Ch. 1 intro to psych.key

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  • Ch. 1 intro to psych.key

    1. 1. Chapter 1Introduction to Psychology 1
    2. 2. Chapter 1 Overview An introduction to Mastering the World of Psychology Exploring psychology’s roots Schools of thought in psychology Descriptive research methods The experimental method Ethics in psychological research Thinking about theories and research Psychologists at work 2
    3. 3. An introduction to Masteringthe World of Psychology Students can study the textbook effectively by using the SQ3R method 3
    4. 4. How can the SQ3R methodhelp you study moreeffectively? The SQ3R method involves five steps – Survey – Question – Read – Recite – Review This provides a systematic approach to studying the text, and helps maximize learning 4
    5. 5. What process do scientists use toanswer questions about behaviorand mental processes? Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes – Instead of relying on common sense, psychologists use the scientific method Psychologists propose and test theories to explain behavior and mental processes – Theory: A general set of principles that explains how separate facts are related 5
    6. 6. What are the goals ofpsychology? Description – Identifying and classifying behaviors and mental processes Explanation – Proposing reasons for behaviors and mental processes Prediction – Offering hypotheses about how a condition or set of conditions will affect behavior and mental processes Influence – Using research results to solve practical 6 problems
    7. 7. What are the goals ofpsychology? Two types of research are done to accomplish psychologists’ four goals – Basic research  Research that seeks new knowledge to advance general scientific understanding – Applied research  Research conducted to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life 7
    8. 8. Exploring Psychology’sRoots Psychology’s roots can be traced to the beginning of recorded history But psychology as a formal academic discipline began in the 1800s 8
    9. 9. What did Wundt and Titchenercontribute to psychology? Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) – The “father” of psychology – Used introspection to analyze basic elements of conscious mental experience Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927) – Wundt’s student – Established a psychological laboratory in the USA Structuralism – Wundt and Titchener’s school of thought – Structuralism was criticized because of its methods – But structuralists established psychology as a science 9
    10. 10. Why is functionalism importantin the history of psychology? Functionalism – Focused on how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environments – Broadened the scope of psychology to include behavior as well as mental processes William James (1842-1910) – Functionalism’s most famous proponent – Believed that the “stream of consciousness” functions to help humans adapt to their environment 10
    11. 11. Schools of Thought inPsychology The major schools of thought in psychology today include – Behaviorism – Psychoanalytic psychology – Humanistic psychology – Cognitive psychology – Evolutionary psychology – Biological psychology – The sociocultural approach 11
    12. 12. How do behaviorists explainbehavior and mentalprocesses? Behaviorists view observable, measurable behavior as the only appropriate subject matter for psychology Behaviorism also emphasizes the environment as the key determinant of behavior 12
    13. 13. What do psychoanalyticpsychologists believe about the roleof the unconscious? Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality and his therapy for psychological disorders is called Psychoanalysis According to this theory, an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are determined primarily by the unconscious 13
    14. 14. According to Maslow and Rogers,what motivates behavior andmental processes? Humanistic psychology – Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation – The need for self-actualization is the highest need in the hierarchy of needs Carl Rogers developed client-centered therapy – An approach in which the client directs a discussion on his or her own view of the problem 14
    15. 15. What is the focus of cognitivepsychology? Cognitive psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, problem solving, decision making, perception, and language Information-processing theory – An approach within cognitive psychology that uses the computer as a model for human thinking 15
    16. 16. What is the main idea behindevolutionary psychology? Evolutionary psychology focuses on how human behaviors necessary for survival have adapted in the face of environmental pressures over the course of evolution 16
    17. 17. How do biological psychologistsexplain individual differences inbehavior and mental processes? Biological psychologists look for connections between specific behaviors (such as aggression) and specific biological factors (such as hormones) to help explain individual differences 17
    18. 18. What kinds of variables interestpsychologists who take asociocultural approach? The sociocultural approach focuses on how factors such as cultural values affect behavior – Proponents of this approach believe that these factors are as important as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processes 18
    19. 19. What are psychologicalperspectives, and how are theyrelated to an eclectic position? Psychological perspectives are general points of view used for explaining people’s behavior and thinking Many psychologists take an eclectic position, using a combination of approaches to explain a particular behavior 19
    20. 20. Descriptive ResearchMethods Methods that yield descriptions of behavior These methods include – Naturalistic and laboratory observation – Case study – Survey research – The correlational method 20
    21. 21. How do psychological researchersuse naturalistic and laboratoryobservation? Naturalistic observation – Observation of behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence it Laboratory observation – Studying behavior in a laboratory setting – This allows more control and more precise measurement of responses 21
    22. 22. What are the advantages anddisadvantages of the case study? Case study – Studying a single individual or small number of persons in depth Advantage – Appropriate for studying rare psychological disorders or brain damage Disadvantages – Cannot identify the cause of behavior – Potential for bias – Results can lack generalizability 22
    23. 23. How do researchers ensurethat survey results are useful? Survey research – Uses interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors of a group of people – Instead of studying the whole population, researchers survey a sample To be useful, surveys must involve a representative sample – A sample that mirrors the population of interest 23
    24. 24. Why are experimental andcontrol groups necessary? Experimental group – The group that is exposed to the independent variable Control group – A group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment Comparing experimental and control groups allows researchers to judge the effects of the independent variable compared to outcomes that occur naturally 24
    25. 25. What kinds of factors introducebias into experimental studies? Placebo effect – Response to a treatment caused by a person’s expectations, not the treatment itself Experimenter bias – Occurs when the researcher’s expectations influence the experiment’s results These effects can be controlled by using the double-blind technique – In which neither the experimenter nor participants know who is in the experimental and control groups 25
    26. 26. What are the limitations of theexperimental method? Experiments are often conducted in unnatural settings, limiting the generalizability of the results This method may also be unethical or impossible to use for some research 26
    27. 27. Ethics in PsychologicalResearch Researchers are ethically obligated to protect the rights of all study participants 27
    28. 28. What ethical rules mustresearchers follow when humansare involved in studies? Legality – Research must conform to applicable laws Institutional Approval – Must be approved by all institutions involved in a study Informed Consent – Participants must be informed of the purpose of a study and any potential harm Deception – Only used when necessary – If deceived, participants must be debriefed 28
    29. 29. What ethical rules mustresearchers follow when humansare involved in studies? Clients, patients, students, and subordinates – Must not be negatively affected by participating Payment for participation – Is ethical – But participants must be fully informed about what is expected Publication – Researchers must report findings in an appropriate forum, and make their data available to others for verification 29
    30. 30. Why are animals used inresearch? Animals provide a simpler model for studying similar processes in humans Researchers can exercise more control over animals and use a wider range of medical and other manipulations But, ethical guidelines must be followed – Legality – Supervision by experienced personnel – Minimization of discomfort 30
    31. 31. How can critical thinking be used tointerpret media reports ofpsychological research? Critical thinking involves objectively evaluating claims and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from evidence – It includes independent thinking, suspension of judgment, and willingness to modify or abandon prior judgments Critical thinking can be used to evaluate media reports – Such as an alleged cause-effect link between TV watching and ADHD that was widely reported in the media  Which was based on correlational research 31
    32. 32. What factors limit thegeneralizability of a study? Generalizability – The degree to which a study’s findings can be applied to the general population A study’s generalizability is limited when the characteristics of the participants do not reflect those of the whole population 32
    33. 33. Psychologists at Work Psychologists specialize in a number of different areas 33
    34. 34. Who are some of the specialistsworking within psychology? Clinical psychologists – Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders, such as anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia Counseling psychologists – Help people who have adjustment problems (marital, social, or behavioral) that are generally less severe Physiological, or biological, psychologists – Study the relationship between physiological processes and behavior Experimental psychologists – Conduct experiments in most areas of psychology, including learning, memory, and perception 34
    35. 35. Who are some of the specialistsworking within psychology? Developmental psychologists – Study how people grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan Educational psychologists – Specialize in the study of teaching and learning Social psychologists – Investigate how individuals feel, think, and behave in social settings Industrial/organizational psychologists – Study the relationship between people and their work environments 35

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