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Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
Anatomy Introduction
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Anatomy Introduction

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MD 1 Anatomy

MD 1 Anatomy

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  • 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy
  • 2.
    • Hipocrates-father of medicine (4th cent B.C.)-Hippocratic oath attributed
  • 3. Biology Medicine Morphology Embryology Anatomy Histology
  • 4. Levels of Structural Organization
  • 5.
    • Anatomy : Anatome Greek “to cut up”-cutting up-dissecting ( is now a technique )
    • A natomy is a discipline, a branch of morphology
  • 6.
    • Anatomy is the study of living human being- study on cadaver
    • Anatomy primarily deals with the structure and function
    • Dissecting human body and studying its structure by this method is called the gross anatomy
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • Knowledge of anatomy is essential during:
    • Physical examination:
      • Inspection, palpation, auscultation, percussion
        • E.g. Chest pain, abdominal pain
    • Surgery
  • 9.
    • As complex methods were invented to examine the human body a new discipline s arise.
      • Microscopic anatomy or histology
      • P athology (name of the discipline and also a general term indicating a disease condition)
  • 10.
    • After the discovery of the x-ray radiological an a tomy developed.
      • One must know the normal structures in order to diagnose the pathologic conditions.
  • 11.
    • In anatomy courses the body may be examined by regionally or s ystematically
  • 12.
    • Regional anatomy
    • Thorax
    • Abdomen
    • Pelvis and perineum
    • Lower limb, upper limb
    • Back
    • Head and neck
  • 13.
    • Systematic anatomy
      • . Integumentary system
      • . Skeletal system
      • . Articular system
      • . Muscular system
      • . Nervous system
      • . Circulatory system
      • . Digestive system
      • . Respiratory system
      • . Urinary system
      • . Reproductive system
      • . Endocrine system
  • 14. Organ System Overview
    • Integumentary
      • Forms the external body covering
      • Protects deeper tissue from injury/elements
      • Synthesizes vitamin D
      • Location of cutaneous nerve receptors
    Figure 1.2a
  • 15. Organ System Overview
    • Skeletal
      • Protects and supports body organs
      • Provides muscle attachment for movement
      • Site of blood cell formation
      • Stores mineral
  • 16. Organ System Overview
    • Muscular
      • Allows locomotion
      • Maintains posture
      • Produces heat
      • Last source of energy
    Figure 1.2c
  • 17. Organ System Overview
    • Nervous
      • Thinking
      • Fast-acting control system
      • Sensory and motor input
      • Responds to internal and external change
      • Activates muscles and glands
  • 18. Organ System Overview
    • Endocrine
      • Secretes regulatory hormones
        • Growth
        • Reproduction
        • Metabolism
    Figure 1.2e
  • 19. Organ System Overview
    • Cardiovascular
      • Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart
        • Oxygen
        • Carbon dioxide
        • Nutrients
        • Wastes
  • 20. Organ System Overview
    • Lymphatic
      • Returns fluids to blood vessels
      • Disposes of debris
      • Involved in immunity
  • 21. Organ System Overview
    • Respiratory
      • Filters air impurities
      • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
      • Removes carbon dioxide
      • Regulates acid/base balance
    Figure 1.2h
  • 22. Organ System Overview
    • Digestive
      • Breaks down food
      • Allows for nutrient absorption into blood
      • Eliminates indigestible material
    Figure 1.2i
  • 23. Organ System Overview
    • Urinary
      • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
      • Maintains acid – base balance
      • Regulates water and electrolytes
  • 24. Organ System Overview
    • Reproductive
      • Production of offspring
  • 25. Homeostasis
    • Maintenance of a stable internal environment = a dynamic state of equilibrium
    • Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life
    • Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
  • 26. Overview of Homeostasis Figure 1.4
  • 27. Maintaining Homeostasis
    • The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems
      • Receptor
        • Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli)
        • Sends information to control center
  • 28. Maintaining Homeostasis
      • Control center
        • Determines set point
        • Analyzes information
        • Determines appropriate response
      • Effector
        • Provides a means for response to the stimulus
  • 29. Orientation and Directional Terms Table 1.1
  • 30. Orientation and Directional Terms Table 1.1 (cont)
  • 31. Body Landmarks
    • Anterior
  • 32. Body Landmarks
    • Posterior
  • 33. Abdominopelvic Regions
  • 34. Body Planes
  • 35. Body Cavities
  • 36. Abdominopelvic Quadrants Figure 1.8a
  • 37. Abdominopelvic Major Organs Figure 1.8c
  • 38.
    • Clinical anatomy
    • Deals with the important clinical aspects of body regions and systems
    • Most relevant for your USMLE and clinical practice as a physician.
  • 39.
    • Anatomical Position
    • When describing body parts it is always assumed that the patient is in anatomical position
      • Standing erect, head, eyes, toes directed forward, heels and toes together, upper limbs hanging by the sides palms facing to the front.
  • 40.  
  • 41.
    • Planes of the body
    • Transverse (horizontal , axial )
    • S agital
    • C oronal
  • 42.
    • TERMINOLOGY
  • 43.
    • Terms of relationship and direction
    • Anterior (front, ventral),
    • posterior (behind, dorsal),
    • superior (above, cranial, cephalic, rostral)
    • inferior (below, caudal),
    • medial,
    • lateral,
    • intermediate
  • 44.
    • Terms of comparison
    • Proximal (close to the trunk or point of origin), Distal (away from the trunk or point of origin), superficial (surface), deep (profundus or profound),
    • interior (inside, inner, internal), exterior (outside, outer, external)
    • Ipsilateral (same side), contralateral (opposite side), Ambilateral (both sides of body).
    • Combined terms: inferomedial, anterosuperior etc.
  • 45.
    • Terms of movement
    • Flexion, extension,
    • abduction, adduction,
    • circumduction, rotation
    • Inversion (big toe up), eversion (big toe down) (feet)
    • Pronation, supination (hands)
    • Protraction (fwd), retraction (pull in), elevation, depression
  • 46.  
  • 47.
    • Anatomical variations

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