Typhoid fever — also known simply as typhoid— is a common
worldwide bacterial disease transmitted by the ingestion of food
or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which
contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica enterica, serovar
The disease has received various names, such as gastric
fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow
fever, nervous fever and pythogenic fever. The name typhoid
means "resembling typhus" and comes from the neuropsychiatric
symptoms common to typhoid and typhus.Despite this similarity
of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and
are caused by different species of bacteria.
The impact of this disease fell sharply in the developed world
with the application of 20th-century sanitation techniques.
reɪbiˈz; from Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis
in warm-blooded animals. The disease is zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted to humans from
another species (such as dogs), commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is
almost invariably fatal if postexposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe
symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the
brain and death.
The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of
the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to
reach the central nervous system. Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and
symptoms begin to show, the infection is virtually untreatable and usually fatal within days.
Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent
movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia. Finally, the patient may
experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death
is usually respiratory insufficiency.
Rabies causes about 55,000 human deaths annually worldwide. 95% of human deaths due to rabies
occur in Asia and Africa. Roughly 97% of human rabies cases result from dog bites.] In the United
States, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as
reservoirs of rabies. In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and Singapore, rabies carried
by terrestrial animals has been eliminated entirely. While classical rabies has been eradicated in
the United Kingdom, bats infected with a related virus have been found in the country on rare
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious
disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis typically
attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have
an active TB infection cough, sneeze, or otherwise transmit respiratory fluids through the air.Most infections
are asymptomatic and latent, but about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease
which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of those so infected.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are
watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been
contaminated by the feces (waste product) of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms.
Severe cholera, requiring hospitalization, results from the accumulation of about a million bacterial cells
within the body.These cells can be picked up from unsafe drinking water or from eating oysters that have
ingested cholera-carrying zooplankton.The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration
and electrolyte imbalance, and death in some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration
therapy, typically with oral rehydration solution, to replace water and electrolytes. If this is not tolerated or
does not provide improvement fast enough, intravenous fluids can also be used. Antibacterial drugs are
beneficial in those with severe disease to shorten its duration and severity. Worldwide, it affects 3–5 million
people and causes 100,000–130,000 deaths a year as of 2010[update]. Cholera was one of the earliest infections to
be studied by epidemiological methods.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio
cholerae. The main symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission
occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated
by the feces (waste product) of an infected person, including one with no
apparent symptoms. Severe cholera, requiring hospitalization, results from the
accumulation of about a million bacterial cells within the body.These cells can
be picked up from unsafe drinking water or from eating oysters that have
ingested cholera-carrying zooplankton. The severity of the diarrhea and
vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and death in
some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy, typically with
oral rehydration solution, to replace water and electrolytes. If this is not
tolerated or does not provide improvement fast enough, intravenous fluids can
also be used. Antibacterial drugs are beneficial in those with severe disease to
shorten its duration and severity. Worldwide, it affects 3–5 million people and
causes 100,000–130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. Cholera was one of the earliest
infections to be studied by epidemiological methods.
Jaundice (also known as icterus, from the Greek word ίκτερος;
adjectival form, icteric) is a yellowish pigmentation of the
skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the
eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by
hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood).
This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of
bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. A concentration higher than
2.5 mg/dL (>50µmol/L) leads to jaundice.The term jaundice
comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.
Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver
cancer. It may also indicate leptospirosis or obstruction of the
biliary tract, for example by gallstones or pancreatic cancer, or
less commonly be congenital in origin .
Chickenpox (or chicken pox) is a highly contagious disease caused by
primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It usually starts with
vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery
and becomes itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. On
examination, the observer typically finds skin lesions at various stages of
healing and also ulcers in the oral cavity and tonsil areas.
Chickenpox is an airborne disease which spreads easily through coughing or
sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the
rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash
appears.They remain contagious until all lesions have crusted over (this takes
approximately six days).Immunocompromised patients are contagious during
the entire period as new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not
Chickenpox has been observed in other primates, including chimpanzees and
diarrhoea is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid
bowel movements per day. The most common cause is gastroenteritis.
Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modest amounts of salts and
zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to
have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years. In cases where ORS
is not available, homemade solutions are often used.
It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second
most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids
through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances
such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea
was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 and
over and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5.
A goitre or goiter (Latin gutteria, struma), is a swelling of the
neck or larynx resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland
(thyromegaly), associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning
properly or not.
Worldwide, over 90.54% cases of goitre are caused by iodine
deficiency. Goitre which is associated with hypothyroidism or
hyperthyroidism may be present with symptoms of the
underlying disorder. For hyperthyroidism, the most common
symptoms are weight loss despite increased appetite, and heat
intolerance. Hypothyroid individuals have weight gain despite
poor appetite, cold intolerance, constipation and lethargy.
However, these symptoms are often nonspecific and hard to
Cancer known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of
diseases involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow
uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invading nearby parts of the
body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through
the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign
tumors do not invade neighboring tissues and do not spread throughout the
body. There are over 200 different known cancers that affect humans.
The causes of cancer are diverse, complex, and only partially understood.
Many things are known to increase the risk of cancer, including tobacco
use, dietary factors, certain infections, exposure to radiation, lack of physical
activity, obesity, and environmental pollutants. These factors can directly
damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause
cancerous mutations. Approximately 5–10% of cancers can be traced directly
to inherited genetic defects. Many cancers could be prevented by not
smoking, eating more vegetables, fruits and whole grains, eating less meat
and refined carbohydrates, maintaining a healthy
weight, exercising, minimizing sunlight exposure, and being vaccinated
against some infectious diseases
producing apnea Poliomyelitis /poʊlioʊmaɪəlaɪtɪs/, often called polio or
infantile paralysis, isinfectious disease spread from person to
person, primarily via the fecal-oral route. The term derives from the Ancient
Greek poliós (πολιός), meaning "grey", myelós (µυελός “marrow”), referring
to the grey matter of the spinal cord, and the suffix -itis, which denotes
inflammation., i.e., inflammation of the spinal cord’s grey matter, although a
severe infection can extend into the brainstem and even higher
structures, resulting in polioencephalitis, an acute, viral, that requires
mechanical assistance such as an iron lung.
Although approximately 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at
all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the
blood stream. In about 1% of cases, the virus enters the central nervous
system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to
muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Different types of paralysis may
occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common
form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs.
Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves.
Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis.
Organic brain syndrome (OBS), also known as organic brain
disease (OBD) Organic mental disorders organic brain disorder, is
an older and nearly obsolete general term from psychiatry, referring to
many physical disorders that cause impaired mental function. It does
not include psychiatric disorders. Originally, the term was created to
distinguish physical (termed "organic") causes of mental impairment
from psychiatric (termed "functional") disorders.
Acute organic brain syndrome is (by definition) a recently appearing
state of mental impairment, as a result of intoxication, drug
overdose, infection, pain, and many other physical problems affecting
mental status. In medical contexts, "acute" means "of recent onset". As
is the case with most acute disease problems, acute organic brain
syndrome is often temporary–however this is not guaranteed (a recentonset problem may continue to be chronic or long term). A more
specific medical term for the acute subset of organic brain syndromes is
Something request to you:
please don't it outside food and eat
Take handkerchief keep on mouth in
railway station and public places
So I request this thing system you
Keep safe, keep healthy