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    I 2 b I 2 b Document Transcript

    • stockholderDefinitions (2)Save to FavoritesSee Examples1. An individual, group, or organization that holds one or more shares ina company, and in whose name the share certificate is issued. Alsocalled shareholder.economistDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesAn individual who studies and interpretsthe data concerning the factors that influence supply and demand, suchas inflation and unemployment.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/economist.html#ixzz2UVyYJf1acreditorDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesA party to whom money is owed.Common classifications of a creditor include (1) Secured: who has a legal right totake a specific property of the borrower and sell it in case of a default. (2)Unsecured: who does not have any such right. (3) Preferential or senior: whotakes precedence over other creditors in laying claim to a bankrupt borrowersproperty. (4) Junior: whose claim is addressed after satisfying the claims ofpreferential or senior creditors.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/creditor.html#ixzz2UVyo0jvostakeholderDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee Examples
    • A person, group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization.Stakeholders can affect or be affected bythe organizations actions, objectives and policies. Some examplesof key stakeholdersare creditors, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from whichthe business draws its resources.Not all stakeholders are equal.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/stakeholder.html#ixzz2UVzBG6gfoligopolisticDefinitionSave to FavoritesMarket where commodity supply is controlled by a small numberof producers each having the ability to influence prices. Branch ofsocial science dealing with management of production, distribution,and consumption of goods and services.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/oligopolistic.html#ixzz2UVzMGdvMmonopolistic marketDefinitionA situation where only "one" (Greek meaning of"mono") company offers its products or services to the public, thereby creating amonopoly, a sole supplying firm where the consumer has no option or choice butto buy their services or products. When this occurs, and there isno competition, prices will go up to the detriment of the public.Several government agencies keep the formation of monopolies under control,especially in markets like telecommunications, media, and utilities, amongothers.
    • monopolistDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesIndividual that seeks to own a large portion or nearly all of the market for agiven type of product or service. If successful, a monopolist may be able tobecome very rich but the act of creRead more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/monopolist.html#ixzz2UW0aEZg2monopolyDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesMarket situation where one producer (or a group of producers acting inconcert) controls supply of a good or service, and where the entry of newproducers is prevented or highly restricted. Monopolist firms (in their attempt tomaximize profits) keep the price high and restrict the output, and show little orno responsiveness to the needs of their customers. Most governments thereforetry to control monopolies by (1) imposing price controls, (2) taking overtheir ownership (called nationalization), or (3) by breaking them up into two ormore competing firms. Sometimes governments facilitate the creation ofmonopolies for reasons of national security, to realize economies of scale forcompeting internationally, or where two or more producers would be wasteful orpointless (as in the case of utilities). Although monopolies exist invarying degrees (due to copyrights, patents, access to materials,exclusive technologies, or unfair trade practices) almost no firm has a completemonopoly in the era of globalization.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/monopoly.html#ixzz2UW0lyGcAperfect competitionDefinitionThe theoretical free-market situation in which the following conditions are met:(1) buyers and sellers are too numerous and too small to have
    • any degree of individual control over prices, (2) all buyers and sellers seek tomaximize their profit (income), (3) buyers and seller can freely enter or leavethe market, (4) all buyers and sellershave access to information regarding availability, prices,and quality of goods being traded, and (5) all goods of a particular natureare homogeneous, hence substitutable for one another. Also called perfectmarket or pure competition.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/perfect-competition.html#ixzz2UW0wUnKCquotaDefinitions (2)1. Proportionate share or part, such as a sales quota.2. Limitation on the quantity that must not be exceeded, such as an importquota.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/quota.html#ixzz2UW15XTN0embargoDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesOfficial suspension of import and/or export of some specific or all goods, to orfrom a specific port, country, or region, for political, health, or labor relatedreasons, for a specified or indefinite period.R import dutyDefinitiona tax on goods imported into a countryCurrency devaluationA deliberate downward adjustment in the official exchange rates established, or pegged, by agovernment against a specified standard, such as another currency or gold.
    • partnershipDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesA type of business organization in which two ormore individuals pool money, skills, and other resources,and share profit and loss in accordance with terms of the partnership agreement.In absence of such agreement, a partnership is assumed to exit wherethe participants in an enterprise agree to share theassociated risks and rewards proportionately .Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/partnership.html#ixzz2UW2aSTSyjoint stock companyDefinitions (2)Save to FavoritesSee Examples1. In the UK: The original (17th century) name for a corporation in whichthe liability of the owners is limited to the nominal value ofthe stock (shares) held by them.2. In the US: Corporation with unlimited liability forthe shareholders. Investors in a US joint stock company receive stock (shares)which can be transferred, and can elect a board of directors, but are jointly-and-severally liable for companys debts and obligations. A US joint stock companycannot hold title to a realproperty.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/joint-stock-company.html#ixzz2UW2n0G8Zlimited liabilityDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesThe legal protection available to the shareholders of privately and publiclyowned corporations under which the financial liability of each shareholder forthe companys debts and obligations is limited to the par value of his or herfully paid-up shares. The company itself, as a legal entity, is liable for the rest.Also called limited personal liability.
    • Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/limited-liability.html#ixzz2UW2vE9StcompanyDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesA voluntary association formed and organized to carry ona business. Types of companies include sole proprietorship, partnership, limitedliability, corporation, and public limited company.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/company.html#ixzz2UW35FJOnsole proprietorshipDefinitionA business structure in which an individual and his/her company are considereda single entity for tax and liability purposes. A sole proprietorship is a companywhich is not registered with the state as a limited liabilitycompany or corporation. The owner does not pay income tax separately for thecompany, but he/shereports business income or losses on his/herindividual income tax return. The owner is inseparable from thesole proprietorship, so he/she is liable for any business debts. alsocalled proprietorship.Readmore: http://www.investorwords.com/4626/sole_proprietorship.html#ixzz2UW3MoprRcountertradeDefinitionReciprocal trade in which goods or services are exchanged not for cash but forother goods or services. A large part of the internet commerce comprises of localand international counter-trade.
    • Readmore: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/countertrade.html#ixzz2UW3rMl4LDefinition of DumpingIn international trade, the export by a country or company of a product at a pricethat is lower in the foreign market than the price charged in the domestic market. Asdumping usually involves substantial export volumes of the product, it often has theeffect of endangering the financial viability of manufacturers or producers of theproduct in the importing nation. Dumping is also a colloquial term that refers to theact of offloading a stock with little regard for its price.antidumpingIntended to discourage importation and sale of foreign-made goods at prices substantiallybelow domestic prices for the same items.Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/antidumping-1#ixzz2UW4xS4nxtrade deficitDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesExcess of a nations imports of goods (tangibles) over its export of goods duringa financial year, resulting in a negative balance of trade. Oppositeof trade surplus. See also balance of payments.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/trade-deficit.html#ixzz2UW5ORBURtrade surplusdefinition[Save to Favorites][Examples]A positive balance of trade, i.e. exports exceed imports. opposite of tradedeficit.Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions ActIdentity theft crime has grown to epidemic proportions in recent years. With thepassage of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions (FACT) Act, Congressadopted a number of measures aimed at prevention of and help for victims ofidentity theft. Included are provisions for accuracy of information, privacy, limitson information sharing, and new consumer rights to disclosure. The new lawprovides the following rights for consumers.
    • consumerismDefinitions (3)1. Organized-efforts by individuals, groups, and governments to helpprotect consumers from policies and practices that infringe consumer rights tofair business practices.2. Doctrine that ever-increasing consumption of goods and services forms thebasis of a sound economy.3. Continual expansion of ones wants and needs for goods and services.Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/consumerism.html#ixzz2UW7WyvE0corporate governanceDefinitionThe framework of rules and practices by which a board ofdirectors ensures accountability, fairness, and transparency ina companys relationship with its all stakeholders (financiers, customers, management, employees, government, and the community).The corporate governance framework consists of (1) explicit and implicitcontracts between the company and the stakeholdersfor distribution of responsibilities, rights, and rewards, (2) procedures forreconciling the sometimes conflicting interests of stakeholders in accordance withtheir duties, privileges, and roles, and (3) procedures for proper supervision,control, and information-flows to serve as a system of checks-and-balances. Alsocalled corporation governance. See also Cadbury rules and governance.social auditDefinition
    • The process of evaluating a firms various operating procedures, code of conduct,and other factors to determine its effect on a society. The goal is to identifywhat, if any, actions of the firm have impacted the society in some way. A socialaudit may be initiated by a firm that is seeking to improve its cohesiveness orimprove its image within the society. If the results are positive, they may bereleased to the public. For example, if a factory is believed to have anegative impact, the company may have a social audit conducted to identifyactions that actually benefit the society.corporate social responsibilityDefinitionA company’s sense of responsibility towardsthe community and environment (both ecological and social) in whichit operates. Companies express this citizenship (1) through their wasteand pollution reduction processes, (2) by contributing educational andsocial programs, and (3) by earning adequate returns on theemployed resources.entrepreneurDefinitionSomeone who exercises initiative by organizing a venture to take benefit ofan opportunity and, as the decision maker, decides what, how, and how much ofa good or service will be produced.An entrepreneur supplies risk capital as a risk taker,and monitors and controls the business activities. The entrepreneur is usuallya sole proprietor, a partner, or the one who owns the majority of shares inan incorporated venture.According to economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950), entrepreneurs are not necessarily motivated by profit but regard it asa standard for measuring achievement or success.
    • angelsDefinitionsAn individual high-risk investor who likes to make investments inpromising acquisitions. Angels often have valuable business experience and canbe helpful as members of the board of directors.syndicateDefinitions (2)1. Temporary association of two or more individuals or firms to carryout aspecific business venture or project such as large scale real estate development.Syndicates are commonly treatedas corporations or partnerships for tax purposes.2. Group of brokers or insurance underwriters who together acceptthe risk of buying and distributing a new stock issue or an insurance risk.Cost leadershipDefinitionStrategy used by businesses to create a low cost of operation within their niche.The use of this strategy is primarily to gain an advantage over competitors byreducing operation costs below that of others in the same industry.NicheDefinitionA recess in a wall, usually intended for statuary.Often a base and a canopy project out from thewall around the recess.
    • differentiationDefinitionResult of efforts to make a product or brand stand out as a provider ofunique value to customers in comparison with its competitors.deficitDefinitionExcess of expenses over income or liabilities over assets.breakevenDefinitionSave to FavoritesSee ExamplesTo experience neither gain nor loss, neither benefit nor detriment. "During theyear my portfolio was substantially down, but due to some gains near the end ofthe year it was able to reach breakeven."budgetingDefinitionProcess of expressing quantified resource requirements (amount of capital,amount of material, number of people) into time-phased goals and milestones.amortization
    • Definitions (2)1. Accounting: Preferred term for the apportionment (charging or writing off) ofthe cost of an intangible asset as an operational cost over the assets estimateduseful life. It is identical to depreciation, the preferred term for tangible assets.The purpose of both terms is to (1) reflect reduction in the book value of theasset due to usage and/or obsolescence, (2) spread alarge expenditure proportionately over a fixed period, and thereby (3) reducethe taxable income (not the actual or cash income) of a firm. In effect, it isa process by which invested capital of a firm is recovered by gradual sale of thefirms asset(s) to its customers over the years.2. Banking: Gradual repayment of a loan in equal (or nearly equal) installmentswhich include portions of interest and principal amounts.RetaildefinitionSelling directly to consumerswholesaleDefinition[Save to Favorites][See Examples]The sale of goods in quantity for resale purposes.warehouseDefinitionA structure designed for the storage of commercial inventory.agencydefinitions (2)
    • 1. Name for the arrangement where an agent intermediatesbetween buyers and sellers and charges a commission for his participation. Theagent buys and sells for the account of the client, but the client assumes all risk.2. More generally, the relationship between a principal and an agent.business environmentDefinitionSave to FavoritesThe combination of internal and externalfactors that influence a companys operating situation. The business environmentcan include factors suchas: clients and suppliers; its competition and owners; improvements in technology; laws and government activities; and market, social and economic trends.public limited companyDefinitionA company whose securities are traded on a stock exchange and canbe bought and sold by anyone. Public companies are strictly regulated, andare required by law to publish their complete and true financial position sothat investors can determine the true worth of its stock (shares). Alsocalled publicly held company.Public limited company and its abbreviation Plc arecommonly used in the UK in the way that corporation and Inc. is used inthe United States.Top 10 Methods to Raise a Capital for YourSmall Business.The following are the top 10 ways to raising capital for a smallbusiness.
    • i. Part-time income: When no substantial amount of capital isrequired in the initial start up, you can create a part time incomestream to fund your business venture. While doing that, you utilizethe spare time to study the nuts and bolts of the industry you intendto get involved in.ii. Love money: This is the money that come from people withwhom you have establish your credibility, people who have knownyou for long time, or people closest to you such as relatives andfamily. It is advisable to have every detail of the loan in writtenagreement regardless of your relationship with them.iii. Personal loan: If you have good credit standing or valuableproperty, you can get a personal loan from financial institution.Most financial institution will require you to have a business planwith projected revenue and financing strategy.iv. Angel investors: These are individuals with money but notime or experience to run a business. They are usually self-employed professionals such as physicians, lawyers and etc. If youcan show them how to get a reasonable return on their money in areasonable amount of time, they will usually say yes. However,angel investors are usually very unhappy when the return is not asmuch as they expected.v. Joint Venture Partner: You can utilize other people’sresources, or even credibility to get angel investors. Otherwise you
    • can get them to contribute to your efforts in creating value to themarket you serve.vi. Personal Savings: This is self-explanatory.vii. Line of Credit: This is also referred to as the maximum loan abank will allow the borrower for one-year period. Most commonlyused to seasonal financing such as inventory built-up andreceivable financing. It could be unsecured but sometimes bankmay require a pledge of inventory, receivables, equipment, or otheracceptable assets.viii. Private placement: This is a source of equity capital forprivate company that has decided not to go public. It is commonlyused by company to raise a specific amount of capital in a shortperiod of time. The company will offers stock to a few privateinvestors, rather than announcing public offering.ix. Capital reinvestment: Start small. Monitor the cash inflowand outflow of your organization very carefully. Instead of writing apaycheck to yourself to satisfy your instant gratification, reinvestthe earned income into the business operation to generate morecash flow.x. Public Offering: Commonly referred to as IPO, or Initial PublicOffering. Company raises capital through federally registered andunderwritten sales of the company’s shares. It is advisable for youto consult with lawyers and accountants with the recent regulationsand statues that governs IPO.
    • Be Sociable, Share!DIFFERENCE B/W HIRING ANDRECRUITMENThriring is thisA union-operated placement center where jobs from variousemployers are allotted to registered applicants according to a setorder.and this hiring takes places internallyRecruitment is the process of searching the candidates foremployment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the ...companywhich any company or industry it may be a IT , ITES, BPO , KPO ORRETAIL , AIRLINE , BANKING ETCCCC :D :)attributionintensive distributionDefinitionA marketing strategy under which a company sells through as many outlets aspossible, so that the consumers encounter the product virtually everywhere theygo: supermarkets, drug stores, gas stations, and the like. Soft drinks aregenerally made available through intensive distribution.exclusive distributionDefinitionSituation where suppliers and distributors enter into an exclusive agreement thatonly allows the named distributor to sell a specific product. For example, Applehad an exclusive distribution deal with AT&T to provide the iPhone to consumers.whistleblowing
    • The term whistleblowing can be defined as raising a concern about a wrong doing within anorganization. The concern must be a genuine concern about a crime, criminal offence,miscarriage of justice, dangers to health and safety and of the environment – And the coverup of any of these.SWOT analysisSituation analysis in which internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization,and external opportunities and threats faced by it are closely examinedto chart a strategy. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, andthreats. See also PEST analysis.competitive environmentThe competitive environment of a business is the part of a companys external environment thatconsists of other firms trying to win customers in the same market. It is the segment of theindustry that includes all immediate rivals.