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Reliability in the Solar Universe
 

Reliability in the Solar Universe

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The universe of solar products is large and expanding exponentially. ...

The universe of solar products is large and expanding exponentially.
Most of us are not aware of the manifold applications of solar energy from photovoltaic modules and solar furnaces through manned air travel in planes that never need fuel.
Of all of the emerging clean tech industries, the solar industry is one of the most challenging from a reliability engineering perspective because the industry is innovating so rapidly. Customers (and investors) are demanding very high reliability products, exceeding 25 years in many applications. As this industry grows and expands in every direction, with many new and diverse technologies, the core element of reliability will continue to be critical for success, whether we are powering our homes, cars, clothing or sidewalks.

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    Reliability in the Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar Universe Presentation Transcript

    • Reliability  in  a     Solar  Universe   Mike  Silverman  &   Tom  Ortman   ©2011  ASQ  &  Presenta>on  Silverman  &  Ortman   Presented  live  on  Nov  10th,  2011  hCp://reliabilitycalendar.org/The_Reliability_Calendar/Webinars_-­‐_English/Webinars_-­‐_English.html  
    • ASQ  Reliability  Division   English  Webinar  Series   One  of  the  monthly  webinars   on  topics  of  interest  to   reliability  engineers.   To  view  recorded  webinar  (available  to  ASQ  Reliability   Division  members  only)  visit  asq.org/reliability     To  sign  up  for  the  free  and  available  to  anyone  live   webinars  visit  reliabilitycalendar.org  and  select  English   Webinars  to  find  links  to  register  for  upcoming  events  hCp://reliabilitycalendar.org/The_Reliability_Calendar/Webinars_-­‐_English/Webinars_-­‐_English.html  
    • The Solar UniverseConfidence in Reliability Mike Silverman Thomas Ortman Managing Partner President Ops A La Carte LLC Concurrent Design , Inc.www.opsalacarte.com www.concurrentdesign.com Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe AGENDA – Introduction – 5 minutes – Webinar – 45 minutes – Q&A – 10 minutes Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe INTRODUCTION – Who Are We? – Reliability vs. Regulatory Compliance Standards – What we will cover today Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Who Are We? – Ops A La Carte  HQ in Santa Clara, CA  Presenter: Mike Silverman, Managing Partner – Concurrent Design  HQ in Austin, TX  Presenter: Tom Ortman, President/CEO Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte – Founded in 2001 – Named top 10 fastest growing, privately-held companies in the Silicon Valley in 2006 and 2009 by the San Jose Business Journal. – Over 1350 projects completed in 10 years – Over 500 Customers in over 30 countries – Over 100 different industries, 6 main verticals  CleanTech, MedTech, Telecom, Defense, Oil/Gas, Consumer – We run FREE monthly webinars.  Next month is medical reliability on Dec 2. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops Solar Reliability Division – We are the industry leader in reliability solutions in the Solar market. We are committed to Highly Reliability Systems to help save our planet. – We provide Confidence in Reliability. – We offer a flexible method of engagement:  End-to-end reliability solutions  solving specific problems  providing individual services  Over 30 different training courses in reliability – We consult in every life cycle phase, train in every aspect of reliability, and test in our state-of-the-art HALT and HASS LabsTM Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops Solar Projects Armageddon Energy - FMEA for residential solar product Array Power - Rel. program for a micro-inverter Black Swan Solar – Accelerated Life Test for mechanical items Carmanah - Accelerated Life Test for marine solar product Enecsys - Accelerated Life Test and HALT for a micro-inverter Energy Innovations - Reliability Program Plan and ALT Plan for solar tracker Enphase Energy – Component Reliability Program Konarka - Accelerated Life Test for portable solar product National Semiconductor – Rel. program for a solar optimizer OptiSolar - Reliability Test Plan for solar inverter Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops Solar Projects continued Skyline Solar – FMEA and HALT on electronics Solar Bridge – Component Reliability Analysis Solar Electric Solutions - Warranty Analysis for solar product Solar Junction - Reliability program for solar product SolFocus - HALT for solar tracker controller SunPower - On-Going Reliability Test for solar product Thompson Technology – Root Cause Analysis for solar tracker Xandex - Reliability program for a solar optimizer Xantrex - HALT, FMEA, and Prediction for inverter for solar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Concurrent Design, Inc. – Founded in 1994 – Commercial Product Design – Industrial Product Design – Prototyping and Manufacturing Solutions – Over 1600 Projects in 17 years – Clients in US, Europe, Asia – Strategic Focus: Electronics / Semiconductor / Clean Energy / Solar Energy Product Design Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Concurrent Design Expertise – Mechanical Engineering  Industrial Design / Conceptual Layout  Mechanical Design / Machine Design / E/M Pkg Design – Electrical Engineering  Power Distribution & Instrumentation and Control  Human Interface Design / HMI / PC / PLC – Thermal Engineering Analysis & Design – Structural Analysis (FEM/FEA) – Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) – Prototype Build & Engineering Verification Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Concurrent Solar Related Projects CPV – 500 X Optical Concentration – System Design – Structures PV – Flat Plate – Utility Scale – Emerging Applications PV – Flat Plate – Commercial Scale – Cost Reduction Application Racking System - High volume custom Utility Scale application Racking System – Custom Solar Panel Shock and Vibration Analysis Tracker – HelioStat - Solar Structures Engineering Analysis Tracker – Two Axis – Low Cost, High Volume Commercial / Residential Scale Inverter – Electro-Mechanical Packaging Design Emerging Technology – R&D level activities focused on future generation Processing Equipment - High Volume Wafer Processing Test Equipment - Thin Film - Current Density and Voltage, Quantum Efficiency Test Equipment - Thin Film - Solar Spectrum Light Soaker Test Equipment Test Equipment - Monocrystalline - Flash Test Equipment Manufacturing Tools – Vacuum Process Chamber Analysis and Design Manufacturing Systems – Manufacturing Plant Line Layout, Custom Equipmt Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Presenter 1: Mike Silverman – Founder and managing partner at Ops A La Carte – 25 years of experience in Reliability/Quality – World expert on HALT/HASS/ALT – Offers “HALT Calculator” to predict field failure rate from HALT results – being used by many solar companies – Author of “How Reliable Is Your Product: 50 Ways to Improve Product Reliability”, Dec 2010 – Book soon to be released in Mandarin – International speaker in 8 different countries – BSEE, CRE – IEEE ReliabilityOps A La CarteSilicon Valley Chapter Chair Society and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Presenter 2: Tom Ortman – Founder and managing partner at Concurrent Design – 35 years of experience  Commercial and Industrial Product Development  Manufacturing Process Technologies  Manufacturing Solutions – BS Mechanical Engineering – Speaker on Solar Products and Technologies – SEMI Texas Chapter Chair – Founding Partner – CleanTX Foundation Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability vs. Regulatory Compliance Standards – Reliability ensures product performance over life – Regulatory Compliance Standards ensure safety and compliance to industry standards – There is a big overlap between the two – There are big differences between the two – In this seminar we will focus on Reliability – Assess confidence in the warranty you are providing (bankability!) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Regulatory Compliance Standards – Before we move on, one slide on standards  IEC 61215 – “Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval”  IEC 61646 – “Thin-film terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules - Design qualification and type approval”  IEC 62093 – Micro-inverter standard (in process)  IEC 62108 – “Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules and assemblies - Design qualification and type approval”  IEC 61730 – “Photovoltaic (PV) module safety qualification”  IEEE 1503-2001 “CPV Qualifications for Sections and Modules”  UL 1703 – “Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels” – This list is not a complete list Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe “What is theuniverse of solar products?” Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe With acknowledgment to TechSearch International Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe “What is theuniverse of solar products?” Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL INSOLATION (SOLAR CONSTANT) ~1366W/M^2 VISIBLE LIGHT 46%, INFRARED 47%, ULTRAVIOLET 6% TERRESTRIAL INSOLATION ~1000W/M^2 (MAXIMUM - DNI) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe “What is theuniverse of solar products?” Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseIn today’s presentation, we will cover thefollowing areas of the solar universe. PhotoVoltaic Technology (PV) Concentrated PhotoVoltaic Technology (CPV) Built-In PhotoVoltaic Technology (BIPV) Future Solar Technology Concentrating Solar Power Technology (CSP) Solar Thermal Technologies General Solar Technology Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniverseReliability is going to play an important role for all ofthese industries because these industries areusually trying to take the place of an incumbent.Some of the reliability challenges are:  Higher Reliability Demands  Higher Availability Demands  Higher Warranty Requirements  New Materials/New Risks  Pressure on reducing power Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniverseReliability Techniques in Each Product Life Cycle PhaseCONCEPT PHASEDESIGN/DEVELOPMENT PHASEPROTOTYPE PHASEMANUFACTURING PHASE Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniverseCONCEPT PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ Assessment / Goal Setting / Gap Analysis○ Competitive Analysis / Benchmarking○ Reliability Program Plan DevelopmentDESIGN/DEVEL. PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ RoHS Conversion / Material Selection○ Risk Analysis/FMEA○ Reliability Modeling○ Thermal Analysis○ Derating Analysis○ Preventive Maintenance○ Warranty Predictions (Bankability Analysis) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability in the Solar UniversePROTOTYPE PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ HALT○ Reliability Demonstration Test○ Accelerated Life TestMANUFACTURING PHASE RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES○ HASS○ ORT/OLT○ Field Data Analysis/Warranty Review Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseFor each type of system that we cover,we will describe the technology and thenpoint out some of the reliability risks andwhat we are doing to mitigate these risks. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic Technology PV Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe PhotoVoltaic Technology (PV) – Cells/Modules (Panels) – Racking/Trackers – Inverters/Converters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of Panels Failure Modes Failure Effects Reliability TechniqueTemperature Cycling Seal Loss/Cell Degradation Environmental testingVoltage Mismatch Pulls down all the voltages Derating Analysis/Electr. Char.Humidity enters panel Corrosion/Loss of Efficiency Environmental testingPoor soldering joints Early failures HASSPanels get dirty Loss of efficiency Preventive maintenanceEarthquake Breaking Environmental testingHail/Bad Weather Breaking Environmental testingWalking on Breaking HALT (using increasing weight)Birds pecking at panels Damage to panels, wiring HALT (using increasing pressure)Premature Aging Warranty Concerns Matl/Warranty Analysis/ALTUV Exposure Embrittlement/Seal Loss UV ALTVibration Failure Broken Connections Environmental testingManufacturing Defects Various (many cases of fires) HASS/ORT/OLTInstallation Failure Various (many cases of fires) High voltage HALT Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: Vibration Failure on Module Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 1: Are you familiarwith the following environmental techniquesused to characterize/mitigate failures? Temperature Cycling HALT HASS OLT/ORT Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic TechnologyRacking/Trackers Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseSPG Solar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Tracker Reliability Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-offs with Trackers Do you track by minute or once an hour or a few times a day? –Minute by minute will give you higher efficiency but lower reliability –You must optimize this for your application Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of TrackersFailure Modes Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueMechanical Failures Lose efficiency ALTHigh winds System Failure Wind Loading AnalysisInstallation Failure Weakens tracker, reduces life Design for InstallationFaulty Algorithm Tracker over-adjusts & breaks Software FMEA Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: RCA on Tracker Failure – Customer Failure During Windstorm – We went to site and reviewed evidence – Tools: Material Analysis, Wind-loading Analysis – Conclusions:  Change in Design after Windloading Analysis  Installation Error caused weak member  Software Bug caused overtracking Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 2: Are you familiarwith reliability techniques used tocharacterize life of trackers? Mechanical loading analysis Prognostics to detect early failure signs Accelerated life testing Weibull field data analysis Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniversePhotoVoltaic TechnologyInverters/Converters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe ConversionInverters DC-AC –String level (Scale) –Micro InvertersDC-DC Converters (Optimizers) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Inverters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Inverters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Micro-invertersEnphase Micro-Inverters Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseDC-DC Converter (Optimizers) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe“In addition to rigorous internal testing, SantaClara, Calif.- based Ops a La Carte providedreliability testing of Nationals SolarMagic poweroptimizer at its HALT & HASS Labs in SantaClara. Ops a La Carte has had a long-termpresence in the reliability field, conductingextensive reliability testing for the aerospace,automotive, medical, telecom, defense & energy(including fuel cell, oil and solar) industries” - - National Semiconductor PR Department. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe“The reliability modeling for the SunMizer(TM), asolar product manufactured by Xandex Solar, hasan expected Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)of more than 500 years. Xandex has leveragedtheir experience in designing high quality, hightechnology products by utilizing Ops A La Carte forHighly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) and HighlyAccelerated Stress Screening (HASS) to producethe SunMizer(TM)” - - - Xandex PR Department. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-off with Inverters Is it better to use DC-DC or DC-AC? Is it better to have one large inverter or many micro-inverters? Is it better to place the inverter on the back of the panel or away from the elements? Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Trade-offs with Inverters Currently the reliability of large inverters is 7-10 years while panels are pushing 25 years. Big single point failure here. Micro-inverter companies are starting to claim 25 years. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseReliability Risks of Inverters/Converters Failure Modes Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueElectronics degradation Won’t meet long life HALTECap Failures Won’t meet long life ALTSolder Joints Wear Out Won’t meet long life Lifetime AnalysisSolder Joint Defects Early Failures HASSConnector contacts wear Won’t meet long life ALTSeal integrity broken Won’t meet long life ALTLightning Early/Catastrophic Failure Environmental testingVoltage spikes from grid Early/Catastrophic Failure Electrical testingWrong Phase Match Early/Catastrophic Failure Electrical testing Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe CASE STUDY: Availability Analysis on Inverter – Customer needed to maximize availability – We performed FMEA to identify key risks – Design Analyses – Prediction, FMEA, Derating, Thermal Analyses – Conclusions:  Reducing stresses in key areas increased availability  We implemented prognostics to the equipment to detect early failures and perform preventive maintenance, thereby increasing the availability. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniversePOLLING QUESTION 3: Are you familiarwith reliability techniques used during designcharacterization for inverters/converters? FMEA Derating Analysis Thermal Analysis Finite Element Analysis Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseConcentratedPhotoVoltaic Technology CPV Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Emcore Corporation500X 2 Axis CPV Array Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of CPV Failure Modes Failure Effects Rel. TechniqueDegradation of Optics Less Concentrated Energy Life Testing on OpticsDegradation of Glues/Mounts Less Concentrated Energy Life Testing on GluesOptics Get Dirty Less Concentrated Energy Envir Test on SealingOptical Tolerancing Less Concentrated Energy DFSSThermal Issues Loss of Productivity Thermal Analysis Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Built inPhotoVoltaicTechnology BIPV Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Sanyo Solar Arc Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Implications with BIPV If infrastructure then more expensive to change. Becomes a critical system. New age of building material that must be very reliable. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Risks of BIPV Failure Modes Failure Effects MitigationsFailure resulting in replacement Tear into building Design so that systems can be maintainedFailure of critical element Power loss to whole system Build in redundancy Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Future SolarTechnology? Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Solar Clothing Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Hybrid Solar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseNanotechnology based Solar Nanocolumns of hematite, one of the iron oxide compounds that Professors Allen Bard and Buddie Mullins are testing in their efforts to convert sunlight to fuel. Professor Allen Bard University of Texas at Austin Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Hybrid SolarMTPV Corporation Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe 3DIC w / TSVThree Dimensional Integrated Circuits with Through Silicon Vias With acknowledgment to TechSearch International With acknowledgment to TechSearch International Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Challenges with Future Solar Technologies Often new materials that have not yet been proven Often expanded environmental requirements – temperature – mechanical stress Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseConcentrating Solar Power Technology CSP Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Solar Trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) vs. PhotoVoltaic (PV) collector. Photovoltaic collectors use electronics (chips) to convert sunlight intoelectricity, while thermal solar collectors (CSP) concentrate heat and directly or indirectly convert this to electricity. Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design Source csposi.org
    • The Solar UniverseSolar Power Tower (Solucar PS10, Spain) Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseSolar ThermalTechnologies Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe General SolarTechnology Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Solar Impulse Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe TÛRANOR PlanetSolar Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar Universe Reliability Challenges with General Solar Often expanded environmental requirements – temperature – mechanical stress Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design
    • The Solar UniverseConfidence in Reliability Mike Silverman Thomas Ortman Managing Partner President Ops A La Carte LLC Concurrent Design , Inc.www.opsalacarte.com www.concurrentdesign.com Ops A La Carte and Concurrent Design