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    10erobbins ppt09   r 10erobbins ppt09 r Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–1OrganizationalOrganizationalStructure andStructure andDesignDesignChapterChapter99ManagementStephen P. Robbins Mary Coultertenth edition
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–2Learning OutcomesLearning OutcomesFollow this Learning Outline as you read and studyFollow this Learning Outline as you read and studythis chapter.this chapter.9.1 Defining Organizational Structure9.1 Defining Organizational Structure• Discuss the traditional and contemporary views ofDiscuss the traditional and contemporary views ofwork specialization, chain of command, and span ofwork specialization, chain of command, and span ofcontrol.control.• Describe each of the five forms ofDescribe each of the five forms ofdepartmentalization.departmentalization.• Differentiate, authority, responsibility, and unity ofDifferentiate, authority, responsibility, and unity ofcommand.command.• Explain how centralization – decentralization andExplain how centralization – decentralization andformalization are used in organizational design.formalization are used in organizational design.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–3Learning OutcomesLearning Outcomes9.2 Mechanistic and Organic Structures9.2 Mechanistic and Organic Structures• Contrast mechanistic and organic organizations.Contrast mechanistic and organic organizations.• Explain the contingency factors that affectExplain the contingency factors that affectorganizational design.organizational design.9.3 Common Organizational Designs9.3 Common Organizational Designs• Contrast the three traditional organizational designs.Contrast the three traditional organizational designs.• Describe the contemporary organizational designs.Describe the contemporary organizational designs.• Discuss the organizational design challenges facingDiscuss the organizational design challenges facingmanagers today.managers today.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–4Designing Organizational StructureDesigning Organizational Structure• OrganizingOrganizing Arranging and structuring work to accomplish an organization’sArranging and structuring work to accomplish an organization’sgoals.goals.• Organizational StructureOrganizational Structure The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization.The formal arrangement of jobs within an organization.• Organizational DesignOrganizational Design A process involving decisions about six key elements:A process involving decisions about six key elements: Work specializationWork specialization DepartmentalizationDepartmentalization Chain of commandChain of command Span of controlSpan of control Centralization and decentralizationCentralization and decentralization FormalizationFormalization
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–5Exhibit 9–1Exhibit 9–1 Purposes of OrganizingPurposes of Organizing• Divides work to be done into specific jobs anddepartments.• Assigns tasks and responsibilities associated withindividual jobs.• Coordinates diverse organizational tasks.• Clusters jobs into units.• Establishes relationships among individuals,groups, and departments.• Establishes formal lines of authority.• Allocates and deploys organizational resources.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–6Organizational StructureOrganizational Structure• Work SpecializationWork Specialization The degree to which tasks in the organization areThe degree to which tasks in the organization aredivided into separate jobs with each step completeddivided into separate jobs with each step completedby a different person.by a different person. Overspecialization can result in human diseconomiesOverspecialization can result in human diseconomiesfrom boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increasedfrom boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increasedabsenteeism, and higher turnover.absenteeism, and higher turnover.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–7Departmentalization by TypeDepartmentalization by Type• FunctionalFunctional Grouping jobs byGrouping jobs byfunctions performedfunctions performed• ProductProduct Grouping jobs by productGrouping jobs by productlineline• GeographicalGeographical Grouping jobs on theGrouping jobs on thebasis of territory orbasis of territory orgeographygeography• ProcessProcess Grouping jobs on theGrouping jobs on thebasis of product orbasis of product orcustomer flowcustomer flow• CustomerCustomer Grouping jobs by type ofGrouping jobs by type ofcustomer and needscustomer and needs
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–8Exhibit 9–2Exhibit 9–2 The Five Common Forms ofDepartmentalization
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–9Exhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Geographical DepartmentalizationExhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Geographical Departmentalization
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–10Exhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Product DepartmentalizationExhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Product Departmentalization
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–11Exhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Process DepartmentalizationExhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Process Departmentalization+ More efficient flow of work activities– Can only be used with certain types of products
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–12Exhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Customer DepartmentalizationExhibit 9–2 (cont’d) Customer Departmentalization+ Customers’ needs and problems can be met by specialists- Duplication of functions- Limited view of organizational goals
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–13Organizational Structure (cont’d)Organizational Structure (cont’d)• Chain of CommandChain of Command The continuous line of authority that extends fromThe continuous line of authority that extends fromupper levels of an organization to the lowest levels ofupper levels of an organization to the lowest levels ofthe organization and clarifies who reports to whom.the organization and clarifies who reports to whom.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–14Organizational Structure (cont’d)Organizational Structure (cont’d)• AuthorityAuthority The rights inherent in a managerial position to tellThe rights inherent in a managerial position to tellpeople what to do and to expect them to do it.people what to do and to expect them to do it.• ResponsibilityResponsibility The obligation or expectation to perform.The obligation or expectation to perform.• Unity of CommandUnity of Command The concept that a person should have one boss andThe concept that a person should have one boss andshould report only to that person.should report only to that person.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–15Organizational Structure (cont’d)Organizational Structure (cont’d)• Span of ControlSpan of Control The number of employees who can be effectively and efficientlyThe number of employees who can be effectively and efficientlysupervised by a manager.supervised by a manager. Width of span is affected by:Width of span is affected by: Skills and abilities of the managerSkills and abilities of the manager Employee characteristicsEmployee characteristics Characteristics of the work being doneCharacteristics of the work being done Similarity of tasksSimilarity of tasks Complexity of tasksComplexity of tasks Physical proximity of subordinatesPhysical proximity of subordinates Standardization of tasksStandardization of tasks Sophistication of the organization’s information systemSophistication of the organization’s information system Strength of the organization’s cultureStrength of the organization’s culture Preferred style of the managerPreferred style of the manager
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–16Exhibit 9–3Exhibit 9–3 Contrasting Spans of ControlContrasting Spans of Control
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–17Organizational Structure (cont’d)Organizational Structure (cont’d)• CentralizationCentralization The degree to which decision making is concentratedThe degree to which decision making is concentratedat upper levels in the organization.at upper levels in the organization. Organizations in which top managers make all the decisionsOrganizations in which top managers make all the decisionsand lower-level employees simply carry out those orders.and lower-level employees simply carry out those orders.• DecentralizationDecentralization Organizations in which decision making is pushedOrganizations in which decision making is pusheddown to the managers who are closest to the action.down to the managers who are closest to the action.• Employee EmpowermentEmployee Empowerment Increasing the decision-making authority (power) ofIncreasing the decision-making authority (power) ofemployees.employees.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–18Exhibit 9–4Exhibit 9–4 Factors that Influence the Amount ofFactors that Influence the Amount ofCentralization and DecentralizationCentralization and Decentralization• More CentralizationMore Centralization Environment is stable.Environment is stable. Lower-level managers are not as capable or experienced atLower-level managers are not as capable or experienced atmaking decisions as upper-level managers.making decisions as upper-level managers. Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in decisions.Lower-level managers do not want to have a say in decisions. Decisions are relatively minor.Decisions are relatively minor. Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure.Organization is facing a crisis or the risk of company failure. Company is large.Company is large. Effective implementation of company strategies depends onEffective implementation of company strategies depends onmanagers retaining say over what happens.managers retaining say over what happens.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–19Exhibit 9–4 (cont’d) Factors that Influence the AmountExhibit 9–4 (cont’d) Factors that Influence the Amountof Centralization and Decentralizationof Centralization and Decentralization• More DecentralizationMore Decentralization Environment is complex, uncertain.Environment is complex, uncertain. Lower-level managers are capable and experienced at makingLower-level managers are capable and experienced at makingdecisions.decisions. Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions.Lower-level managers want a voice in decisions. Decisions are significant.Decisions are significant. Corporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a say inCorporate culture is open to allowing managers to have a say inwhat happens.what happens. Company is geographically dispersed.Company is geographically dispersed. Effective implementation of company strategies depends onEffective implementation of company strategies depends onmanagers having involvement and flexibility to make decisions.managers having involvement and flexibility to make decisions.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–20Organizational Structure (cont’d)Organizational Structure (cont’d)• FormalizationFormalization The degree to which jobs within the organization areThe degree to which jobs within the organization arestandardized and the extent to which employeestandardized and the extent to which employeebehavior is guided by rules and procedures.behavior is guided by rules and procedures. Highly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is to beHighly formalized jobs offer little discretion over what is to bedone.done. Low formalization means fewer constraints on howLow formalization means fewer constraints on howemployees do their work.employees do their work.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–21Exhibit 9–5Exhibit 9–5 Mechanistic Versus Organic OrganizationMechanistic Versus Organic Organization• High specialization• Rigid departmentalization• Clear chain of command• Narrow spans of control• Centralization• High formalization• Cross-functional teams• Cross-hierarchical teams• Free flow of information• Wide spans of control• Decentralization• Low formalization
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–22Contingency FactorsContingency Factors• Structural decisions are influenced by:Structural decisions are influenced by: Overall strategy of the organizationOverall strategy of the organization Organizational structure follows strategy.Organizational structure follows strategy. Size of the organizationSize of the organization Firms change from organic to mechanistic organizations asFirms change from organic to mechanistic organizations asthey grow in size.they grow in size. Technology use by the organizationTechnology use by the organization Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use.Firms adapt their structure to the technology they use. Degree of environmental uncertaintyDegree of environmental uncertainty Dynamic environments require organic structures;Dynamic environments require organic structures;mechanistic structures need stable environments.mechanistic structures need stable environments.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–23Contingency Factors (cont’d)Contingency Factors (cont’d)• Strategy Frameworks:Strategy Frameworks: InnovationInnovation Pursuing competitive advantage through meaningful andPursuing competitive advantage through meaningful andunique innovations favors an organic structuring.unique innovations favors an organic structuring. Cost minimizationCost minimization Focusing on tightly controlling costs requires a mechanisticFocusing on tightly controlling costs requires a mechanisticstructure for the organization.structure for the organization.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–24Contingency Factors (cont’d)Contingency Factors (cont’d)• Strategy and StructureStrategy and Structure Achievement of strategic goals is facilitated byAchievement of strategic goals is facilitated bychanges in organizational structure thatchanges in organizational structure thataccommodate and support change.accommodate and support change.• Size and StructureSize and Structure As an organization grows larger, its structure tends toAs an organization grows larger, its structure tends tochange from organic to mechanistic with increasedchange from organic to mechanistic with increasedspecialization, departmentalization, centralization,specialization, departmentalization, centralization,and rules and regulations.and rules and regulations.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–25Contingency Factors (cont’d)Contingency Factors (cont’d)• Technology and StructureTechnology and Structure Organizations adapt their structures to theirOrganizations adapt their structures to theirtechnology.technology. Woodward’s classification of firms based on theWoodward’s classification of firms based on thecomplexity of the technology employed:complexity of the technology employed: Unit productionUnit production of single units or small batchesof single units or small batches Mass productionMass production of large batches of outputof large batches of output Process productionProcess production in continuous process of outputsin continuous process of outputs Routine technology = mechanistic organizationsRoutine technology = mechanistic organizations Non-routine technology = organic organizationsNon-routine technology = organic organizations
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–26Exhibit 9–6Exhibit 9–6 Woodward’s Findings on Technology,Woodward’s Findings on Technology,Structure, and EffectivenessStructure, and Effectiveness
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–27Contingency Factors (cont’d)Contingency Factors (cont’d)• Environmental Uncertainty and StructureEnvironmental Uncertainty and Structure Mechanistic organizational structures tend to be mostMechanistic organizational structures tend to be mosteffective in stable and simple environments.effective in stable and simple environments. The flexibility of organic organizational structures isThe flexibility of organic organizational structures isbetter suited for dynamic and complex environments.better suited for dynamic and complex environments.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–28Common Organizational DesignsCommon Organizational Designs• Traditional DesignsTraditional Designs Simple structureSimple structure Low departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralizedLow departmentalization, wide spans of control, centralizedauthority, little formalizationauthority, little formalization Functional structureFunctional structure Departmentalization by functionDepartmentalization by function– Operations, finance, marketing, human resources, andOperations, finance, marketing, human resources, andproduct research and developmentproduct research and development Divisional structureDivisional structure Composed of separate business units or divisions with limitedComposed of separate business units or divisions with limitedautonomy under the coordination and control the parentautonomy under the coordination and control the parentcorporation.corporation.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–29Exhibit 9–7Exhibit 9–7 Strengths and Weaknesses of TraditionalStrengths and Weaknesses of TraditionalOrganizational DesignsOrganizational Designs
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–30Exhibit 9–8Exhibit 9–8 Contemporary Organizational DesignsContemporary Organizational DesignsTeam StructureTeam Structure•• What it is:What it is: A structure in which the entire organization is made up ofA structure in which the entire organization is made up ofwork groups or teams.work groups or teams.•• Advantages:Advantages: Employees are more involved and empowered. ReducedEmployees are more involved and empowered. Reducedbarriers among functional areas.barriers among functional areas.•• Disadvantages:Disadvantages: No clear chain of command. Pressure on teams to perform.No clear chain of command. Pressure on teams to perform.Matrix-Project StructureMatrix-Project StructureWhat it is:What it is: A structure that assigns specialists from different functionalA structure that assigns specialists from different functionalareas to work on projects but who return to their areas whenareas to work on projects but who return to their areas whenthe project is completed. Project is a structure in whichthe project is completed. Project is a structure in whichemployees continuously work on projects. As one project isemployees continuously work on projects. As one project iscompleted, employees move on to the next project.completed, employees move on to the next project.•• Advantages:Advantages: Fluid and flexible design that can respond to environmentalFluid and flexible design that can respond to environmentalchanges. Faster decision making.changes. Faster decision making.•• Disadvantages:Disadvantages: Complexity of assigning people to projects. Task andComplexity of assigning people to projects. Task andpersonality conflicts.personality conflicts.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–31Exhibit 9–8 (cont’dExhibit 9–8 (cont’d ) Contemporary Organizational) Contemporary OrganizationalDesignsDesignsBoundaryless StructureBoundaryless StructureWhat it is:What it is: A structure that is not defined by or limited to artificialA structure that is not defined by or limited to artificialhorizontal, vertical, or external boundaries; includes virtualhorizontal, vertical, or external boundaries; includes virtualand network types of organizations.and network types of organizations.•• Advantages:Advantages: Highly flexible and responsive. Draws on talent wherever it’sHighly flexible and responsive. Draws on talent wherever it’sfound.found.•• Disadvantages:Disadvantages: Lack of control. Communication difficulties.Lack of control. Communication difficulties.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–32Organizational Designs (cont’d)Organizational Designs (cont’d)• Contemporary Organizational DesignsContemporary Organizational Designs Team structuresTeam structures The entire organization is made up of work groups or self-The entire organization is made up of work groups or self-managed teams of empowered employees.managed teams of empowered employees. Matrix and project structuresMatrix and project structures Specialists from different functional departments areSpecialists from different functional departments areassigned to work on projects led by project managers.assigned to work on projects led by project managers. Matrix and project participants have two managers.Matrix and project participants have two managers. In project structures, employees work continuously onIn project structures, employees work continuously onprojects; moving on to another project as each project isprojects; moving on to another project as each project iscompleted.completed.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–33Organizational Designs (cont’d)Organizational Designs (cont’d)• Contemporary Organizational Designs (cont’d)Contemporary Organizational Designs (cont’d) Boundaryless OrganizationBoundaryless Organization An flexible and unstructured organizational design that isAn flexible and unstructured organizational design that isintended to break down external barriers between theintended to break down external barriers between theorganization and its customers and suppliers.organization and its customers and suppliers. Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries:Removes internal (horizontal) boundaries:– Eliminates the chain of commandEliminates the chain of command– Has limitless spans of controlHas limitless spans of control– Uses empowered teams rather than departmentsUses empowered teams rather than departments Eliminates external boundaries:Eliminates external boundaries:– Uses virtual, network, and modular organizationalUses virtual, network, and modular organizationalstructures to get closer to stakeholders.structures to get closer to stakeholders.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–34Removing External BoundariesRemoving External Boundaries• Virtual OrganizationVirtual Organization An organization that consists of a small core of full-timeAn organization that consists of a small core of full-timeemployees and that temporarily hires specialists to work onemployees and that temporarily hires specialists to work onopportunities that arise.opportunities that arise.• Network OrganizationNetwork Organization A small core organization that outsources its majorA small core organization that outsources its majorbusiness functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order tobusiness functions (e.g., manufacturing) in order toconcentrate on what it does best.concentrate on what it does best.• Modular OrganizationModular Organization A manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers toA manufacturing organization that uses outside suppliers toprovide product components for its final assemblyprovide product components for its final assemblyoperations.operations.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–35Today’s Organizational DesignToday’s Organizational DesignChallengesChallenges• Keeping Employees ConnectedKeeping Employees Connected Widely dispersed and mobile employeesWidely dispersed and mobile employees• Building a Learning OrganizationBuilding a Learning Organization• Managing Global Structural IssuesManaging Global Structural Issues Cultural implications of design elementsCultural implications of design elements
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–36Organizational Designs (cont’d)Organizational Designs (cont’d)• The Learning OrganizationThe Learning Organization An organization that has developed the capacity toAn organization that has developed the capacity tocontinuously learn, adapt, and change through thecontinuously learn, adapt, and change through thepractice of knowledge management by employees.practice of knowledge management by employees. Characteristics of a learning organization:Characteristics of a learning organization: An open team-based organization design that empowersAn open team-based organization design that empowersemployeesemployees Extensive and open information sharingExtensive and open information sharing Leadership that provides a shared vision of the organization’sLeadership that provides a shared vision of the organization’sfuture.future. A strong culture of shared values, trust, openness, and aA strong culture of shared values, trust, openness, and asense of community.sense of community.
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–37Terms to KnowTerms to Know• organizingorganizing• organizational structureorganizational structure• organizational chartorganizational chart• organizational designorganizational design• work specializationwork specialization• departmentalizationdepartmentalization• cross-functional teamscross-functional teams• chain of commandchain of command• authorityauthority• responsibilityresponsibility• unity of commandunity of command• span of controlspan of control• centralizationcentralization• decentralizationdecentralization• employee empowermentemployee empowerment• formalizationformalization• mechanistic organizationmechanistic organization• organic organizationorganic organization• unit productionunit production• mass productionmass production• process productionprocess production• simple structuresimple structure• functional structurefunctional structure• divisional structuredivisional structure• team structureteam structure• matrix structurematrix structure• project structureproject structure• boundaryless organizationboundaryless organization• virtual organizationvirtual organization• network organizationnetwork organization• learning organizationlearning organization
    • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9–38All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or bystored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or byany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orotherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.Printed in the United States of America.