On the other hand, new elementary school teachers must pass a rigorous state test in all areas of the elementary school curriculum. As a practical matter, most states are already requiring new teachers, whether generalists or specialists, to pass a general test before they can obtain full state certification.
Anderson, B. T.; Brown, C. L.; Lopez-Ferrao, J. (2003) Systemic reform: Good educational practice with positive impacts and unresolved problems and issues . Review of Policy Research, 20 (4) , 617-627.
Birman, B. F. & Porter, A. C. (2002). Evaluating the effectiveness of education funding streams. Peabody Journal of Education, (77)4, 59-85. Retrieved April 12, 2007, from Academic Premier Search database.
Brownell, M. T., Adams, A., Sindelar, P. , Waldron, N., and Vanhover, S. (2006) Learning from Collaboration: The Role of Teacher Qualities. Exceptional Children , 72(2), 169-185. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Academic Premier Search database.
Chard, D. (2004). Toward a science of professional development in early reading instruction. Exceptionality, 12(3), 175-191. Retrieved July 28, 2006, from Academic Premier Search database.
Dole, J. A., Liang, L. A., Watkins, N. M., & Wiggins, C. M. (2006). The state of reading professionals in the United States. Reading Teacher, 60(2), 194-199.
Gersti-Pepin, C. I. & Woodside-Jiron, H. (2005). Tensions between the “science” of reading and a “love of learning”: One high-poverty school’s struggle with NCLB. Equity & Excellence in Education, 38, 232-241. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Hirsh, S. (2005). Professional development and closing the achievement gap. Theory Into Practice, 44(1), 38-44. Retrieved July 17, 2006, from Academic Premier Search database.
Kinnucan-Welsch, K., Rosemary, C. A., & Grogan, P. R. (2006). Accountability by design in literacy professional development. The Reading Teacher, 59(5), 426-35.
Porter-Magee, K. (2004). Teacher quality, controversy, and NCLB. Clearing House, 78(1), 26-29. Retrieved April 10, 2007, from Academic Premier Search database.
Rhodes, C. S., Wolf, L. B., and Rhodes, G. J. (2005). “Professional Development Laboratory: Center for Literacy and Community Services”. Journal of Children and Poverty , 11(1), 77-85.
Shen, J., Mansberger, N. B., & Yang, H. (2004). Teacher quality and students placed at risk: Results from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study 1993-97. Educational Horizons, 82(3), 226-235. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Thornton, B., Peltier, G., & Perreault, G. (2004). Systems thinking: A skill to improve student achievement. Clearing House, 77(5), 222-227.
Tivnan, T., & Hemphill, L. (2005). Comparing four literacy reform models in high-poverty schools: Patterns of first-grade achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 105(5), 419-441. Retrieved January 13, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Tuerk, P. W. (2005). Research in the high-stakes era: Achievement, resources, and No Child Left Behind. Psychological Science, 16(6), 419-425. Retrieved April 14, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
United States Department of Education (March 2006). Designing schoolwide programs: Non-regulatory guidance. Retrieved May 11, 2007, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/edpicks.jhtml?src=ln
Vaughn, S. & Coleman, M. (2004). The role of mentoring in promoting use of research-based practices in reading. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 25-38. Retrieved July 28, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database.
Walpole, S., Justice, L. M., & Invernizzi, M. A. (2004). Closing the gap between research and practice: Case study of school-wide literacy reform. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 20, 261-283. Retrieved on July 15, 2006, from Academic Premier Search.
Resources on background of NCLB and systems model of change
Banathy, B. H. (1996) Designing social systems in a changing world. New York: Plenum Press.
Bertalanffy, L. von (1968) General system theory: Foundations, development, applications, (rev. ed) . New York: George Braziller.
Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Hoff, D. & Manzo, K. (2007) Bush claims about NCLB questioned. Education Week, 26(27) . Retrieved June 25, 2007 from Academic Search Premier database.
Laszlo, E. (1996) The systems view of the world: A holistic vision for our time. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.
Senge, P. M. (2006) The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency-Doubleday.
Sternberg, R. (1997, March). What does it mean to be smart? [Electronic version]. Educational Leadership , 54(6), 20-24.
United States Department of Education (March 2006). Designing schoolwide programs: Non-regulatory guidance. Retrieved March 10, 2007, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/edpicks.jhtml?src=ln
United States Department of Education, (n.d.) A capsule view of the history of federal education legislation(pdf). Retrieved March 10, 2007, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/leg/edpicks.jhtml?src=ln
Whitehouse, 2007. Building on results: A blueprint for strengthening NCLB . Retrieved March 17, 2007, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2007/initiatives/education.html