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ASQ RD Webinar: Design for reliability a roadmap for design robustness

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With the increase in global competition, more and more costumers consider reliability as one of their primary deciding factors, when purchasing new products. Several companies have invested in …

With the increase in global competition, more and more costumers consider reliability as one of their primary deciding factors, when purchasing new products. Several companies have invested in developing their own Design for Reliability (DFR) processes and roadmaps in order to be able to meet those requirements and compete in today’s market. This presentation will describe the DFR roadmap and how to effectively use it to ensure the success of the reliability program by focusing on the following DFR elements.

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  • 1. Design  for  Reliability   A  Roadmap  for   Design  Robustness   Moataz  Elheddeny   ©2014  ASQ  &  PresentaCon  Elheddeny   hDp://reliabilitycalendar.org/ webinars/  
  • 2. ASQ  Reliability  Division   English  Webinar  Series   One  of  the  monthly  webinars   on  topics  of  interest  to   reliability  engineers.   To  view  recorded  webinar  (available  to  ASQ  Reliability   Division  members  only)  visit  asq.org/reliability     To  sign  up  for  the  free  and  available  to  anyone  live   webinars  visit  reliabilitycalendar.org  and  select  English   Webinars  to  find  links  to  register  for  upcoming  events   hDp://reliabilitycalendar.org/ webinars/  
  • 3. Design for Reliability: A Roadmap for Design Robustness Moataz Elheddeny, MBB Sr. Systems Engineer Siemens Healthcare
  • 4. Agenda Introduction What is Design for Reliability Reliability Requirements Application/Usage Stresses Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism Reliability Verification Summary
  • 5. Vocabulary Acronyms: ALT – Accelerated Life Test DFR – Design for Reliability DOE – Design of Experiments FMEA – Failure Mode and Effects Analysis FRACAS – Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System HALT – Highly Accelerated Life Test RPN – Risk Priority Number SME – Subject Matter Expert VOC – Voice of the Customer
  • 6. Introduction Design for Reliability, What is Design for Reliability? Design for Reliability Roadmap Customer Requirements Application/Usage Stresses Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism Verification
  • 7. Design for Reliability (DFR) What is Design for Reliability? A discipline/roadmap that consists of different set of tools and practices that are used during the product development process. Helps the organization identify, evaluate and address reliability risks, improve system reliability, and consequently, meet customer requirements.
  • 8. Design for Reliability (DFR) How will the company benefit from implementing DFR program? Increase Customer Satisfaction Increase Sales and Market Share Optimize Warranty Periods Minimize Replacement Parts Inventory Reduce/Minimize Warranty Cost Competitive edge Company’s Reputation
  • 9. DFR Roadmap 1. Reliability Requirements - Voice of the Customer (VOC) - Benchmarking - Best in Class 2. Application/ Usage Stresses - Logistical Events - Operational Events - Operating Profiles 3. Failure Mode/ Site/Mechanism 4. Reliability Verification - Boundary/P-Diagram - Lessons Learned - FMEA - Improvement and Verification Plan - FRACAS - Post Launch Reliability Monitoring
  • 10. DFR Roadmap 1. Reliability Requirements - Voice of the Customer (VOC) - Benchmarking - Best in Class 2. Application/ Usage Stresses - Logistical Events - Operational Events - Operating Profiles 3. Failure Mode/ Site/Mechanism 4. Reliability Verification - Boundary/P- Diagram - Lessons Learned - FMEA - Improvement and Verification Plan - FRACAS - Post Launch Reliability Monitoring
  • 11. Reliability Requirements Why is it important to identify Reliability requirements early in the development process? To help the organization: - Identify critical components - Decide where to focus improvement efforts - Make the right decisions and trade-offs to meet customer requirements. - Get a baseline measure of customer satisfaction to measure improvement against - Identify key drivers of customer satisfaction
  • 12. Reliability Requirements Why do customers have different Reliability requirements? Reliability requirements could depend on, Product Type: Airplanes, cars, dishwashers and air conditioning units could all have different reliability requirement Application Type: Hospitals, data centers, schools and offices could also have different reliability requirement
  • 13. Reliability Requirements 1. Voice of the Customer (VOC) Proactive VOC System: Customer Interviews Focus Groups Surveys Customer Visits Reactive VOC System: Service Calls Customer Complaints Claims Web Page/Blogs Product returns
  • 14. Reliability Requirements 2. Internal Benchmarking Looking within the organization Easier to collect and share data Requires less resources Limited data 3. External Benchmarking / Best in Class Gauging the organization against others Benchmark companies who are doing the best possible job Set a goal of “As Good or Better” Requires more resources More difficult to collect data
  • 15. DFR Roadmap 1. Reliability Requirements - Voice of the Customer (VOC) - Benchmarking - Best in Class 2. Application/ Usage Stresses - Logistical Events - Operational Events - Operating Profiles 3. Failure Mode/ Site/Mechanism 4. Reliability Verification - Boundary/P-Diagram - Lessons Learned - FMEA - Improvement and Verification Plan - FRACAS - Post Launch Reliability Monitoring
  • 16. Application/Usage Stresses Can we design a product without knowing what stresses it will operate under? Understanding the application/usage conditions of any system is a crucial task for any reliability program. To document application stresses, the following items need to be identified: 1. Logistical & Operational Events 2. Operating Profiles/Usage Conditions
  • 17. Application/Usage Stresses 1. Logistical & Operational Events Describe all the events that the product will experience during its life cycle, starting from the point it leaves the manufacturer final inspection until the end of its useful life.
  • 18. Application/Usage Stresses 1. Logistical & Operational Events What are the possible environments and stresses for each event?
  • 19. Application/Usage Stresses 2. Operating Profile/Usage Conditions a. Available Data: Multiple sources could be used to document available data. For example: Fleet Leader units Weather database Industry Standards Lessons Learned
  • 20. Application/Usage Stresses 2. Operating Profile/Usage Conditions b. Design-Specific Data: Develop test plans to document design-specific data. For example: Motor temperature rise Operational Vibration levels Compressor oil viscosity during operation
  • 21. DFR Roadmap 1. Reliability Requirements - Voice of the Customer (VOC) - Benchmarking - Best in Class 2. Application/ Usage Stresses - Logistical Events - Operational Events - Operating Profiles 3. Failure Mode/ Site/Mechanism 4. Reliability Verification - Boundary/P Diagram - Lessons Learned - FMEA - Improvement and Verification Plan - FRACAS - Post Launch Reliability Monitoring
  • 22. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 1. Boundary Diagram Graphical tool aids the team to identify the system and the elements outside its boundaries. Some of those elements could become potential causes (or effects) of system failure.
  • 23. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 2. Parameter Diagram Provides a simplistic view of the system constrains and the factors affecting its reliability uncontrolled and could contribute to system failure Noise Factors Piece to Piece Change over time Customer Usage Environment System Interaction Torque Corrosion Duty Cycle Temperature Vibration Input Signal Control Signal System VFD Ideal Function Provide modulating signal to control motor speed material, energy, control Control Factors Enclosure type controlled and their effects are well understood Failure Modes No function (doesn't provide modulating signal) error states
  • 24. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 3. Lessons Learned The process of documenting past learning to be used in future projects An effective tool to assist the team overcome some of the challenges that other teams have experienced before Some sources for Lessons Learned: FRACAS Tear down Analysis Warranty DFMEA Fleet Leader Corrective Action Database
  • 25. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 3. Lessons Learned example Design team is implementing a Variable Frequency Drive to control motor speed Lessons learned (from historical tear down analysis) shows that motor bearing could fail due to shaft currents Team used lessons learned to prevent future motor failures by implementing a solution to ground/protect the bearings
  • 26. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 4. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) A risk assessment methodology to analyze different systems for potential failure mode/site/mechanisms and their possible causes Focuses on customer functional requirements Includes failure modes caused by design weaknesses Risks are weighted based on, Severity Occurrence Detection Actions will be based on the highest Risk Priority Number RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection
  • 27. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 4. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) DFMEA requires a cross-functional team effort Example: Engineering Manufacturing Quality Reliability Materials Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) Product Management Field Service
  • 28. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 4. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) DFMEA inputs could include:
  • 29. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 4. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) Example:
  • 30. Failure Mode/Site/Mechanism 4. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) DFMEA outputs Improvement and Verification Plan Process FMEA Focuses on failure modes caused by process weaknesses Feeds into the Control Plan DFMEA is a living document and is updated continuously, using, Test results FRACAS Field data Etc.
  • 31. DFR Roadmap 1. Reliability Requirements - Voice of the Customer (VOC) - Benchmarking - Best in Class 2. Application/ Usage Stresses - Logistical Events - Operational Events - Operating Profiles 3. Failure Mode/ Site/Mechanism 4. Reliability Verification - Boundary/P Diagram - Lessons Learned - FMEA - Improvement and Verification Plan - FRACAS - Post Launch Reliability Monitoring
  • 32. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan Improvement and Verification plan is an output from DFMEA, to address the identified risks There are 2 primary questions to answer, a. What can we do to improve the design? b. How can we verify that the design meets the reliability requirements?
  • 33. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan a. What can we do to improve the design? Different design methods could be used to improve the reliability Examples: - De-rating Redundancy Reduce part count Reduce Stress-Strength interference Poka-Yoke Design for Manufacturability
  • 34. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan b. How can we verify that the design meets the reliability requirements? Several verification methods/tests could be developed. For example, - Tear Down Analysis Design of Experiments Vibration Test - Material Analysis - Salt Fog Test - Field Trial
  • 35. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT) Identify operating/destructive limits and design weaknesses Typical HALT test includes: Cold Step Stress Hot Step Stress Thermal Shock Vibration Step Stress Thermal Shock/Vibration combined
  • 36. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan HALT example A new Damper Actuator design is being qualified HALT test was identified in the Reliability Verification Plan Tear Down Analysis, for failed samples, shows: 1 2 Broken capacitor legs Loose screws
  • 37. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan HALT example cont. Corrective actions were implemented Verification HALT test was performed on new design Tear down was performed on the new samples after test (no issues were found) Design changes increased the actuators robustness
  • 38. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan Accelerated Life Test (ALT) Used to quickly gain reliability results, by testing at various high stress levels to speed the product failure Could be used to test: B vs. C (Better vs. Current) Design 1 vs. Design 2 Supplier A vs. Supplier B
  • 39. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan Accelerated Life Test (ALT) ALT Types: Quantitative ALT: Life prediction Correlate test stresses to operating stresses (Acceleration Factor) Typically requires 2 or more stress levels Qualitative ALT: No life prediction Acceleration factor is unknown Could be used when test capabilities are limited or if life predictions are not required e.g. verifying corrective action
  • 40. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan Quantitative ALT example 1: New motor insulation system is evaluated DFMEA identified Insulation Thermal Degradation as a high risks 3 stress level ALT was developed to evaluate the Insulation reliability
  • 41. Reliability Improvement/Verification 1. Reliability Improvement/Verification Plan Quantitative ALT example 2: Field failures were reported for current motor Tear down analysis shows motor corrosion Better motor was developed, and a “SingleLevel” verification ALT was required Acceleration Factor (AF) was calculated: AF = Luse / LAccelerated
  • 42. Reliability Improvement/Verification 2. Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) What happens when a failure occurs during testing? FRACAS is the process of capturing, analyzing and correcting failures that occur during product development process Failures could be design, process or supplier related 8D problem solving process to investigate/correct failures Linked to the DFMEA and lessons learned
  • 43. Reliability Improvement/Verification 3. Post Launch Reliability Monitoring Launching the products doesn’t necessarily mean that the project is complete. Other post launch activities are required, as part of the reliability verification plan: a. b. c. Field Monitor Parts Return Warranty Analysis Data could be used as follows: Update DFMEA Design verification Document Lessons Learned Early Launch Containment
  • 44. Reliability Improvement/Verification 3. Post Launch Reliability Monitoring a. Field Monitor Field monitoring is a unit verification test in the actual application Several critical parameters are monitored/measured for several months Data is analyzed regularly, and compared to preestablished criteria Parameters measured could be: Cycles Temperature Pressure Etc.
  • 45. Reliability Improvement/Verification 3. Post Launch Reliability Monitoring b. Parts Return Develop a program to return critical components that fail in the field Returned parts would be analyzed to identify failure modes and causes Data would be used to drive corrective actions and document lessons learned for future projects
  • 46. Reliability Improvement/Verification Post Launch Reliability Monitoring c. Warranty Analysis Monitoring and analyzing warranty data is used to identify possible trends, compare 2 (or more) designs and verify that customer reliability requirements are met Different analysis tools could be use. Examples: Re liaSoft W eibull++ 7 - www. Relia Soft. com Probability - Lognormal Run/Trend Charts SPC Charts Hypothesis Testing Weibull Analysis 99. 000 Proba bility-Lognorma l 230V GEN IData 1 Lognorma l-2P RRX SRM MED F M F =168/S=16142 Probability Line 230V GEN IIData 1 Lognorma l-2P RRX SRM MED F M F =6/S=5046 Probability Line 50. 000 Unreliability, F(t) 3. 10. 000 5. 000 1. 000 0. 500 0. 100 0. 050 0. 010 0. 100 1. 000 10. 000 T ime, (t) 230V GEN IDa ta 1: µ=10 .32 39, σ=3.29 11, ρ=0.991 0, Ζ=0.9 99 9 230V GEN IIDa ta 1: µ=10.819 5, σ=2.9784 , ρ=0 .9 974 , Ζ=0 .99 96 Moataz Elhedde ny Tra ne 03/15/2012 11:00:10 AM 100. 000
  • 47. DFR Improvements Example Does DFR roadmap really work? Team has followed the DFR roadmap to change system design and ensure the reliability of the new system Several design improvements were made and tested/verified Post Launch Reliability Monitoring has confirmed that the new design has reduced field failures by > 80%, over the old design > 80% improvement
  • 48. Summary “Design for Reliability” process steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Understand the requirements Document/Measure application stresses Identify failure modes and develop a plan to eliminate them Verify, Verify, Verify Reliability is an essential part of any product development process and should be integrated as early in the program as possible. It could provide new perspectives to the design. Always include SMEs and cross-functional teams in program activities (e.g. DFMEA, FRACAS, Test Planning).
  • 49. Where to Get More Information - - - Life Data Analysis Reference Book – Reliasoft Accelerated Life Testing Data Analysis Book – Reliasoft MIL STD-810F “Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests” Defence Standard 00-35(PART 4)/Issue 3 “Environmental Handbook for Defence Materiel” Design for Six Sigma Workshop – Ingersoll Rand 2010
  • 50. Moataz Elheddeny - Experienced Six Sigma practitioner, with a broad experience in Quality and Reliability methodologies. He has served in different reliability and quality roles for different companies, including Siemens Healthcare, Ingersoll Rand and Brunswick. - Some of his responsibilities include developing/improving Design for Reliability programs, ensuring the reliability of new products and developing reliability specifications and test plans for different components/subsystems. - Education/Certifications: - Ph.D. candidate, Industrial Engineering – University of Tennessee Certified Reliability Engineer – American Society for Quality Six sigma Master Black Belt – Arizona State University Linkedin: www.linkedin.com/in/elheddeny/ -

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