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Part I:             Broad Impact of Electrostatic               Discharge (ESD) on Product               Discharge (ESD) o...
ASQ Reliability Division                  ASQ Reliability Division                  Short Course Series                  S...
Part I:    Broad Impact of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)         on Product Quality and ReliabilityProfessional Services O...
Outline•  ESD – A Surprisingly Dominant Failure Mechanism•  ESD Sensitivity Trend•  HBM & CDM Review•  Failures Beyond Dev...
Typical IC Device Defect Analysis   350                  ~20% - ESD   300                             ~10% to 80% - ESD(CD...
ESD Damage:A Surprisingly Dominant Failure Mechanism!                      After EOS Misdiagnosis Adjustment:             ...
ESD Sensitivity Trends                                          p5Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
ESDA Technology Roadmap             HBM Roadmap (Min-Max)     6kV     4kV     2kV     1kV                         ESD Cont...
ESDA Technology Roadmap                CDM Roadmap (Min-Max)      1000V      750V      500V      250V      125V           ...
HBM & CDM ReviewCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
Human Body Model                                                          When the air breaks                             ...
Charged Device Model                    99% of ESD Failures are CDM!    Andrew Olney, Analog Devices, Quality Director & I...
HBMCDM Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
Case Study     Circuit Board Class 0 Device•  15 Volt CDM & HBM                Circuit Pack Production Yield   Withstand V...
CDM Threshold Dependencies                    Larger Device Package SizeHigherOperatingSpeeds                             ...
ESD Failures Beyond Device Level       •  Charged Board Event (CBE)       •  Cable Discharged Event (CDE)       •  Transie...
Charged Board Event (CBE)Photograph courtesy: Andrew Olney, Quality Director, Analog Devices   Copyright © 2011 Dangelmaye...
CBE ESD Damage - A New Discovery!         Most FA Experts Misdiagnose as EOS!!!!  Up to 50% of EOS Failures are CBE ESD! (...
CBE vs. CDM Discharge                                      Waveform Comparison                                  FICBM vs. ...
Faceplate Field- Induced CBE Failure        Established Code - New Faceplate Supplier         40% Failure Rate - 1.5KV CDM...
Cable Discharge Events (CDE)Charge On CablesCan CauseEquipment DamageOr Malfunctions                                      ...
System Level Testing & Latch-Up•    Some tests can trigger latch-up in     ICs      •  IEC 61000-4-2, 4 and 5      •  Cabl...
Automation Induced Events                                            No ESD Events Detected!                              ...
Class 0 – Wafer Saw Example   Unexpected Results!                    •  CDM Threshold – 35 Volts                    •  92....
Field Induced Reticle Damage  Voltage Differentials Induced  On Traces Of Different Lengths  By Movement In An Electric Fi...
MEMS – Microelectromechanical Systems              W. D. Greason, EOS/ESD Symposium 2007Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Assoc...
MEMS ESD•    Micron Scale Moving To     Nanostructures (NEMS)•    When Co-integrated Into ICs      •    Many IC Protection...
MR Head Lessons Learned•  Conventional ESD Methods Essential but Insufficient!    •  Below 100 Volts    •  Ionization - Ne...
Case StudyClass 0 MR Tape Head     25                           22%                           ESD     20                  ...
Flat Panel Displays•  Large Capacitance – Behaves   Like Large Wafer Or Circuit  Board•  Manufacturing Process   Creates V...
Panels Vulnerable To ESD Damage•  Electrothermal Damage•  Dielectric Breakdown   Between Large Power/   Ground Planes•  Te...
Hand-Held Devices – ESD/EMI Issues are CommonCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
System Level ESD UpsetsESD Generates Radio WavesThat Affect Microprocessors     •  Scrambled Program        Instructions a...
Questions?                    Contact information:                     Ted Dangelmayer                        Terry Welshe...
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Esd the broad impact and design challenges part1of2

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Ted Dangelmayer and Terry Welsher, of Dangelmayer Associates, present two topics involving Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) and the connection to product reliability. Please join both presentations to increase your understanding of the impact of ESD and specific considerations during product design.
Many engineers are aware of some aspects of the importance of ESD as a threat to product yield, returns and malfunction. What is surprising is the breadth of its impact across a wide variety of products, technologies, services and markets. For instance, it has recently been determined that, for some technologies, many EOS (Electrical Overstress) failures have been misdiagnosed and were actually ESD. In this seminar we present a broad survey of the impacts including this EOS misdiagnosis issue. The best known effects, those on integrated circuits, will be discussed and the implications of the IC technology and packaging roadmaps will be discussed. We will also describe the effects on other areas including MEMS, flat panel displays, phototools, manufacturing equipment, hand-held devices and operating systems. In each case we will describe how ESD caused failure or malfunction. Where available, industry-wide data will be summarized. Newly realized ESD failure mechanisms such as Charged-Board Events (CBE), Cable Discharge Events (CDE) and transient-induced latch-up will also be discussed.

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Transcript of "Esd the broad impact and design challenges part1of2"

  1. 1. Part I: Broad Impact of Electrostatic  Discharge (ESD) on Product  Discharge (ESD) on Product Q Quality and Reliability y y Ted Dangelmayer ©2011 ASQ & Presentation Ted Presented live on Jul  06th, 2011http://reliabilitycalendar.org/The_Reliability_Calendar/Short_Courses/Shliability Calendar/Short Courses/Short_Courses.html
  2. 2. ASQ Reliability Division  ASQ Reliability Division Short Course Series Short Course Series The ASQ Reliability Division is pleased to  present a regular series of short courses  featuring leading international practitioners,  academics, and consultants. academics and consultants The goal is to provide a forum for the basic and  The goal is to provide a forum for the basic and continuing education of reliability  professionals.http://reliabilitycalendar.org/The_Reliability_Calendar/Short_Courses/Shliability Calendar/Short Courses/Short_Courses.html
  3. 3. Part I: Broad Impact of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) on Product Quality and ReliabilityProfessional Services Only No Product Sales!•  Client Locations Ted Dangelmayer www.dangelmayer.com
  4. 4. Outline•  ESD – A Surprisingly Dominant Failure Mechanism•  ESD Sensitivity Trend•  HBM & CDM Review•  Failures Beyond Device Level•  ESD Countermeasures - Overview p2Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  5. 5. Typical IC Device Defect Analysis 350 ~20% - ESD 300 ~10% to 80% - ESD(CDE/CBE) 250 200 150 100 100% - ESD 50 0 NTF EOS FAB Asmbly Test ESDCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  6. 6. ESD Damage:A Surprisingly Dominant Failure Mechanism! After EOS Misdiagnosis Adjustment: ESD: #1 Assignable Cause of IC Failure!Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  7. 7. ESD Sensitivity Trends p5Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  8. 8. ESDA Technology Roadmap HBM Roadmap (Min-Max) 6kV 4kV 2kV 1kV ESD Control Methods 0V 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 2013 ESD Control is becoming increasingly critical! p6Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  9. 9. ESDA Technology Roadmap CDM Roadmap (Min-Max) 1000V 750V 500V 250V 125V ESD Control Methods 0V 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 2013 ESD Control is becoming increasingly critical! p7Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  10. 10. HBM & CDM ReviewCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  11. 11. Human Body Model When the air breaks down between the human s finger and an IC pin, charge is suddenly transferred from the person via the grounded pin of the IC to ground. Charged Person DeviceHBM Ground Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Charge Flow Associates
  12. 12. Charged Device Model 99% of ESD Failures are CDM! Andrew Olney, Analog Devices, Quality Director & Industry Council Conductive Surface Capacitance of Device Device Contact Resistance Q ChargeCDM Video Flow Ground Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  13. 13. HBMCDM Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  14. 14. Case Study Circuit Board Class 0 Device•  15 Volt CDM & HBM Circuit Pack Production Yield Withstand Voltage Losses•  100% Failure Rate: Some Lots•  $1.2B Sales Jeopardy•  $1K Invested in Shunt•  $6.2M/yr Savings Documented p12 Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  15. 15. CDM Threshold Dependencies Larger Device Package SizeHigherOperatingSpeeds p13 Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates Ref: Industry Council WPII 2009
  16. 16. ESD Failures Beyond Device Level •  Charged Board Event (CBE) •  Cable Discharged Event (CDE) •  Transient Latch-Up (TLU) •  MEMS •  MR Heads •  Automated Handling Equipment •  Wafers •  Flat Panels •  Handheld Devices •  System-Level •  Hard Failures (Device Damage) •  Recoverable Malfunction (Transient Latch-up)Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  17. 17. Charged Board Event (CBE)Photograph courtesy: Andrew Olney, Quality Director, Analog Devices Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  18. 18. CBE ESD Damage - A New Discovery! Most FA Experts Misdiagnose as EOS!!!! Up to 50% of EOS Failures are CBE ESD! (2008) CDM Device Damage CBE (ESD) Device Damage on Circuit BoardCourtesy: Andrew Olney, Quality Director, Analog Devices Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  19. 19. CBE vs. CDM Discharge Waveform Comparison FICBM vs. FICDM Discharge Waveforms (250 V) Voltage for DSP with a 250V Charge 10 GND test pad FICBMPeak Current (Amps) 8 GND pin FICDM 6 4 2 0 -2 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 Time (nanoseconds) Courtesy: Andrew Olney, Quality Director, Analog Devices Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  20. 20. Faceplate Field- Induced CBE Failure Established Code - New Faceplate Supplier 40% Failure Rate - 1.5KV CDM Threshold Ref: ESD Program Management, 2nd edition, pp59-61 Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  21. 21. Cable Discharge Events (CDE)Charge On CablesCan CauseEquipment DamageOr Malfunctions 19 Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  22. 22. System Level Testing & Latch-Up•  Some tests can trigger latch-up in ICs •  IEC 61000-4-2, 4 and 5 •  Cable Discharge Events (CDE)•  …even though they pass IC level latch-up testing (JEDEC Std 78)•  JEDEC Std 78 lacks a fast rising edge pulse•  Most field latch-up problems are due to transients•  Supplement with a transient latch- up testCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer2010 - Semitracks, Inc. Copyright Associates
  23. 23. Automation Induced Events No ESD Events Detected! Bonding Tip Properly Grounded! ESD Events Detected! Bonding Tip Not Grounded! Event VideoCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  24. 24. Class 0 – Wafer Saw Example Unexpected Results! •  CDM Threshold – 35 Volts •  92.2% Defective at Wafer Saw •  Failure Analysis •  CDM DamageCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  25. 25. Field Induced Reticle Damage Voltage Differentials Induced On Traces Of Different Lengths By Movement In An Electric FieldCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  26. 26. MEMS – Microelectromechanical Systems W. D. Greason, EOS/ESD Symposium 2007Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  27. 27. MEMS ESD•  Micron Scale Moving To Nanostructures (NEMS)•  When Co-integrated Into ICs •  Many IC Protection Strategies Used•  Have Additional Important Failure Mode Due To Small Air Gaps Vulnerable To Air/Dielectric Breakdown•  Typical Air Gap 1-3 Microns And Falling •  Modified Paschen Curve Behavior•  Failure Modes •  Melting Due To Discharge Current W. D. Greason, EOS/ESD Sympsium 2007 •  Stiction Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  28. 28. MR Head Lessons Learned•  Conventional ESD Methods Essential but Insufficient! •  Below 100 Volts •  Ionization - Necessary & Insufficient•  Expect a Paradigm Shift @ 100 volts •  Assume Device Still Charged!•  New Control Methods •  Eliminate Metal-to-Metal Contact •  Soft Landings with Dissipative Materials •  Advanced Test Methods •  EMI/ESD Event Detection •  Discharge Currents Test Methods p26 Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  29. 29. Case StudyClass 0 MR Tape Head 25 22% ESD 20 Technical Yield Assessment Loss & 15 CDM Training 80% EPM Yield Risk S20.20 Program Benchmarking™ 10 (39% EPM 90% EPM Yield Risk Benchmarking) Benchmarking™ (HBM Focused) 5 0 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 Week Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  30. 30. Flat Panel Displays•  Large Capacitance – Behaves Like Large Wafer Or Circuit Board•  Manufacturing Process Creates Very High Potentials – Much Lifting, Sliding And Probing Of Panels At Various Stages Of Fabrication•  ESD Control Implementation Very Challenging Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  31. 31. Panels Vulnerable To ESD Damage•  Electrothermal Damage•  Dielectric Breakdown Between Large Power/ Ground Planes•  Technology Roadmaps To Higher Pixel Density And New Materials Will Increase Vulnerability Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  32. 32. Hand-Held Devices – ESD/EMI Issues are CommonCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  33. 33. System Level ESD UpsetsESD Generates Radio WavesThat Affect Microprocessors •  Scrambled Program Instructions and Data •  Microprocessor Lockup •  Confusing Error Messages •  Software Errors Copyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
  34. 34. Questions? Contact information: Ted Dangelmayer Terry Welsher 978 282 8888 ted@dangelmayer.com www.dangelmayer.com Part II: Tomorrow Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) and Electrical Overstress (EOS) Design ChallengesCopyright © 2011 Dangelmayer Associates
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