Ch. 2 biology and behavior.key

2,557 views
2,401 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,557
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
94
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • The forebrain is the largest part of the brain\nIts functions include memory, logic, and self-awareness\n
  • The forebrain is the largest part of the brain\nIts functions include memory, logic, and self-awareness\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • \n\n
  • Ch. 2 biology and behavior.key

    1. 1. Chapter 2Biology and Behavior
    2. 2. Chapter 2 Overview The Neurons and Neurotransmitters The Human Nervous System Discovering the Brain’s Mysteries A Closer Look at the Brain Age and Gender Differences in the Brain The Endocrine System Genes and Behavioral Genetics
    3. 3. The Neurons andNeurotransmitters Neurons are specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system Three types of neurons – Afferent neurons  relay information from the senses to the brain and spinal cord – Efferent neurons  send information from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles – Interneurons  carry information between neurons
    4. 4. What are the functions of thevarious parts of the neuron? Cell body – Carries out life-sustaining functions Dendrites – Receive signals from other neurons Axon – Sends signals to other neurons, muscles, and glands Synapse – Junction between neurons
    5. 5. How are messages transmittedthrough the nervous system? Resting Potential – Slight negative electrical potential of the axon membrane of a neuron at rest Action Potential – Sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron “All or none” law – A neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all Refractory Period – Short resting period after firing during which a neuron cannot fire again
    6. 6. Speed of an Action Potential Is influenced by the myelin sheath – White, fatty coating on some axons – Makes action potential travel up to 100 times faster Nodes of Ranvier – Gaps in the myelin sheath
    7. 7. What are neurotransmitters? Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that transmit messages between neurons – Released into synapse by axon terminals of sending neuron – Bind to receptor sites on dendrites of receiving neuron – Taken back into axon terminal by the process of reuptake
    8. 8. What are the functions of somemajor neurotransmitters? Acetylcholine – Affects movement, learning, memory, REM Sleep Dopamine – Affects movement, attention, learning, reinforcement, pleasure Norepinephrine – Affects eating, alertness, wakefulness Epinephrine – Affects metabolism of glucose, energy release during exercise
    9. 9. What are the functions of somemajor neurotransmitters? Serotonin – Affects mood, sleep, appetite, impulsivity, aggression Glutamate – Active in areas of the brain involved in learning, thought, and emotion GABA – Facilitates neural inhibition in the central nervous system Endorphins – Provide relief from pain and produce feelings of pleasure and well-being
    10. 10. The Human NervousSystem Central nervous system – The brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system – The nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
    11. 11. Which brain structures arefound in the hindbrain? Medulla – Controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, swallowing Reticular formation – Plays a crucial role in arousal and attention – Screens sensory messages entering the brain
    12. 12. Which brain structures arefound in the hindbrain? Pons – Plays a role in body movement – Influences sleep and dreaming Cerebellum – Helps the body execute smooth, skilled movements – Regulates muscle tone and posture
    13. 13. What important structure islocated in the midbrain? The midbrain links the physiological functions of the hindbrain to the cognitive functions of the forebrain Substantia nigra – Controls unconscious motor movements
    14. 14. Which brain structures andfunctions are found in theforebrain? Thalamus – A relay station for information flowing into or out of the brain Hypothalamus – Regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, body temperature, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors
    15. 15. Which brain structures andfunctions are found in theforebrain? Amygdala – Structure in the limbic system that plays an important role in emotion Hippocampus – Structure in the limbic system that plays a central role in storing new memories, responses to new or unexpected stimuli, and navigational ability
    16. 16. The Peripheral NervousSystem The peripheral nervous system has two subdivisions – The somatic nervous system consists of all sensory nerves and motor nerves – The autonomic nervous system transmits messages between the central nervous system and the glands, the cardiac muscle, and the smooth muscles
    17. 17. Two parts of the autonomicnervous system Sympathetic nervous system – Mobilizes the body’s resources during stress and emergencies Parasympathetic nervous system – Brings the heightened bodily responses back to normal following an emergency
    18. 18. What is the difference between thesympathetic and parasympatheticnervous systems?
    19. 19. Discovering the Brain’sMysteries Modern researchers do not have to wait to perform autopsies or wait for injuries to occur to learn about the brain Today, researchers unlock the mysteries of the brain using a variety of techniques
    20. 20. What does the EEG revealabout the brain? Electroencephalogram (EEG) – A record of brain-wave activity made by a machine called an electroencephalograph – Electrical activity in the brain is detected by electrodes placed on the scalp
    21. 21. How are imaging techniqueshelpful in the study of brainstructure and function? CT scan – Computerized axial tomography – Uses X-rays to produce cross-sectional images of the brain MRI – Magnetic resonance imaging – Produces high-resolution images of the structures of the brain
    22. 22. How are imaging techniqueshelpful in the study of brainstructure and function? PET scan – Positron-emission tomography – Reveals activity in various parts of the brain based on blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption Functional MRI (fMRI) – Provides images of both brain structure and function – Can identify locations of brain activity more precisely and rapidly than PET scan
    23. 23. A Closer Look at the Brain The cerebrum – The largest structure in the human brain – Its functions include language, planning, and logic
    24. 24. What are the components of the cerebrum? Cerebral hemispheres – The left and right halves of the cerebrum Corpus callosum – Connects the two hemispheres Cerebral cortex – Thin outer covering of cerebrum – Responsible for higher mental processes of language, memory, and thinking
    25. 25. What are the specializedfunctions of the left and righthemispheres? The left hemisphere – Controls the right side of the body – Handles most language functions – Is specialized for mathematics and logic
    26. 26. What are the specializedfunctions of the left and righthemispheres? The right hemisphere – Controls the left side of the body – Processes music – Interprets emotional messages conveyed by tone of voice and gestures – Is specialized for visual-spatial relations
    27. 27. Which psychological functionsare associated with the frontallobes? Motor cortex – Area that controls voluntary body movement Broca’s area – Area in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that controls the production of speech Association areas – Areas involved in thinking, planning for the future, impulse control
    28. 28. What important structure isfound in the parietal lobes? Somatosensory cortex – Strip of tissue at the front of the parietal lobes where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register in the cortex
    29. 29. Why are the occipital lobescritical to vision? The occipital lobes are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information Primary visual cortex – Area at the rear of the occipital lobes where vision registers in the cortex
    30. 30. What are the major areaswithin the temporal lobes, andwhat are their functions? Primary auditory cortex – Area in each temporal lobe where hearing registers in the cortex Wernicke’s area – Language area in the left temporal lobe involved in comprehending spoken language and formulating coherent speech and written language
    31. 31. Age and GenderDifferences in the Brain The brain grows from conception until well into adulthood Throughout development, the brains of males and females differ to some degree
    32. 32. What are the major processesat work in the developing Synaptogenesis – Development of synapses as a result of growth of dendrites and axons Pruning – The process by which the developing brain eliminates unnecessary or redundant synapses Myelination – Development of myelin sheaths around axons Plasticity – Ability of the brain to reorganize itself in response to internal and external input and to compensate for damage
    33. 33. How do the brains of men differfrom those of women? Women’s brains have equal proportions of gray and white matter in the left and right hemispheres; men’s brains have a lower proportion of white matter in the left hemisphere than in the right – This may explain men’s superior ability in spatial tasks Women have more gray matter in the area of the brain that controls emotions – This may explain women’s superior ability to perceive emotions Navigational information is processed in different parts of the brain in men and women – Women use right parietal cortex and right frontal cortex – Men use left hippocampus – Men and women use different areas to process location of sound More research is needed to understand the meaning of these gender differences in the brain
    34. 34. The Endocrine System A system of ductless glands that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream
    35. 35. What functions are associatedwith the various glands of theendocrine system? Pituitary gland – The “master gland” – Located in the brain – Releases hormones that activate other endocrine glands Pineal gland – Located deep in the brain – Secretes the hormone melatonin which controls sleep/ wakefulness cycle Thyroid gland – Located below the voice box – Produces thyroxine, which regulates rate at which food is metabolized
    36. 36. What functions are associatedwith the various glands of theendocrine system? Parathyroid glands – Attached to the thyroid – Produce parathyroid hormone which helps the body absorb minerals from the diet Thymus gland – Produces hormones that are essential to immune system functioning Adrenal glands – Release hormones that prepare the body for emergencies and stressful situations Gonads – The ovaries in females and testes in males – Produce sex hormones
    37. 37. Genes and BehavioralGenetics Genes – segments of DNA located on chromosomes that transmit all heredity traits Chromosomes – rod shaped structures in the nuclei of cells that contain all genes and carry genetic information to make a human being Behavioral Genetics – a field of research that uses twin and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior
    38. 38. What patterns of inheritanceare evident in the transmissionof genetic traits? Dominant-recessive pattern – a set of inheritance rules in which one dominant gene causes a trait to be expressed, but two recessive genes are required for expression of a recessive trait Multifactorial inheritance – A pattern of inheritance in which a trait is influenced by both genes and environment Sex-linked inheritance – Involves genes on the X and Y chromosomes – Example: red-green color blindness
    39. 39. What kinds of studies are doneby behavioral geneticists? Twin studies – Examine identical (monozygotic) and fraternal (dizygotic) twins – If identical twins are more alike on a trait, the trait is assumed to be more influenced by heredity – If identical and fraternal twin pairs do not differ on a trait, the trait is assumed to be more influenced by environment Adoption studies – Compare adopted children’s abilities and traits to those of adoptive parents and biological parents

    ×