Kramer 2010 03 Fp Update 2010 02 25 For Attendees

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Slides from Thom Kramer's Fall Protection session presented at ASSE's Virtual Symposium.

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Kramer 2010 03 Fp Update 2010 02 25 For Attendees

  1. 1. ENHANCING SAFETY AND REDUCING RISK: FALL PROTECTION ON CONSTRUCTION SITES ASSE Virtual Symposium March 16, 2010 Thomas E. Kramer, P.E., C.S.P. Principal TKramer@LJBinc.com and (937) 259-5120 Michael A. Shell, P.E., Qualified Person MShell@LJBInc.com and (937) 259-5179
  2. 2. POLLING What industry do you work? – Commercial – Government – Heavy civil y – Institutional – Manufacturing – Petrochemical – Power generation – Other
  3. 3. TOTAL FALL FATALITIES 800 698 738 738 733 680 700 607 652 623 634 659 638 664 604 600 500 Fatalities 400 300 200 100 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
  4. 4. TOTAL FALL FATALITIES 800 700 607 652 623 634 659 +28% 698 638 604 738 664 738 733 680 600 500 Fatalities 400 300 200 100 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Year Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
  5. 5. FATALITIES OCCURING IN CONSTRUCTION Falls 36.4% 429 749 Other 63.6% O the , 8 occupational ata t es t e co st uct o Of t e 1,178 occupat o a fatalities in the construction industry, 36% resulted from falls. Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
  6. 6. FALL FATALITIES BY WORK ACTIVITY 200 180 160 140 Roofs 120 Ladders 100 Scaffolds 80 Non-moving 60 vehicles StrucSteel 40 20 0 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Source: BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries
  7. 7. 2009 OSHA STATISTICS 1. Scaffolding -- 9,093 violations. 2. Fall protection -- 6,771 violations. 3. Hazard communication -- 6,378 violations. , 4. Respiratory protection -- 3,803 violations. 5. Lockout/tagout -- 3,321 violations.
  8. 8. AGENDA Background Relevant issues Closing g
  9. 9. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain why specific standards and regulations are relevant to the construction industry y Identify specific areas where you can evaluate and improve y your fall p protection p g program
  10. 10. POLLING Which of the following standards or regulations are you familiar ( h f ili (choose all th t apply)? ll that l )? – OSHA 1910 (or state version) – OSHA 1926 (or state version) – ANSI Z359 – ANSI A10.32
  11. 11. POLLING Which standard or regulation do you most often reference when you deall with f ll protection? f h d ith fall t ti ? – OSHA 1910 (or state version) – OSHA 1926 (or state version) – ANSI Z359 – ANSI A10.32
  12. 12. AGENDA Background – OSHA 1926 – ANSI • ANSI/ASSE A10.32 • ANSI/ASSE Z359 Relevant issues Closing
  13. 13. HISTORY Construction (1926) – S bpart M – “Fall Protection” Subpart – Others • Subpart L – “Scaffolds ” p • Subpart R – “Steel Erection” • Subpart X – “Ladders” – …and others
  14. 14. LIMITATIONS OF OSHA Which do I use? Construction v. General Industry – Use of S bpart M Subpart – Inspection exception
  15. 15. LIMITATIONS Warning lines – 6 feet – 10 feet – 15 feet – Designated areas Fall protection p p plan Monitor system
  16. 16. ANSI A10 32 SCOPE A10.32 Part of ANSI A10 series Personal protective systems for: – Equipment requirements – Horizontal lifelines – Climbing – Travel restriction (restraint) – Work positioning – Rescue and evacuation
  17. 17. ANSI Z359 2007 FAMILY OF STANDARDS Z359-2007 Z359.1: Safety requirements for personal fall arrest systems… Z359.3: Safety requirements for positioning and travel restraint systems Z359.4: Z359 4: Safety requirements for assisted-rescue and self assisted rescue self- rescue systems… Z359.2: Minimum requirements for a comprehensive managed fall protection program Z359.0: Definitions and nomenclature
  18. 18. ANSI Z359 2009 FAMILY OF STANDARDS Z359-2009 Z359.6: Specifications and design requirements for active fall- protection systems Z359.12: Connecting Components for Personal Fall Arrest Systems Z359.13: Personal Energy Absorbers and Energy Absorbing Lanyards Z359.0: Definitions and nomenclature (UPDATED) Effective on 16 Nov 2009
  19. 19. POLLING Which is your biggest challenge when it comes to fall protection? t ti ? – Identifying hazards – Developing abatement options – Using equipment correctly – Training workers
  20. 20. AGENDA Background Relevant issues – Anchorages – Equipment use – Equipment inspection – Rescue Closing
  21. 21. ANCHORAGE LOADS 1. Fall arrest 2. Work positioning 3. Fall restraint 4. 4 Horizontal lifeline 5. Rescue
  22. 22. PFAS COMPATIBILITY Designed, tested d D i d t t d and supplied as a complete system li d l t t 29 CFR 1926.502 Appx C
  23. 23. SNAPHOOKS Do not engage to (unless of a locking type) and designed for the following connections: Webbing, rope or wire rope Each other D-ring to which another snaphook or connector is attached Horizontal lifelines Any object incompatibly shaped or dimensioned 29 CFR 1926.502(d)(6)
  24. 24. GATE STRENGTH HISTORY – NON LOCKING NON-LOCKING
  25. 25. GATE STRENGTH HISTORY - LOCKING
  26. 26. GATE STRENGTH Z359.1 – 1992 – 220 lbs. front load – 350 lbs. side load Z359.1 – 2007 – 3,600 lbs. side load – 3 600 lbs. f t l d 3,600 lb front load
  27. 27. REDUCTION IN STRENGTH Knots in rope lanyards or lifelines can reduce their strength by 50% or more g y Strength of an eye-bolt is rated along the i th axis Strength is greatly reduced if the force is applied at an angle to this axis (in ) the direction of the shear) 29 CFR 1926.502 Appx C & proposed 29 CFR 1910.129 Appx.
  28. 28. REDUCTION IN STRENGTH Tie-off of a lanyard or lifeline around an “H” and “I” b d d beam or similar support reduces its strength as much as 75% due to the cutting action of the beam edges 29 CFR 1926.502 Appx C & proposed 29 CFR 1910.129 Appx. A
  29. 29. EQUIPMENT MISUSE Consequences of the Use of Personal Fall Protection E i P t ti Equipment in P ti t i Practice – by Wolfgang Schaeper
  30. 30. EQUIPMENT MISUSE
  31. 31. FIXED LADDERS Fall-Arresting Effectiveness of Cages/Hoops and F ll A t S t d Fall-Arrest Systems on Fi d L dd Fixed Ladders – by David Riches – HSE research report 258 – http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr258.pdf
  32. 32. FIXED LADDERS – FINDINGS
  33. 33. FIXED LADDERS – FINDINGS
  34. 34. FIXED LADDERS – FINDINGS
  35. 35. ANSI Z359 13 2009 Z359.13-2009 Key Topics Test weight = 282 lbs. (previously 220 lbs.) Fall factor 2 (i.e., 12 foot free fall) ( , )
  36. 36. ANSI Z359 13 2009 Z359.13-2009
  37. 37. INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS OSHA 1926 Subpart M – Before us g pe so a fall p o ec o sys e s, a d a e a y e o e using personal a protection systems, and after any component or system is changed, employees shall be trained in the … proper methods of equipment inspection and storage. d t – "Inspections " Personal fall arrest systems shall be Inspections. inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service if their strength or function may be adversely affected.
  38. 38. STANDARDS ANSI Standards – ANSI Z359 1-2007 Z359.1-2007 • Section 6.1.1. “Equipment shall be inspected by the user before each use and, additionally, by a competent person , y, y p p other than the user at intervals of no more than one year.” – ANSI A10.32-2004 • Section 6.3.2. “Formal inspections shall be made by either a Competent or Qualified Person on at least a semi-annual basis.”
  39. 39. BACKGROUND Miller study – May 1, 2006 – Is Your Fall Protection Equipment a Silent Hazard? q p • “All fall protection equipment deteriorates with use and exposure over time, regardless of brand and/or manufacturer. • Equipment is not inspected often enough for wear and damage. • Proper training is not provided--often, the wrong equipment is selected for a particular situation, and equipment is not worn p q p properly.”
  40. 40. BACKGROUND Miller study – May 1, 2006 – Over several months shock absorbing lanyards … have been Over…several months, shock-absorbing voluntarily removed from job sites for safety qualification
  41. 41. BACKGROUND Miller study – May 1, 2006 – 100 % did not pass visual inspection criteria
  42. 42. BACKGROUND Miller study – May 1, 2006 – 100% did not pass visual inspection criteria – 6% were previously deployed but still in active service – 9% had webbing that was knotted – 42% had hardware with visible defects
  43. 43. BACKGROUND Miller study – May 1, 2006 – 100% did not pass visual inspection criteria – 6% were p % previously deployed but still in active service y p y – 9% had webbing that was knotted. – 42% had hardware with visible defects – 6% the webbing actually broke g y – 9% over 1,800 pounds – 9% had snap hooks that opened during testing – 24% elongated over the 42-inch standard
  44. 44. BACKGROUND Miller study – May 1, 2006 – 100% did not pass visual inspection criteria – 6% were previously deployed but still in active service – 9% had webbing that was knotted. – 42% had hardware with visible defects – 6% the webbing actually broke – 9% over 1,800 pounds – 9% had snap hooks that opened during testing – 24% elongated over the 42-inch standard 42 inch – 85% of the product samples FAILED standard safety tests (in accordance with ANSI standards)
  45. 45. POLLING How long do you think someone can safely suspend iin a f ll b d h full body harness? ? – 15 minutes or less – 20 minutes – 30 minutes – 45 minutes or more
  46. 46. RESCUE – OSHA REQUIREMENTS “The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure that employees are able to rescue themselves.” Letters of Interpretations – “While an employee may be safely suspended in a body harness for a p y y y p y longer period than from a body belt, the word “prompt” requires that rescue be performed quickly -- in time to prevent serious injury to the worker. worker ” August 14, 2000 14 Safety and Health Information Bulletin
  47. 47. AGENDA Background Relevant issues Closing g – International Fall Protection Symposium – Baltimore MD • June 16 & 17, 2010 • Held in conjunction with Safety 2010 – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dk7F8UJxnLU
  48. 48. ENHANCING SAFETY AND REDUCING RISK: FALL PROTECTION ON CONSTRUCTION SITES ASSE Virtual Symposium March 16, 2010 Thomas E. Kramer, P.E., C.S.P. Principal TKramer@LJBinc.com and (937) 259-5120 Michael A. Shell, P.E., Qualified Person MShell@LJBInc.com and (937) 259-5179

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