Anatomy Introduction


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MD 1 Anatomy

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Anatomy Introduction

  1. 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy
  2. 2. <ul><li>Hipocrates-father of medicine (4th cent B.C.)-Hippocratic oath attributed </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biology Medicine Morphology Embryology Anatomy Histology
  4. 4. Levels of Structural Organization
  5. 5. <ul><li>Anatomy : Anatome Greek “to cut up”-cutting up-dissecting ( is now a technique ) </li></ul><ul><li>A natomy is a discipline, a branch of morphology </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Anatomy is the study of living human being- study on cadaver </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy primarily deals with the structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Dissecting human body and studying its structure by this method is called the gross anatomy </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Knowledge of anatomy is essential during: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection, palpation, auscultation, percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Chest pain, abdominal pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>As complex methods were invented to examine the human body a new discipline s arise. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic anatomy or histology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P athology (name of the discipline and also a general term indicating a disease condition) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>After the discovery of the x-ray radiological an a tomy developed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One must know the normal structures in order to diagnose the pathologic conditions. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>In anatomy courses the body may be examined by regionally or s ystematically </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Regional anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Thorax </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvis and perineum </li></ul><ul><li>Lower limb, upper limb </li></ul><ul><li>Back </li></ul><ul><li>Head and neck </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Systematic anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. Integumentary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Skeletal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Articular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Muscular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Circulatory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Digestive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Urinary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Reproductive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. Endocrine system </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the external body covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects deeper tissue from injury/elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesizes vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of cutaneous nerve receptors </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2a
  14. 15. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects and supports body organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides muscle attachment for movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of blood cell formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores mineral </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last source of energy </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2c
  16. 17. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-acting control system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory and motor input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to internal and external change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activates muscles and glands </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes regulatory hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul></ul></ul>Figure 1.2e
  18. 19. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns fluids to blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposes of debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in immunity </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters air impurities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps blood supplied with oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates acid/base balance </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2h
  21. 22. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for nutrient absorption into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates indigestible material </li></ul></ul>Figure 1.2i
  22. 23. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Urinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates nitrogenous wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains acid – base balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates water and electrolytes </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of offspring </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Homeostasis <ul><li>Maintenance of a stable internal environment = a dynamic state of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease </li></ul>
  25. 26. Overview of Homeostasis Figure 1.4
  26. 27. Maintaining Homeostasis <ul><li>The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends information to control center </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Maintaining Homeostasis <ul><ul><li>Control center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines set point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines appropriate response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a means for response to the stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Orientation and Directional Terms Table 1.1
  29. 30. Orientation and Directional Terms Table 1.1 (cont)
  30. 31. Body Landmarks <ul><li>Anterior </li></ul>
  31. 32. Body Landmarks <ul><li>Posterior </li></ul>
  32. 33. Abdominopelvic Regions
  33. 34. Body Planes
  34. 35. Body Cavities
  35. 36. Abdominopelvic Quadrants Figure 1.8a
  36. 37. Abdominopelvic Major Organs Figure 1.8c
  37. 38. <ul><li>Clinical anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the important clinical aspects of body regions and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Most relevant for your USMLE and clinical practice as a physician. </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Anatomical Position </li></ul><ul><li>When describing body parts it is always assumed that the patient is in anatomical position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing erect, head, eyes, toes directed forward, heels and toes together, upper limbs hanging by the sides palms facing to the front. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Planes of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse (horizontal , axial ) </li></ul><ul><li>S agital </li></ul><ul><li>C oronal </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>TERMINOLOGY </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Terms of relationship and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior (front, ventral), </li></ul><ul><li>posterior (behind, dorsal), </li></ul><ul><li>superior (above, cranial, cephalic, rostral) </li></ul><ul><li>inferior (below, caudal), </li></ul><ul><li>medial, </li></ul><ul><li>lateral, </li></ul><ul><li>intermediate </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>Terms of comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal (close to the trunk or point of origin), Distal (away from the trunk or point of origin), superficial (surface), deep (profundus or profound), </li></ul><ul><li>interior (inside, inner, internal), exterior (outside, outer, external) </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilateral (same side), contralateral (opposite side), Ambilateral (both sides of body). </li></ul><ul><li>Combined terms: inferomedial, anterosuperior etc. </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Terms of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion, extension, </li></ul><ul><li>abduction, adduction, </li></ul><ul><li>circumduction, rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion (big toe up), eversion (big toe down) (feet) </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation, supination (hands) </li></ul><ul><li>Protraction (fwd), retraction (pull in), elevation, depression </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Anatomical variations </li></ul>