Tea gardens
  • 32.  Zen religion and the tea ceremony.  Characteristics  On first impression tea garden appears to be simply a small Japanese garden consisting of a few stepping stones plus a lantern, water basin and tiny hut.
  • 33. The traditional tea garden is in fact two garden in one.  There is the simple outer garden, where guest gather in a waiting area, and the inner garden that contains the tea house. 
  • 34.  The outer garden is approached by a stepping stone path, lit by a rough stone lantern.  The tea garden is essentially a small garden no bigger than the passage way of a normal suburban house including the backyard. The stepping stone path leads to the waiting area which has a simple hut like structure with a bench often referred to as the waiting pavilion. 
  • 35.  The entrance area, which incorporates the stepping stone path is the outer garden.  Beyond this is the inner garden, which has the tea house
  • 36. Courtyard garden
  • 37.  The Japanese courtyards are not large areas, in fact are very small spaces seldom more than fifty to a hundred square feet in size.
  • 38.  A simple arrangement of gravel and a few rocks or just a minimalist planting of bamboo or rush will do the trick.  The scale of courtyard garden makes it ideally suited for indoor, roof top and atrium situations.
  • 39. DESIGN PRINCIPLE
  • 40. A common design principle found in most Japanese garden is the use of asymmetry.  Plants and trees are often arranged in an asymmetric fashion, as are fences and hedges. 
  • 41.  The clever use of space is unique where empty spaces are deliberately left unfiled to create feeling of spaciousness and uncluttered calm.
  • 42. Symbolism
  • 43.  In this type of garden you will not find any plant or water but it is present in a symbolic sense:
  • 44.  Plants are represented by moss that surrounds the rock.  Water is represented by raked gravel
  • 45. Elements of Japanese garden
  • 46.  There are three indispensable or key elements without which a Japanese garden cannot be made:   Rocks Plants Water  Other subsidiary elements:  Fences Gates Lanterns Paths    
  • 47. Plants
  • 48. The trees and plants are chosen not just for their beauty and gracefulness but also for their symbolism.  The deep greens of pines symbolize timeless and longevity, while the colors of the maples and cherries reflect the changing seasons. 
  • 49. Types Aucuba japonica: evergreen shrub which come in many varieties ranging from deep green to variegated golden foliage.  It is a tough plant and can survive in poor soil and dry conditions. 
  • 50.  Cotoneaster: low spreading bush with colorful berries and lovely foliage.
  • 51.  Choisya ternata: it is evergreen and has lovely glossy foliage and that is aromatic and very fragrant flowers, popularly known as Mexican orange.
  • 52.  Azaleas: a semi evergreen shrub, bloom in April and early may and are mostly pink, white and purple in color.
  • 53. Viburnum: they all have very interesting foliage and flowers with a typical large garden tree in japan.
  • 54.  Nandina domestica: sometimes called the sacred bamboo, very graceful plant and semi evergreen which is grown both for its beautiful foliage and crimson berries.
  • 55.  Fatsia japonica: large dark green glossy leaves, good for shady areas, often seen as a house plant this makes it a fine shrub.
  • 56.  Taxus cuspidata (Japanese yew): they make extremely handsome trees as they are easy to maintain and slow growing,
  • 57.  Pinus thumbergii (black pine): it is the most popular pine for garden work in Japan.  The needles are deep green and the bark almost jet black.
  • 58.  Pinus parviflora (white pine): it is a compact tree with grayish white needles and branches that forms beautiful distinctive pads.
  • 59.  Acers: it is a small tree but in mountains of Japan they can grow as tall as eighty feet.
  • 60. Herbaceous plants
  • 61.  Libertia gandiflora: a beautiful plant with white flowers that bloom in late may and early June.
  • 62.  Iris ensata(japanese iris): most stunning flowers in japan, bloom in early june and color ranges from pure white to deep purple.
  • 63. Moss and its alternatives
  • 64.  Moss:      It is a primitive plant and there are many different varieties in existence. Moss needs damp shady conditions in order to flourish. In constantly dry, sunny aspect, it will not grow. moss is most often found in woodland area under the shade of trees where nothing else will grow. In damp conditions moss will grow naturally without any help from men.
  • 65. Rocks
  • 66. The rocks are like the coordinates of a garden project.  Choosing the right type of rock and positioning them on right place. 
  • 67. Choice of rocks: size shape color, and texture…   Size is meaningful only when viewed in the context of the scale of the garden & its relationship with the neighboring rocks and other artifacts. Variation in rock sizes offer greater contrast & interest resulting in the more dynamic arrangement of rocks.
  • 68. Rocks are often used to represent islands and mountains, so conical or dome shape would be the obvious choice.  Colors, generally bright colors are avoided.  Color of rocks generally varies from grey to black, and from yellow to brick red on other hand. 
  • 69. Texture, one of the vital characteristics of any rock.  A jagged textured rock gives feeling of timelessness and dignity.  Smooth rocks like water worn stones or glacial boulders convey the feeling of antiquity especially when combined in an interesting shape. 
  • 70. Placement of rocks :      Placing of rocks in Japanese gardens is quite rhythmic just like a music composition where individual rocks acts as musical notes. Certain guidelines or ground rules are followed to achieve good results such as : Rocks of varying sizes are used to emphasize the contrast. Generally asymmetric arrangement of rocks is preferred over symmetrical arrangement. Sometimes there is a tradition for arranging the rocks to reflect the philosophical concept heaven, earth and man.
  • 71. Water
  • 72. Water is used not just for its visual quality, but also for its sound.  The Japanese have learnt to exploit the sound of water in all its various form. it varies from powerful waterfall to water falling into a water basin, creating different emotions. 
  • 73. Water features     There are number of ways in which water can be used in Japanese gardens: As a pond or lake setting, in a stream and as a waterfall. If the objective is to create an expensive atmosphere then a pond or lake is the answer. If the aim is dynamic effect, which will stimulate both visual and acoustic senses then waterfall is more suitable.
  • 74. Accessories
  • 75. Lanterns ,bridges, fences, water basins and even stepping stones and paths come in the category.  Fences and paths are uniquely Japanese 