Published on

No comment

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Description texttest testteHistorians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to thecurrent dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write toprovide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All historyis contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a true discourseof past through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating tothe human race.[12] The modern discipline of history is dedicated to theinstitutional production of this discourse.All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitutethe historical record.[13] The task of historical discourse is to identify the sourceswhich can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past.Therefore, the constitution of the historians archive is a result of circumscribing amore general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (byfalsifying their claims to represent the true past).The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities andother times as part of the social sciences.[14] It can also be seen as a bridge betweenthose two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individualhistorians strongly support one or the other classification.[15] In modern . In the20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history,by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in thestudy of global history.Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or bypassing on an oral tradition, and have attempted to answer historical questionsthrough the study of written documents and oral accounts. For the beginning,historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. Ingeneral, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories:what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians oftenconsult all three.[16] But writing is the marker that separates history from whatcomes before.Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites andobjects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. But archaeologyrarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries.However, archaeology is constituted by a range of methodologies and approacheswhich are independent from history; that is to say, archaeology does not "fill thegaps" within textual sources. Indeed, Historical Archaeology is a specific branch ofarchaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textualsources. For example, Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historicalAnnapolis, Maryland, USA has sought to understand the contradiction betweentextual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slavesand the inequalities of wealth apparent via the study of the total historicalenvironment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at thistime.There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, includingchronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are notmutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The
  2. 2. International Womens Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." It ispossible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and thevery general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The areacalled Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns ortrends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, butalso may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity.[17]