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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY Presented to: Madam Azeema Talib Presented by: Aisha Kalsoom Maryam Khalid Muhammad Ahmad Faiza Tariq Aqsa Khalid
  3. 3. MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS 5/13/2012Motivation• Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS achievement, that prompts goal-directed behavior.• The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. 3
  4. 4. PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION 5/13/2012 Instincts Drive Reduction Approaches MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Arousal Approaches Incentive Approaches Cognitive Approaches 4
  5. 5. INSTINCTS 5/13/2012 Inborn, goal-directed behavior that is characteristic of an entire species MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Human behavior is not easily explained by instincts because  Most important human behavior is learned  Human behavior is rarely inflexible 5
  6. 6. DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY 5/13/2012 Drive  A state of tension or arousal caused by bodily MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS needs Theories suggested that a lack of a basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement. 6
  7. 7. DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY 5/13/2012 Primary drive MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Unlearned drive, such as hunger, based on a physiological state Secondary drive  Learned drive, such as ambition 7
  8. 8. AROUSAL THEORY 5/13/2012 People are motivated to seek an optimal level of MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS arousal for a given moment Yerkes-Dodson law  States that there is an optimal level or arousal for best performance on any task  The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance 8
  10. 10. INCENTIVE APPROACHES 5/13/2012 External stimuli that prompt goal-directed behavior MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS We are often unaware of the incentive Examples  Aroma of food may cause us to eat even when not hungry  Advertisements can lead us to buy a product 10
  11. 11. COGNITIVE APPROACHES 5/13/2012 Theories suggesting that motivation is a product of MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS people’s thoughts and expectations. Cognitive approaches of motivation draw a key distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. 11
  12. 12. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION 5/13/2012 Intrinsic motivation MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself  Children playing is an example Extrinsic motivation  Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment  A bonus program is an example 12
  13. 13. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONSFig. 12.7 Monkeys happily open locks that are placed in theircage. Since no reward is given for this activity, it provides 13evidence for the existence of stimulus needs. (Photo courtesy ofHarry F. Harlow.)
  14. 14. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 5/13/2012 Self-actualization - according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS their full human potential. Peak experiences- according to Maslow, times in a person’s life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved. 14
  15. 15. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONSFig. 12.12 Maslow believed that lower needs in the hierarchy are dominant.Basic needs must be satisfied before growth motives are fully expressed.Desires for self-actualization are reflected in various meta-needs. 15
  16. 16. HUMAN NEEDS AND MOTIVATIONEat, Drink and be Daring.
  17. 17. MOTIVATION BEHIND HUNGER AND EATING 5/13/2012 Brain control of hunger Biological control of hunger MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS External control of hunger 17
  18. 18. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS 18
  19. 19. BRAIN CONTROL OF HUNGER 5/13/2012 Eating is modulated by MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS the hypothalamus  Under eating occurs after destruction of the LH  Overeating occurs after destruction of the VMH 19
  20. 20. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF HUNGER 5/13/2012 One important factor is changes in the chemical composition of the blood. MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Changes in levels of glucose regulate feelings of hunger. Metabolism  The rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body. 20
  21. 21. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF HUNGER 5/13/2012 Leptin - a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS appetite while increasing the feeling of being full.  Role of leptin in obesity.  Genetics and obesity. Genetics may play a part in anorexia and bulimia, as well as insensitivity to leptin. 21
  22. 22. EXTERNAL CONTROL OF HUNGER 5/13/2012 Culture is a key factor in the control of eating  When we eat (dinner at 6 pm or 10 pm) MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  What we eat (red meat versus vegetarian) Group size: amount consumed increases as the size of the dinner party increases External cues of food may produce greater internal impact (salivation, insulin secretion) in some people 22
  23. 23. EATING DISORDERS: OBESITY 5/13/2012 A condition in which the body MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS weight of a person is 20 percent or more over the ideal body weight for that person’s height (actual percents vary across definitions). 23
  24. 24. EATING DISORDERS: ANOREXIA NERVOSA 5/13/2012 Active self-starvation or sustained loss of appetite that seems to have psychological origins MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Control issues seem to be involved  Very difficult to effectively treat  Affects adolescent females overwhelmingly 24
  25. 25. EATING DISORDERS: BULIMIA NERVOSA(BINGE-PURGE SYNDROME) 5/13/2012 Excessive eating usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Difficult to treat  Prozac approved by FDA to treat bulimia nervosa Affects females overwhelmingly 25
  26. 26. CAUSES OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA AND BULIMIANERVOSA 5/13/2012 Anorectics and bulimics have exaggerated fears of becoming fat; they think they are fat when the opposite is true! MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Bulimics are obsessed with food and weight; anorectics with perfect control Anorectics will often be put on a “weight-gain” diet to restore weight 26
  28. 28. BECOMING AN INFORMED CONSUMER OFPSYCHOLOGY 5/13/2012 There is an easy route to weight control. Keep track of what you eat and what you weigh. MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Eat “big” foods. Exercise. Decrease the influence of external, social stimulus on your eating behaviour. Avoid fad diets. Maintain good eating habits. Set reasonable goals. Don’t feel guilty. 28
  29. 29. THIRST 5/13/2012 Extracellular Thirst: When water is lost from fluids surrounding the cells of the body MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Intracellular Thirst: When fluid is drawn out of cells because of increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell  Best satisfied by drinking water 29
  30. 30. PAIN 5/13/2012 Pain Avoidance: An episodic drive  Occurs in distinct episodes when bodily damage MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS takes place or is about to occur 30
  31. 31. SEX DRIVE 5/13/2012 Estrus: Changes in animals that create a desire for sex; females in heat MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Estrogen: A female sex hormone Androgens: Male hormones Non-homeostatic: Independent of bodily need states 31
  32. 32. THE NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT: STRIVING FORSUCCESS 5/13/2012 A stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS level of excellence. 32
  33. 33. MEASURING ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION 5/13/2012 TAT—Thematic Apperception Test  Developed by Henry Murray, personality theorist MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Projective device consisting of 20 drawings (black and white) of various situations  People must make up stories about the people in it  Central themes are examined and interpreted  Good at revealing feelings about a person’s social relationships 33
  34. 34. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS 34
  35. 35. THE NEED FOR AFFILIATION: STRIVING FORFRIENDSHIP 5/13/2012 An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Individuals with a high need for affiliation write TAT stories that emphasize the desire to maintain or reinstate friendships and show concern over being rejected by friends. 35
  36. 36. THE NEED FOR POWER: STRIVING FORIMPACT ON OTHERS 5/13/2012 A tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others, and to seen as a powerful individual. MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS 36
  37. 37. EMOTIONS
  38. 38. ELEMENTS OF EMOTION 5/13/2012 Emotion - the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings. Components of emotion include  Cognitive: thoughts, beliefs and expectations  Physiological: Internal physical changes related to arousal  Behavioral: Outward signs of an emotional state 38
  39. 39. THE FUNCTION OF EMOTIONS 5/13/2012 Psychologists have identified several important functions that emotions play in our lives: MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Preparing us for action.  Shaping our future behaviour.  Helping us interact more effectively with others. 39
  40. 40. BRAIN AND EMOTION 5/13/2012 Amygdala  Part of limbic system that produces fear MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS responses Autonomic Nervous System (ANS):  Neural system that connects brain with internal organs and glands 40
  41. 41. BRAIN AND EMOTION 5/13/2012 Sympathetic Branch:  Part of ANS that activates body for emergency MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS action Parasympathetic Branch:  Part of ANS that quiets body and conserves energy  Parasympathetic Rebound:  Overreaction to intense emotion 41
  42. 42. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONSFig. 12.15 An amygdala can be found buried within the temporal lobes oneach side of the brain. The amygdala appears to provide “quick and dirty” 42processing of emotional stimuli that allows us to act involuntarily to danger
  43. 43. LIE DETECTORS 5/13/2012 Polygraph:  Device that records heart rate, blood MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response (GSR); lie detector GSR:  Measures sweating Irrelevant Questions:  Neutral, nonthreatening, non-emotional questions in a polygraph test 43
  44. 44. LIE DETECTORS 5/13/2012 Relevant Questions:  Questions to which only someone guilty should react MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Control Questions:  Questions that almost always provoke anxiety in a polygraph (e.g. “Have you ever taken any office supplies?”) 44
  45. 45. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONSFig. 12.17 A typical polygraph includes devices for measuring heart rate, bloodpressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Pens mounted on the top of themachine make a record of bodily responses on a moving strip of paper. (right)Changes in the area marked by the arrow indicate emotional arousal. If such 45responses appear when a person answers a question, he or she may be lying, butother causes of arousal are also possible.
  46. 46. DETECTING LIES 5/13/2012 Illustrators:  Gestures people use to illustrate what they are saying MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Emblems:  Gestures that have widely understood meanings within a particular culture 46
  47. 47. PRIMARY EMOTIONS AND MOOD 5/13/2012 Eight primary emotions (Plutchik, 2001)  Fear MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS  Surprise  Sadness  Disgust  Anger  Anticipation  Joy  Trust Mood: Low-intensity, long-lasting emotional state 47
  48. 48. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS 48
  49. 49. BODY LANGUAGE (KINESICS) 5/13/2012 Study of communication through body movement, posture, gestures, and facial MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS expressions Emotional Tone:  Underlying emotional state Facial Blends:  Mix of two or more basic expressions 49
  50. 50. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONSFig. 12.18 When shown groups of simplified faces (without labels) the angryand scheming faces “jumped out” at people faster than sad, happy, or neutralfaces. 50
  51. 51. COMMON SENSE THEORY OF EMOTION 5/13/2012 Common Sense Theory of Emotion  A stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS bodily arousal. 51
  52. 52. JAMES-LANGE THEORY OF EMOTION 5/13/2012 James-Lange theory of Emotion:  Theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS labeling of an emotion. 52
  53. 53. CANNON-BARD THEORY OF EMOTION 5/13/2012 Cannon-Bard theory of Emotion:  Theory in which the physiological reaction and the MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS emotion are assumed to occur at the same time. 53
  54. 54. SCHACTER AND SINGER’S STUDY OFEMOTION 5/13/2012 Participants who were exposed to the “angry” man interpreted their physical arousal as anger MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Participants who were exposed to the “happy” man interpreted their physical arousal as happiness. 54
  55. 55. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION OF EMOTION 5/13/2012 Voice quality Facial expression MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Body language  Posture and the way we move communicates information Personal space Explicit acts  For example, slamming doors 55
  57. 57. GENDER AND EMOTION 5/13/2012 Men and women feel emotions equally, but express them differently MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Men and women may experience different emotions in the same situation Anger  Men tend to direct their anger outward  Women tend to direct their anger inward Women are more skilled at understanding nonverbal components of emotion 57
  58. 58. CULTURE AND EMOTION 5/13/2012 Expression of emotion can be influenced by cultural norms MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS Some emotional displays are universal Display rules 58
  59. 59. 5/13/2012 MOTIVATIONS AND EMOTIONS 59