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Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
Ch. 1 intro to psych.key
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Ch. 1 intro to psych.key

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 1Introduction to Psychology 1
    • 2. Chapter 1 Overview An introduction to Mastering the World of Psychology Exploring psychology’s roots Schools of thought in psychology Descriptive research methods The experimental method Ethics in psychological research Thinking about theories and research Psychologists at work 2
    • 3. An introduction to Masteringthe World of Psychology Students can study the textbook effectively by using the SQ3R method 3
    • 4. How can the SQ3R methodhelp you study moreeffectively? The SQ3R method involves five steps – Survey – Question – Read – Recite – Review This provides a systematic approach to studying the text, and helps maximize learning 4
    • 5. What process do scientists use toanswer questions about behaviorand mental processes? Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes – Instead of relying on common sense, psychologists use the scientific method Psychologists propose and test theories to explain behavior and mental processes – Theory: A general set of principles that explains how separate facts are related 5
    • 6. What are the goals ofpsychology? Description – Identifying and classifying behaviors and mental processes Explanation – Proposing reasons for behaviors and mental processes Prediction – Offering hypotheses about how a condition or set of conditions will affect behavior and mental processes Influence – Using research results to solve practical 6 problems
    • 7. What are the goals ofpsychology? Two types of research are done to accomplish psychologists’ four goals – Basic research  Research that seeks new knowledge to advance general scientific understanding – Applied research  Research conducted to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life 7
    • 8. Exploring Psychology’sRoots Psychology’s roots can be traced to the beginning of recorded history But psychology as a formal academic discipline began in the 1800s 8
    • 9. What did Wundt and Titchenercontribute to psychology? Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – The “father” of psychology – Used introspection to analyze basic elements of conscious mental experience Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927) – Wundt’s student – Established a psychological laboratory in the USA Structuralism – Wundt and Titchener’s school of thought – Structuralism was criticized because of its methods – But structuralists established psychology as a science 9
    • 10. Why is functionalism importantin the history of psychology? Functionalism – Focused on how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environments – Broadened the scope of psychology to include behavior as well as mental processes William James (1842-1910) – Functionalism’s most famous proponent – Believed that the “stream of consciousness” functions to help humans adapt to their environment 10
    • 11. Schools of Thought inPsychology The major schools of thought in psychology today include – Behaviorism – Psychoanalytic psychology – Humanistic psychology – Cognitive psychology – Evolutionary psychology – Biological psychology – The sociocultural approach 11
    • 12. How do behaviorists explainbehavior and mentalprocesses? Behaviorists view observable, measurable behavior as the only appropriate subject matter for psychology Behaviorism also emphasizes the environment as the key determinant of behavior 12
    • 13. What do psychoanalyticpsychologists believe about the roleof the unconscious? Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality and his therapy for psychological disorders is called Psychoanalysis According to this theory, an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are determined primarily by the unconscious 13
    • 14. According to Maslow and Rogers,what motivates behavior andmental processes? Humanistic psychology – Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation – The need for self-actualization is the highest need in the hierarchy of needs Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy – An approach in which the client directs a discussion on his or her own view of the problem 14
    • 15. What is the focus of cognitivepsychology? Cognitive psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, problem solving, decision making, perception, and language Information-processing theory – An approach within cognitive psychology that uses the computer as a model for human thinking 15
    • 16. What is the main idea behindevolutionary psychology? Evolutionary psychology focuses on how human behaviors necessary for survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the course of evolution 16
    • 17. How do biological psychologistsexplain individual differences inbehavior and mental processes? Biological psychologists look for connections between specific behaviors (such as aggression) and specific biological factors (such as hormones) to help explain individual differences 17
    • 18. What kinds of variables interestpsychologists who take asociocultural approach? The sociocultural approach focuses on how factors such as cultural values affect behavior – Proponents of this approach believe that these factors are as important as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processes 18
    • 19. What are psychologicalperspectives, and how are theyrelated to an eclectic position? Psychological perspectives are general points of view used for explaining people’s behavior and thinking Many psychologists take an eclectic position, using a combination of approaches to explain a particular behavior 19
    • 20. Descriptive ResearchMethods Methods that yield descriptions of behavior These methods include – Naturalistic and laboratory observation – Case study – Survey research – The correlational method 20
    • 21. How do psychological researchersuse naturalistic and laboratoryobservation? Naturalistic observation – Observation of behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence it Laboratory observation – Studying behavior in a laboratory setting – This allows more control and more precise measurement of responses 21
    • 22. What are the advantages anddisadvantages of the case study? Case study – Studying a single individual or small number of persons in depth Advantage – Appropriate for studying rare psychological disorders or brain damage Disadvantages – Cannot identify the cause of behavior – Potential for bias – Results can lack generalizability 22
    • 23. How do researchers ensurethat survey results are useful? Survey research – Uses interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors of a group of people – Instead of studying the whole population, researchers survey a sample To be useful, surveys must involve a representative sample – A sample that mirrors the population of interest 23
    • 24. Why are experimental andcontrol groups necessary? Experimental group – The group that is exposed to the independent variable Control group – A group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment Comparing experimental and control groups allows researchers to judge the effects of the independent variable compared to outcomes that occur naturally 24
    • 25. What kinds of factors introducebias into experimental studies? Placebo effect – Response to a treatment caused by a person’s expectations, not the treatment itself Experimenter bias – Occurs when the researcher’s expectations influence the experiment’s results These effects can be controlled by using the double-blind technique – In which neither the experimenter nor participants know who is in the experimental and control groups 25
    • 26. What are the limitations of theexperimental method? Experiments are often conducted in unnatural settings, limiting the generalizability of the results This method may also be unethical or impossible to use for some research 26
    • 27. Ethics in PsychologicalResearch Researchers are ethically obligated to protect the rights of all study participants 27
    • 28. What ethical rules mustresearchers follow when humansare involved in studies? Legality – Research must conform to applicable laws Institutional Approval – Must be approved by all institutions involved in a study Informed Consent – Participants must be informed of the purpose of a study and any potential harm Deception – Only used when necessary – If deceived, participants must be debriefed 28
    • 29. What ethical rules mustresearchers follow when humansare involved in studies? Clients, patients, students, and subordinates – Must not be negatively affected by participating Payment for participation – Is ethical – But participants must be fully informed about what is expected Publication – Researchers must report findings in an appropriate forum, and make their data available to others for verification 29
    • 30. Why are animals used inresearch? Animals provide a simpler model for studying similar processes in humans Researchers can exercise more control over animals and use a wider range of medical and other manipulations But, ethical guidelines must be followed – Legality – Supervision by experienced personnel – Minimization of discomfort 30
    • 31. How can critical thinking be used tointerpret media reports ofpsychological research? Critical thinking involves objectively evaluating claims and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from evidence – It includes independent thinking, suspension of judgment, and willingness to modify or abandon prior judgments Critical thinking can be used to evaluate media reports – Such as an alleged cause-effect link between TV watching and ADHD that was widely reported in the media  Which was based on correlational research 31
    • 32. What factors limit thegeneralizability of a study? Generalizability – The degree to which a study’s findings can be applied to the general population A study’s generalizability is limited when the characteristics of the participants do not reflect those of the whole population 32
    • 33. Psychologists at Work Psychologists specialize in a number of different areas 33
    • 34. Who are some of the specialistsworking within psychology? Clinical psychologists – Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia Counseling psychologists – Help people who have adjustment problems (marital, social, or behavioral) that are generally less severe Physiological, or biological, psychologists – Study the relationship between physiological processes and behavior Experimental psychologists – Conduct experiments in most areas of psychology, including learning, memory, and perception 34
    • 35. Who are some of the specialistsworking within psychology? Developmental psychologists – Study how people grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan Educational psychologists – Specialize in the study of teaching and learning Social psychologists – Investigate how individuals feel, think, and behave in social settings Industrial/organizational psychologists – Study the relationship between people and their work environments 35

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