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Christmas Tree Weed Identification and Control

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  • 1. Ed Peachey and Chal Landgren, OSUCHRISTMAS TREE WEEDIDENTIFICATION ANDCONTROL
  • 2. Outline for today§  3:45-Weed biology and implications for control§  4:00 Weed ID ú  1st step to successful control§  4:15 Herbicides: site of action and efficacy§  4:45 Sprayer calibration§  5:00 Finding weed control info on the web
  • 3. Weed Biology and Control
  • 4. Weed Seedbanks(ie seeds living in the soil) Source: vric.ucdavis.edu/issues/vegnotes-tomato/weedseed.gif
  • 5. Weed seed predation videos
  • 6. Weed Seed Lifespan in Soil§  Many seeds are shorter lived if on the soil surface ú  Seed predation ú  Desiccation§  Grass weeds 1-3 yr seed survival§  Broadleaved 3-7 yr seed survival
  • 7. Depth of Emergence§  Typically ½ to ¾ inch§  Occasionally up to 2 inches for large seeds§  Many seeds may germinate but not emerge=fatal germination
  • 8. Seed dormancySeasonal periodicity of germination
  • 9. Factors that influence germinationand weed shifts§  Water§  Temperature§  Oxygen ú  Tillage provides oxygen to seeds§  Light ú  Light flash during tillage may cause germination ú  Weeds sense light quality changes caused by§  Proximity to surface §  Moves seed from deep in the soil where it is preserved§ 
  • 10. Herbicides and weed seeds§  Herbicides generally do not effect weed seeds§  Only seeds that are germinating§  Exception is fumigant metam
  • 11. Successful use of PreemergenceHerbicides§  Apply before seeds germinate§  Activate§  Protect the barrier
  • 12. Preemergence HerbicidesRainfall/tillage ½ to 1 inch thick Too much rain/ water/or tillage
  • 13. Seedbanks are a black box What goes in, might come out
  • 14. Plant Characteristics + Selection Pressure = Weed Shifts Plant Characteristics Selection pressure or methods of controlGrowth habit 1.  Prevention ú  Perennial ú  Annual 2.  Cultural ú  Biennial 3.  ChemicalPlant family Grass, broadleaf, sedge 4.  MechanicalSeason of emergence or 5.  Biological growthRoot system: tap root vs surface rootsSeed dispersal: short vs long distance
  • 15. Weed IdentificationFirst step to effective control
  • 16. Dirty Dozen Horseweed (marestail) 1 Annual Lettuce, prickly 2 broadleaves Sowthistle, annual 3 Northern willow herb 4 Bindweed, field 5 Perennial Thistle, Canada 6 broadleaves Blackberry Biennials Queen Anne’s lace 7 Barnyardgrass 8 Annual Grasses Witchgrass 9 Bentgrass 10Perennial grasses Fescue, rattail 11
  • 17. Herbicide  Effectiveness  on  Weeds  in  Christmas  Trees SOIL  ACTIVE  APPLICATIONS  THAT  PERSIST  IN  SOIL APPLIED  TO  ACTIVELY  GROWING  WEEDS 2 1 3   ) ) n i ) r d r )   e z a a ) t p d a u ) t u n n u ) ) c b i r a s ) G o ) ) e ) ) r d e y ) ) i r r p e l e r y e m 3   e n l r b r n   r t l W a r o s o d a g n g u a ) e l e a n a e e   (   o u a v l i e o l n o n i x l K l f i l B ( m V ( + n G ( S ( C n s S (   r i t R F o l 4 5 a (   r a )     +     o     (   l E ( u a S (   ) (   u G ( e u h e   t e e r n n i i   F m i G (   e s e t s 6   d i S (   t m n i e n n u t e f z n m (   d (   d i t a r a A n n e u l m c ) e e o o e r a e i p y r l s e n (   e m i l m u a a n n i n i n i o x b d o f x y a r o h t i m b a a a i d i n m i z z z z m u l o i o l o i o p y h o s a x n z d n d e f o i a a a a o f f m h h t z a h o l D -­‐ p p   o f l o o r y r n e e o r u x r m x e x e l y x u c i e u t c i 4 o y d u u s i p o p P ( p l f A ( t a i s h h u s o l f d l c l f e s r t , 2 l c l g n a l g s a Herbicide   site  of  action  group 3 3 3 3 3 3  and  5 5 5 5 5  and  2 14 14 20 1 1 1 4 4 4 9 10 18 PRE=  apply  before  weed  seeds  germinate PRE PRE PRE PRE PRE PRE/ PRE/ PRE PRE/ PRE/ PRE/ PRE/ PRE POST POST POST POST POST POST POST POST POSTPRE/EPOST=before/  shortly  after  weeds    emerge EPOST EPOST EPOST EPOST EPOST EPOST POST=apply  to  actively  growing  weeds Potential for  runoff  (Low,  Medium,    High) L L L M L M H H H H/L M L L L L L H H H L L M s e Horseweed (marestail) 1 S R R R R R M M S M M S S R R R S S S M S* S   l v a a u n e l Lettuce, prickly 2 S R R R R R S S S S S M M R R R S S S M S* — n d a A o r Sowthistle, spiny/annual 3 S R R R R R S S S S S M M R R R S S S S S* — b s Northern willow herb 4 R R R R R M S S S S M M S R R R S S M M M* R   l e a i v Bindweed, field 5 R R R R R R R R R R S+ R S R R R S S R M R — n a e n l e r d a Thistle, Canada 6 R R R R R R M* R R R S+ R S R R R S S S S S+ R e o P r R R R R R R R R S R R R S R R R S M R S R R b Blackberry l a -­‐ i i n B n Queen Anne’s lace 7 S R R M R R M M S S M* R S R R R S R S M S* — e l Barnyardgrass 8 R M S S S S S S S S M* S* S S S S R R R S M* — a s u n e n Fescue, rattail 9 S S S S R R M S S R S R R R R R R M M* R s s A a r Witchgrass 10 R M S S S S S S S S S* S* S S S S R R R S M* — G r e P Bentgrass 11 R S R R M M S M S S M M* S ? S S R R R S M* —   r       l i f n i         n   7 a   .   g   s   r     w   t o   e g   f   d   u r   n   t o   d e d e . o l e t   t e r n i t n i d e e   w o e s o i n p d   s s f f   s p s   g v o a h l t h t o v d t o   e c e .   s s o g d u o h   r i l   n   r   s t i r r D .   . o   e a t s x r s e e e   n i u   , m   t i o t o h i l e w   a e e t e c i a e r i m r . s r t r t d e s b   y l r w   c D   t i b s   d n c c s a s   l c   s u c c o n s   s   n u   r e e .   r e g a t . a s e   f n n c d p d e c e f   o s . s . e t e t v t f s o a n r w   t s a t o e e d e p a e o p s s i e y t e y t d n f i t a   g   s i l o u c d e h   a   e g r g r a . e a   . o r t   t   r s t a s i l s i l r a a   c y n t o c   c 8 e   l i v i s e e o e s w r e g r   r o e o l   c s a i t s a i t a m r a   l i l n f   t o   t a o t   l   . o s   t c u a m m r b   u     r e t a n i B   . e e v n   f i n e c i l p r g r e r g r e h   s r o o   k g n p p d e a l h t i f i r y a v i l s r a   c e   e   t d t L   h g k o s a o u p   f     f   a d a i a   e p   d   t a f s e d e r r o e f t . c r a   c d a n w n w h   e w , s   f w   r m   c a     n i a r g t f a n a b   e t f e t f n   c a i   y e t a e l e e r d e h   k   d e r   p o   c o l o   c o l   h . s l e r a r b o r e l t r a o   e t s i o   y r ;   k     . d a a o r l t t a v   m b   i l a e   o i t   r i t   r t a i   s d g   s i e s y a u d d c d d y l e s     D   s r i m e   d p e r v o t t   a o   a o   w n e u e h y   a m   r j e i l e i l a e i l e i l i u y l . y l . g e o t c o r u p b o r   . s e r r , r r , o r n e b   r t   t b   r p n i   p p u p p m   t r s t r n R h   s a r f o   b   a   d p n i l h t e e r e e r g e r e a   a s r d o   s   s p p q   p p a m o g o i .   l     s e r e . r u p a a i   r   u   u   l r t   r s d i f r y t a   a a g a a f   o . h n h r l r a o o t s t a e t b   e b a r   n e n e t n e t a e n o d a   a a e l ,   l   l n   l   l r d s e s   i l s   p s f     o n f n d   f   r d l n v t a t a n i p   e f e e n n w r   t k r i i i d i i e l s r d r   r n e i r d e l   i a   a n i   o o e o f r f r d h b e a o   o p s o a o s o s u o s o s w e S s o   e o   o a o r s m n C e s f   c   r   r o   e o   e m e w     w   C   e t     f n b 9 10 11   ;   ; l   ;   ; o l   . a r e e e   l r f   e i s e r o i   . t   r e l e e o e p e p r v p s e n s s y o     e e c e e f e g t s   t l a g b u l   e t e s i f i e r p     r a m r a m e t a o t e a   u   a r   t o d t t n i   t t n t   a r a a f   n   q e o g   a g   n b a o d d e   s e   s e   r e l t   a h h r p c D   e s a a l a a u a g n i e n i n i k , r   t   s c i r h t o l   f e e t t t   t t   e d e r   c o f s   a t . u S  =  susceptible  to  herbicide   n i n i o n i n i s   n i n i l y i   d e e d l e c e h c l h l h t f a h h w   u t g s o . r t n m   t m e e a c r r u e p m w   f e b   s i l e u g u g a o t g s s   o n d l l s m r m r n m r m r o   m r d e r e s r r e t a e e r   u t d   e p a   e   o r o   S   . y l e b r i s e r i h   s e r i h     l l r b   r e i h   p o s l N   n i t o c   e e a c e e rM  =  moderate  control  or  suppression  of  weed   e g   e g   o c   e g   e g   k a e g   e s   g   s i f   g   s n i p b   d s i e v i w   r t c s d g   t p o f f t a a t s D   . s   ; s , t h   ; s , t h a f     d v o t a   t   e a i n . d c e r d i w   -­‐ n t   scompetition  can  be  expected  under  normal   s s s s s s e s s l d n d m y l u o t e t e e o t   o   i e   e e g e g y l n   y e n e i o   . g u   a . l d d d d d e o e r c f r e o d d s s s r a   s r g d v nconditions e e a r e e W   . e o r e   t e e t b e   m   ; e a   i d w h e h e e s l s s u s u a s d a r t   e r r e   y A   s t i r o m o r e s   n o e s   g   e s   . r i e s   n e s   t n s   s o s   s g   s i e a r e g f f e n   ; y   r e s   t   r n e m o r a r a r o r a r o r e   r t n e e p s   r r e e p m b   . s n a w o   , t s i t nR  =  weeds  resist  treatments  or  competition  is   d i t d y l i d f   d o i d o d N   d d d o e e f r   e o l t f w e d m i t n g   g   d   , g   d   , o   a l w   d e v   r e   y r r o l p r g n i r o e a e r e g e t e c   e . y e e e r o s n a e v r   r o d d r d r r p   g e h t o   o e u t     h t h c  not  significantly  reduced e v i e a e u e a v e ; e l e e b m   m o   r o   ,   r n   o   a e C e e o e o e y n t a t s F   v j a e l y l   , C   n t o i n d h t g g g g g i c . n c r r*,  seedlings  or  volunteers  controlled  only;   w   l u w   m i r w   D   w   t l w   m u w   o   w   e s w   m g i n   i e   r m   o   s e o   n d e   e n i   . r e r e i v   r e i v   m d o w e r e a c e a h   i   i l b a e v i n e e v e f   e r c e r p e r n e r u e r r e r s e r U e r s r o e e r e e r a   i l r a n o f f m o o i w   l d g s p p r i t e o n o   o   ; o o o c   o t c o r i o   o s p   e b   o r t o s p   w i m m o   m o   u r d   o a a t e o r p a s c r   t e biennial  or  perennial  stages  resistant                         f w f s f   f r f e f f   f d f e s l   t y f   t f d p s t d i t a e   e   k e   k s   w   g   s o o s   v c     e a   g   s k e o l e g e d e e o   e p e e e e t e n n a a e n e u a   n z o o c o c n s l o a   c   r f a t e d   o r a c+,  vegetative  control  only   b   l b   n b   b   l l b   s b   u b   c b   u i b b b m i t t a t a i t r b a e v f t o   c a y l a y l i t y l s u y l a f y l   d y l r t y l i r y l     s l y n i m   l   y l a   y l   n e b a l   y l l i t   y l   y l l     y l l     y l o r t   y l o   , g n   y l e l l   l n e i t c o     y l e d r p h s p n p   t p n p e p   p t p e p m i r p m r p e   p   p a p p m p m p n p e i r p -­‐ a v e k p u a b   p   p a p o p i p e p d p s p e r h n e l o o t e s e l r s o r A r o A l p A N A a r A w A n a A e R A r p t A e g p A p A o d p A w a C h t p A o v p A p A r f p A r f p A o C p A a r u d p A v i f a b r P e s a b p A s i t r b o F
  • 18. Weed families (botanical)§  Broadleaves (dicotyledonous) ú  Many, many families represented§  Grass family (monocotyledonous, Poaceae)§  Sedges (look like grass but act like broadleaf)
  • 19. Horseweed (Marestail) Conzya canadensisSunflower (composite) familySummer annual/biennialGerminates fall through springRosette stage
  • 20. Horseweed (Marestail) Conyza canadensisØ  Tap rootedØ  Prolific seed productionØ  Glyphosate resistant some sitesØ  Mowing may stimulate shoots growth from baseØ  Preemerge control needed in fall through spring (SureGuard)Ø  Growth regulators effective and Asulam
  • 21. Prickly lettuce (darn yellow composites)Sunflower familyWinter annual/biennial
  • 22. Prickly Lettuce§  Common along roadsides in the Valley§  Huge taproot ú  Early cultivation to control seedlings§  Flowers July to September§  ALS resistant (Gr 2)§  Controlled with ú  PS II inhibitors (Gr 5-7) ú  Growth regulators (Gr 4)
  • 23. Spiny or annual sow thistle§  Sunflower family§  Annual
  • 24. Sowthistles§  Cotyledons are egg shaped§  Milky sap (not found in true thistles)§  Tap rooted ú  Mowing may be ineffective§  Germinates early spring ú  Spring peeremerge§  PS II herbs (Gr 5-7)§  Ann/spiny sowthistle on SureGuard label
  • 25. Northern willow herb (Fireweed family)
  • 26. Northern willow herb Courtesy of Patty Skinkis, Hort, OSU
  • 27. Field BindweedMorning glory familyDeep rooted perennial
  • 28. Field bindweed§  Deep rooted ú  Growth regulator herbicides§  Must clean up field before planting§  Cultivate biweekly for 2 summers
  • 29. Field bindweedGrowth regulator herbicides suppress bindweed, multiple treatments needed§  2,4-D works best at bud stage, can be applied up till frost ú  Tankmixes with glyphosate§  Garlon§  Paramount (quinclorac) registered in some rotational crops ú  Works best if applied before frost
  • 30. Bindweed Mites (Aceria malherbae)Aceria  malherbae  400X  mag.(approx.    175µm)  
  • 31. Canada thistle (perennial) Bull thistle (biennial)
  • 32. Canada thistleØ Colony forming perennialØ Deep & spreading rootssystemØ Stinger is the herbicide ofchoice (Garlon, Roundup)Ø Fall plus spring applicationsare dynamite
  • 33. Bull ThistleCirsium vulgareSunflower FamilyBiennial
  • 34. Queen Anne’s Lace Wild Carrot Daucus carota Parsley or Umbell Family• Biennial, 2 to 4’ tall• Rosette & deep taprootfirst year• Pinnately compoundleaves• Strong carrot odor• Native to U.S.• Mowing good option• Westar
  • 35. Rat tail fescue Vulpia myuros Poaceae Grass Family• Winter annual growing to2’ tall• Leaf blades folded andless than 1/16” wide• Narrow flower head orpanicle• Introduced from Europe
  • 36. Rattail Fescue • Axiom, Westar, glyphosate
  • 37. Barnyardgrass
  • 38. Commonly used herbicidesWeaknesses, strengths, and site of action
  • 39. Herbicide Sites of Action
  • 40. Herbicides and Resistance ManagementGrp Site of action Herbicide Example Cases of resistance1 ACCase inhibitor Segment, Envoy, Fusilade 38 Westar (sulfometuron2 ALS inhibitor 108 part)3 Microtubule assembly inhibitors Surflan, Pendulum, Kerb 104 Auxin herbicides Stinger, Garlon, 2,4-D 285-7 Photo system inhibitors Atrazine, Velpar (Westar) 689 Amino acid (EPSP synthase) Roundup 1710 Amino acid (glutamine synthetase) Finale -14 PPO inhibitors Goal, SureGuard 518 DHP synthase Asulox -20 Inhibits cell wall synthesis Casoron 1
  • 41. Group 1. ACCase InhibitorsHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds toleranceclethodim POST annual or Around or over the Widely used but(Envoy Plus) perennial top of trees expensivesethoxydim POST annual or New or established Widely used(Poast ) perennial plantings.fluazifop POST Quackgrass Results erratic on Not widely used(Fusilade) stressed grasses because of poor control on fine fescues.
  • 42. Group 1ACCase inhibitors Envoy, Fusilade
  • 43. Premix: WestarGroup Herbicide Timing and Weeds2: ALS Inhibitor Sulfometuron5: PSII inhibitor Velpar (hexazinone)
  • 44. Group 2ALS (Aceto Lactate Synthase) Inhibitor Sulfometuron (in Westar)
  • 45. Group 3. Microtubule assembly inhibitorsHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds toleranceOryzalin PRE Used in pine and Costly(Surflan) true firs (but not Douglas fir)Oryzalin + benefin PRE Cannot be used Costly(XL 2G) winter or on Douglas-fir or summer annual in new plantings of grasses and any species. broadleaves
  • 46. Group 3. Microtubule assembly inhibitorsHerbicide Timing Tree Comments and Weeds toleranceIsoxaben PRE For use on Not widely used(Gallery) established due to its high plantings cost.Isoxaben + PRE For use on High costtrifluralin established(Snapshot) plantings
  • 47. Group 3. Microtubule assembly inhibitorsHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds tolerancePendimethalin PRE - Not widely used(Pendulum) Grass and some as a stand-alone broadleaves, not product composite familyProdiamine PRE Injury possible on Not widely used(Barricade): Grasses trees with new and actively- growing shoots.Pronamide (Kerb): PRE (some Not Not widely used,Restricted-use POST activity) recommended on very specific topesticide. Oregon Broadleaf trees less than 1 certain grassand Washington Ann grasses year old weeds (such asSLNs quackgrass).
  • 48. Group 3 Microtubule assembly inhibitorSurflan, Pendulum, Barricade, Kerb
  • 49. Group 4. Growth regulatorsHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds toleranceClopyralid (Stinger) POST, Canada Broadcast or To avoid needle thistle banded curling, do not apply during first year after transplantingTriclopyr POST, woody Used with caution(Garlon 3A) species, especially as a directed spray blackberries.
  • 50. Group 4 Auxin herbicides2,4-D, Garlon, Stinger
  • 51. Groups 5-7: Photo system inhibitorsHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds toleranceAtrazine PER, POST Common in new plantingsHexazinone Variable tree High labeled rate(Velpar) injury has been is more effective observed on with use on new trailing plantings. blackberries.Hexazinone +sulfometuron(Westar)
  • 52. Group 5-7Photo System (II) Inhibitors Velpar, Atrazine, Simazine
  • 53. Groups 9,10: Amino acid synthesis inhibitorsHerbicide Timing Tree Comments and tolerance Weeds9. Glyphosate POST Direct spray Surfactant for toward base of stressed weeds plants, or use selective applicators.10. Glufosinate POST; Spray must not Not widely used(Finale): Suppresses contact living except by some horsetail tissue or green, or growers to spot thin bark; spray for horsetail cannot be broadcast
  • 54. Group 9Amino acid (EPSP synthase) inhibitors Roundup
  • 55. Group 14. PPO InhibitorsHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds toleranceFlumioxazin PRE, Applied prior to Do not apply to(SureGuard) Some POST spring bud break conifers within 2 activity on very or delayed until years of seedling small weeds with conifers have emergence COC. hardened offOxyfluorfen PRE, POST Over top of trees Fine fescues may(Goal ) Moderate soil (dormant) or as a be suppressed residual ; directed spray all Broadleaves year.
  • 56. Premix: AxiomGroup Herbicide Timing and Weeds15: Inhibits long chain fatty- flufenacetacids5: Photo system II metribuzin
  • 57. Groups 18: Inhibits DHP synthaseHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds toleranceAsulam (Asulox): POST Used for bracken fern control. Suppresses and controls weeds of sunflower family
  • 58. Groups 20: Inhibits Cell Wall SynthesisHerbicide Timing and Tree Comments Weeds tolerancedichlobenil PRE, before cold Perennial weeds,(Casoron) rain spot treatments
  • 59. Finding weed control info
  • 60. Weed Identification Resources§  Weed Science Society of America§  USDA PLANTS§  Center for Invasive Plant Management
  • 61. Pest Management Strategic Plans
  • 62. Herbicide Uses and Labels
  • 63. Future of the Handbook
  • 64. Herbicide Labels§  Registrants§  CDMS§  Greenbook§  PICOL (Pesticide Information Center Online)
  • 65. Local Herbicide Labels §  Special local needs (SLN) ú  OR and WA on PNN site §  Sec 18’s on ODA site @
  • 66. Misc slides
  • 67. Spotted catsear
  • 68. Bristly hawksbeard
  • 69. Red sorrel
  • 70. witchgrass