Historical Overview• Before Islam, Indians followed three major religions: Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism.• For Arabs this area was a significant trade route to Celone and Indonesia• First ship to India 630 AD• First major Arab attack 712 AD
• Arabs were followed by several different dynasties Ghasnavids (962-1186) Ghurid Dynaty (1149-1206) Delhi Sultanate (1206-1525) The Great Mughal Empire (1526-1857) The great Emperors include Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurengzeb. The last Mughal Emperor: Bahadur Shah Zafar.
• Downfall of the Empire was followed by the Europeans intervention in the area• First European expedition Vasco de Gama: 1498• Portugese were followed by the Netherlands and England.• East India Company• British Raj became official after 1857 and lasted till partition of
• The period between 1857 to 1947 is marked as struggle for independence• Aligarh movement and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan• Formation of Indian National Congress 1885• Partition of Bengal and its annulment 1905-1911• Formation of Muslim League 1906• Khilafat Movement: The last milestone for Hindu- Muslim Unity• Allahbad Address 1930• Government of India Act and elections 1935-37• Pakistan Resolution 1940• Formation of Pakistan 1947
Contending Explanations regarding formation of Pakistan• Several writings available• Partition of India and creation of Pakistan by Ayesha Jalal• Jaswant Singh: Jinnah, Partition India- Pakistan Claims that it was not Jinnah but Nehru and Sardar Patel, their uncompromising attitude led to the partition.• Maulana Azad in “India wins Freedom” also asserts the same point• Afzal Tauseef explains the partition as a result of aspirations of feudal class
• According to Afzal Pakistan was created to preserve the interests of landowners (feudal)• Since Nehru insisted on land reforms• Muslim League: product of British and Nawabs• On the other hand US interests.• League had crucial support of Unionist Party in Punjab which represented feudal Punjabis and jagirdars• Another popular explanation given by Khalid bin Sayeed: Pakistan the Formative Phase.
• In first chapter of his book; Pakistan: the Formative Phase, Sayeed deals with several explanations available• first argument: Pakistan was the result of British politics of divide and rule:• Tensions between Hindus and Muslims ever since the advent of British• Granting of separate electorate to Muslims• This argument can be countered by the fact that tensions remained among Hindu and Muslims even at the time of Akbar and Aurangzeb• Several Muslim and Hindu movements to purify their nation and religion from the evils of other religion
• inability of British to bridge the gap between these two communities.• Muslim stance: Pakistan result of Muslims’ consciousness on one hand and Indian communal attitude on the other• Hindu short sightedness and exclusiveness• The most popular view is the “Two Nation Theory”• Charismatic leadership of Jinnah• Islamic fervour among the Muslims of India• Intense feeling of Islamic nationalism